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Religious Socialization

Carotta, Michael. 2002. Nurturing the Spiritual Growth of Your Adolescent. Orlando, FL: Harcourt.

Henderson, Robert T. 2001. Subversive Jesus, Radical Grace: Relating Christ to a New Generation. Colorado Springs, Colo.: NavPress.

Herron, Fred. 2001. Wood, Waterfalls, and Stars: Catholic Schools and the Catholic Imagination. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Princeton Theological Seminary, Institute for Youth Ministry. 2001. Life Together: Practicing Faith with Adolescents. Princeton, N.J.: Institute for Youth Ministry.
Abstract: Introduction: Life together: practicing faith with adolescents / Amy S. Vaughn -- "Let us talents and tongues employ": the consumer and the practitioner / Dorothy C. Bass -- "Let us talents and tongues employ": practicing life abundant / Dorothy C. Bass -- Grow big and tall and straight and strong / Ellen T. Charry -- Thinking ourselves outward from God / Ellen T. Charry -- The apprentice's new clothes: shaping Christian community / L. Gregory Jones -- The grace of daily obligation: shaping Christian life / L. Gregory Jones -- Practicing faith with adolescents: searching for grace in the stuffness of the secular / James M. Wall -- Practicing faith with adolescents: overcoming secular barriers to God's grace / James M. Wall. [Source: HA]

Dean, Kenda Creasy. 2000. "Proclaiming Salvation: Youth Ministry for the 21st Century." Theology Today vol. 56, pp. 524-539.

Hill, L'Anni. 2000. "The Talitha Project: Restoring the Souls of Adolescent Girls." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University.
Abstract: The Talitha Project derives its name from the Aramaic phrase Jesus used in addressing a 12-year old girl restored to life by His word: "Talitha, koum" ("young woman, rise up!") Luke 8:54. This project was designed: (1) to determine how best to minister to adolescent girls who are spiritually dormant, unaware of their spiritual identity in our materialistic society and engaging in behavior which does not nourish their souls; and (2) to provide the Church with resources to educate and nurture them. Research was gleaned from interviews with 53 girls, both churched and unchurched, and three retreats. It reveals the need to educate youth about image-of-God concepts; i.e., God as community (Creator, Redeemer, Sustainer) and as masculine/feminine. Also significant is the need to acknowledge menstruation as a spiritual rite of passage which is positive and life-giving rather than an inconvenient, embarrassing weakness. The Church needs to provide more opportunities for girls to reflect God's image, encouraging adolescent girls to participate in worship leadership, mission, education, small groups, and economic endeavors. The Talitha Project offers resources in three phases: (I) the Questionnaire, which: (a) enables girls' narratives to be heard concerning their bodies and Christ's Body, (b) creates strong bonds of trust with interviewers, and (c) educates them about feminine biblical metaphors of God; (II) an experiential Retreat format for reflecting theologically on imago Dei and enhancing relationships; (III) the development of a video-resource and study-guide for use by Christian parents and youth workers, dealing with what it means for females to be created in the image of God. The Talitha Project research, while only suggestive, not determinative, indicates that girls raised in the Church have a stronger sense of self than those not raised in a community of faith. Their understanding of imago Dei is sorely lacking, however; they will find restoration and fulfillment as they are engaged in theological reflection about God as male and female in order to more fully reflect the image of God in our society. [Source: DA]

Jackson, Allen. 2000. "Does the Church Need Youth Ministry?" American Baptist Quarterly vol. 19, pp. 22-44.

La Fitte, Alta Jo. 2000. "The Development of the Concept of God in Adolescents: A Book for Youth Ministers." Psy.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology.
Abstract: The concept of God is important in the lives of adolescents. It involves not only theology but cognitive development, social relationships and emotional experiences. It also involves the self-concept and self-esteem of adolescents. Specifically, the concept of God focuses upon the subjective experience of an individual, not on the objective reality of God. It does not involve the personhood of God but how one experiences Him. The adolescent's knowledge of God and her understanding of His involvement in her life is shaped by this concept. As a child moves into adolescence, she gains the cognitive abilities increase in social relationships during adolescence changes the way in which adolescents interact with the world, and this changes their understanding of God's relationship with them. These changes also alter the emotional experience an adolescent has in relation to God. The concept of God can become the mirror in which adolescents view themselves as they become the adults they desire to be. A positive concept of God can help an adolescent adjust to the myriad of changes occurring in his life. God can be the "holder" of the adolescent's true self as the adolescent attempts to discover who he would like to be. A negative concept of God can cause an adolescent to view herself as a failure; God may be experienced as harshly judging the adolescent. Those in religious settings who work closely with youth must be aware of an adolescent's concept of God before employing Him as an agent of help. Assuming that an adolescent must have a positive view of God simply because she attends a church can be detrimental to any help the youth minister attempts to give. He may mean to comfort the adolescent with comments about God, but the adolescent has her own concept of God, which functions as a filter for the youth minister's comments. This book is designed to assist youth ministers to understand how an adolescent develops her concept of God and provides specific suggestions for applying this information to ministry. [Source: DA]

Pahl, Jon. 2000. Youth Ministry in Modern America: 1930--Present. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers.

Princeton Theological Seminary, Institute for Youth Ministry. 2000. An Unexpected Prophet: What the 21st-Century Church Can Learn from Youth Ministry. Princeton, N.J.: Institute for Youth Ministry.
Abstract: Holding on to our kisses: the hormonal theology of adolescence / Kenda Creasy Dean -- The sacrament of one another: practicing fidelity through holy friendship / Kenda Creasy Dean -- Praying and watching / Jurgen Moltmann -- What is a theologian? / Jurgen Moltmann -- More than a mystery: the practical implications of the Trinity in ministry with youth / Cynthia L. Rigby -- More than a hero: the practical implications of the incarnation in ministry with youth / Cynthia L. Rigby -- New wineskins, new models, and visions for a new century / Eugene F. Rivers III -- Youth ministry for the world in which we live / Eugene F. Rivers III. [Source: HA]

Alexander, Hanan. 1999. "The Spiritual Education of Generation X." Religious Education vol. 94, pp. 253-255.
Abstract: Part of a special issue on the religious education of Generation X. Religious educators who are faced with the task of spiritually educating the young people who will become adults during the first decade of the 21st century must find a middle ground between society's meaningless narcissism and the pursuit of religious orientations that deny critical thinking. Religious education must allow young people to acquire a vision of the good that is emotionally and intellectually satisfying and that embraces the best in contemporary postmodern culture without being afraid to challenge that which is dangerous or unworthy of devotion. [Source: EA]

Atha, Matthew Christopher. 1999. "Tell Me the Stories: A Curriculum for Confirmation." D.Min. Thesis, Asbury Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This study sought to gain an understanding of the impact of story on the spiritual development of junior high school students who participated in a ten-week confirmation class, September 1998-November 1998, at the First United Methodist Church, Marion, Indiana. In order to achieve this, two groups of students were observed. Seven teens participated in a ten-week confirmation class that used story as primary teaching method at First United Methodist Church, Marion, Indiana. A second confirmation class, which did not use story as its principal teaching method, was also tested. The second class was comprised of seven junior high school students from the Westminster Presbyterian Church (Presbyterian U.S.A.), Marion, Indiana. Both groups were given the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) instrument before the confirmation classes started, at the conclusion of the classes, and six weeks after the classes ended. This study was a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group interrupted time-series design. The data presented here indicate evidence of positive spiritual growth in both groups, some of which persisted to six weeks. The story treatment group SWB rose from pre-test to post-test, then declined at the six-week post-test. However, it remained higher than at the pre-test level. The Presbyterian group SWB rose from pre-test to post-test, then increased again at the six-week post-test. Of the discrete elements of the story treatment confirmation experience measured, a confirmation retreat, Bible stories, and the movie "Simon Birch" were rated by teen confirmands as the three most positive contributors to spiritual growth. [Source: DA]

Bao, Wan Ning, Les B. Whitebeck, Danny R. Hoyt, and Rand D. Conger. 1999. "Perceived Parental Acceptance as a Moderator of Religious Transmission among Adolescent Boys and Girls." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 61, pp. 362-374.
Abstract: Interview data from the 1991 wave of the Iowa Youth & Families Project for 407 families living in rural north central IA are used to examine religious transmission between same-sex & cross-sex parent-child groups. Analyses focus on the mechanisms through which adolescents' perceptions of parental acceptance moderate the transmission of religious beliefs & practices. Results show that both fathers & mothers played important roles in transmitting religious beliefs & practices to their sons & daughters. Maternal influence was stronger than paternal when the adolescents perceived the parent as accepting. This effect was especially strong for sons. [Source: SA]

Cannister, Mark W. 1999. "Mentoring and the Spiritual Well-Being of Late Adolescents." Adolescence vol. 34, pp. 769-779.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible impact of faculty mentoring on the spiritual well-being of late adolescents. The sample consisted of randomly chosen students in their first year at a Christian liberal arts college in New England. Students in the experimental group participated in the freshman seminar program (small classes with seminar leaders/mentors), while those in the control group did not have the freshman seminar experience. Students in both groups were administered a self-assessment survey in September of their freshman year and again in May to determine if there was any change in their spiritual well-being and to explore their perceptions of mentor-student interactions. The findings revealed significant differences between the 2 groups. In addition, the three aspects of mentoring were positively correlated with the 2 components of spiritual well-being. [Source: PI]

Carotta, Michael. 1999. "Teaching for Spiritual Growth: Doorways to the Heart and Soul of Young People." Thesis, Spalding University.
Abstract: A model of facilitating adolescent spiritual growth is proposed wherein interested adults can engage in any of four different "teaching"; activities. "Teaching" is used to refer to both informal and formal attempts at promoting adolescent spiritual development by parents, counselors, teachers, ministers, youth workers, coaches, etc. This model identifies three distinct yet interrelated dimensions of spirituality: religious faith, moral living, and emotional awareness. Teaching for spiritual growth consists of these four activities: attending to stories, building skills, honoring the senses, and offering solidarity. Each of these four activities is supported by a review of related literature and research. Story themes which can evoke spiritual reflection among adolescents are identified. Specific skills for spiritual growth are listed. The power of adolescent emotion and religious imagination is explored. Particular areas of solidarity are described, along with certain characteristics of adults who are effective in maintaining supportive relationships with adolescents. This model encourages adults to intentionally participate in the spiritual journey of youth by engaging in the activity which best suits their own skills, background, and interest. [Source: PI]

Christopherson, N. 1999. "Accommodation and Resistance in Religious Fiction: Family Structures and Gender Roles." Sociology of Religion vol. 60, pp. 439-455.
Abstract: The relationship between religion and secular culture has often been one filled with tension. For conservative Protestants. this relationship has been reflected in a tension between resisting secular culture, and accommodating certain aspects of faith to secular ideals. This paper offers a content analysis of Christian formulaic fiction written for teenage girls. The analysis compares gender roles and family structures within religious and secular novels, to explore how the forces of accommodation and resistance work within religious popular culture. The analysis reveals that in Christian formulaic fiction written for teenage girls there is some evidence of accommodation to more "progressive" gender roles. However, most depictions of family structures and gender roles tend to support traditional notions, and resist recent cultural developments. [Source: SC]

Evans, Justyn. 1999. Why Should We Sit Quietly?: The Place of Teenagers in Today's Church. Stowmarket: Kevin Mayhew.

Gardner, Norman William. 1999. "L.D.S. Seminary Participation in the Las Vegas, Nevada Area for the Class of 1998." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Nevada Las Vegas.
Abstract: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (L.D.S. Church) attaches great importance to the religious education of its youth. The L.D.S. Church conducts a daily religious education program, called seminary, to church members ages 14 to 18. A young person's completion of four years of seminary has long been viewed as an indicator of future church activity. While seminary attendance is not compulsory, great emphasis is placed in the L.D.S. Church on the importance of participation by potential students in the program. The discontinuation of seminary enrollment by students is of great concern to the administrators of the program, to the ecclesiastical leaders of the Church, and to the parents of the students. This study examined why some L.D.S. seminary students regularly attended and graduated from the seminary program and why others discontinued their attendance. The areas of investigation identified possible influences which were analyzed to see if any were unique to either dropouts or graduates. A questionnaire was devised to measure seminary graduate and seminary dropout characteristics in the areas of personal belief and church involvement, external influences, and structural factors within the seminary system. [Source: DA]

Hill, Brian. 1999. "Should the Fourth "R" for "Generation X" Be "S"? The Religious Education of Youth in the Global Village." Journal of Education & Christian Belief vol. 3, pp. 9-21.

Howard, Agnes Rose. 1999. ""the Blessed Echoes of Truth": Catechisms and Confirmation in Puritan New England." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Virginia.
Abstract: This dissertation analyzes the role of catechesis in Puritan New England. Although other studies of early New England have noted the importance of catechisms, they stop short of a systematic examination of these documents and their usage. Placing New England catechisms in their European Protestant context, I examine the content and practice of this form of religious instruction. Employed in colonial churches, families, and schools, catechisms taught children the fundamental elements of Puritan theology, including the order of redemption, the right structure of the church, and the moral obligations of community life. Catechizing helped to build doctrinal literacy among the laity. As conversion narratives reveal, Puritans found catechisms important elements in the process of religious formation. While religious instruction in New England substantially resembled the practice of other European Protestants, colonists departed from it in one important respect. Many early modern Protestants used catechizing to prepare youth for confirmation and full communion in their churches. Massachusetts settlers did not, at first, use catechisms this way. The Cambridge Platform did not include a confirmation ceremony. However, as ministers confronted problems surrounding children and the sacraments later in the seventeenth century, they reconsidered this rite. Some clergy looked to Protestant confirmation as a means to bring baptized children nearer to adult membership. However, while the church context of catechizing varied among New England congregations, inside and outside of the meetinghouse, New England colonists employed catechisms to cultivate piety and transmit doctrine to each rising generation. [Source: DA]

Kageler, Leonard Melvin. 1999. "High School Church Youth Groups: Growth and Decline." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University, New York.
Abstract: Empirically, much is now known about the comparative capacities of religious denominations in American society in retaining the life-long allegiances of their member's children. Researchers have considered a plethora of variables, such as family, peers, and the religious beliefs of the young, and studied their impact on commitment. The present study, however, is NOT focused on individual young people and their religiosity. It is about religious youth groups. Thus, the unit of analysis and my theoretical framework cannot reside solely in theories of religious socialization, though their insights are valuable. Here, the varying size of high school church youth groups is the dependent variable. The independent variables are of the kind appropriate for the study of any religious organization or, for that matter, any institution. CONTEXTUAL, PROGRAMMATIC, AND LEADERSHIP variables stem from their respective environmental, institutional, and human resource schools of organizational theory. My specific research questions are: (1) WHAT FACTORS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE GROWTH AND WHAT FACTORS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE DECLINE IN SENIOR HIGH CHURCH YOUTH GROUPS? and (2) OF THESE FACTORS, WHAT IS THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE? In Spring 1998 a survey was completed by 536 youth pastors in the four evangelical Protestant denominations. Data available from denominational records was also included in the analysis. Thirteen of the 33 variables are longitudinal in nature, reflecting measures of change from 1995 to 1997. Zero order correlations and multiple regression are performed first for each variable set, and finally for the significant variables all together. Twelve variables remained significant and are included in this final analysis. Results and discussion include implications of this research for theory related to social capital and to communitarian perspectives. Included in the appendices is a qualitative description of three church youth groups that illustrate both the variables operationalized in the study, as well as theoretical linkages. [Source: DA]

Kapinus, Carolyn Ann. 1999. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes toward Divorce." Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: This study examines the transmission of attitudes toward divorce from parents to offspring using a nationally representative, intergenerational, and longitudinal data set that includes information regarding attitudes toward divorce and family context from parents in 1980, 1983, 1988, and 1992 and offspring in 1992 after the children have reached adulthood. Two main issues are addressed: (1) which family of origin characteristics and events (e.g., religion, divorce, and marital quality) influence the transmission of parents' attitudes to offspring and (2) whether offsprings' own experiences (e.g., cohabitation, marriage, and marital quality) mediate the influence of parental attitudes on offsprings' beliefs. Using data which measure parents' attitudes at multiple points in offspring's development, this study suggests that parents transmit their attitudes toward divorce to children when offspring are in their late teens. The transmission of attitudes is moderated by both gender of offspring and gender of parent. Parental marital quality does not influence offspring's views of marital dissolution independently of parents' attitudes. Past research suggests parents' marital disruption is associated with pro-divorce attitudes among offspring net of parents' attitudes. This study indicates that parental divorce does affect young adults' attitudes independently of parents' attitudes; however, the effect depends on the age and gender of offspring and the measure used to tap divorce attitudes. In addition, conditions surrounding the divorce, such as continued parental conflict, and deterioration in closeness to father, have different effects on daughters' and sons' attitudes. Offspring characteristics and relationship experiences are related to their attitudes toward divorce. Parents' attitudes do not interact with offspring's characteristics in affecting offspring's attitudes, with one exception. Young adult children who are very religious are more likely to share their parents' views regarding divorce. Parents' attitudes remain significant predictors of young adult children's attitudes even after controlling for other family of origin characteristics and offspring experiences. [Source: DA]

Lindner Gunnoe, Marjorie, E. Mavis Hetherington, and David Reiss. 1999. "Parental Religiosity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Social Responsibility." Journal of Early Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 199-225.
Abstract: Determined whether parental religiosity would predict authoritative parenting and adolescent social responsibility using data from fathers, mothers, and adolescents aged 10-18 yrs from 486 middle-class families participating in the Nonshared Environment Study. Ratings of authoritative and authoritarian parenting were provided by trained observers using the Family Interaction Global Coding System. Survey instruments included measures of adolescent adjustment and a new index of religiosity that assessed the degree to which religious beliefs were manifested in parents' daily lives. Religiosity was associated positively with authoritative parenting for both parents. Mothers' religiosity was associated negatively with authoritarian parenting; religiosity was unrelated to fathers' authoritarian parenting. Structural equation modeling indicated both direct effects and indirect effects of mothers' and fathers' religiosity on adolescent social responsibility. [Source: PI]

Lytch, Carol E. 1999. "The Role of Parents in Anchoring Teens in Christian Faith." Family Ministry vol. 13, pp. 33-38.

Mercer, Joyce Ann. 1999. "Educating for Subordination: Adolescent Girls, Gender Identity, and School Violence." Journal of Religion & Abuse vol. 1, p. 19+.
Abstract: Article addresses questions of school violence and violence education programs from perspective of adolescent girls and how girls' fear of violence is exploited to maintain female subordination This article uses interviews with adolescent girls to address the questions of school violence, violence education programs, and gender construction. A central assumption is that schools function alongside church and popular culture as sites for the construction of female gender identity. While research indicates the need to focus attention and intervention upon boys because of their greater likelihood of encountering violence, this article argues that such research discounts the particularly insidious ways adolescent girls experience violence in school and the way their fear of violence is exploited to maintain female subordination. The assumption that violence education programs are gender neutral is therefore problematized. After a critical treatment of three common models of violence education in schools (conflict resolution, violence prevention, and nonviolence education), the article addresses problematic theological supports for young women's ro les as victims or as deviant perpetrators in the "culture of violence" operating in school violence. The author then draws upon positive resources from Christian tradition for vital self-assertion and self-defense. She concludes with constructive proposals from a feminist perspective for transformative theological and educational practices. [Source: CW]

Neff, David. 1999. "Gen-X Apologetics: Passing on the Faith to Those Raised on Star Wars Spirituality." Christianity Today vol. 43, pp. 90-93.

O'Brien, Maureen R. 1999. "Practical Theology and Postmodern Religious Education." Religious Education vol. 94, pp. 313-328.
Abstract: Part of a special issue on the religious education of Generation X. The writer examines the nature of practical theology and the dilemmas and possibilities of using practical theology's approaches for teaching religion to young adults today within a postmodern context. She provides a brief overview of practical theology and of contemporary efforts to respond to the spiritual needs of young adults, examines the issue of whether living in a culture considered to be postmodern automatically gives rise to a postmodern generation, draws in particular on a work by Robert Kegan to warn that Generation X might not be developmentally prepared for postmodern educational approaches, and suggests possibilities for using practical theological elements, such as story, playfulness, and making connections, with Generation X. [Source: EA]

Okagaki, Lynn and Claudia Bevis. 1999. "Transmission of Religious Values: Relations between Parents' and Daughters' Beliefs." The Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 160, pp. 303-318 bibl.
Abstract: A study on the transmission of religious beliefs was conducted among 62 white, middle-class, undergraduate women and their parents. It was found that accuracy of daughters' perceptions of their parents' beliefs was associated with how frequently parents talked about their beliefs and to mother-father agreement on beliefs. In addition, the findings revealed that daughters' perceptions of the warmth of the parent-child relationship was associated with the agreement between daughters' beliefs and their perceptions of parents' beliefs. Furthermore, it was argued that the relation between parents' beliefs and daughters' beliefs was mediated by daughters' perceptions of their parents' beliefs. [Source: SS]

Rawson, Katie Jean. 1999. "Evangelizing East Asian Students in the United States with Special Reference to Media Tools." D.Miss. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of World Mission.
Abstract: This dissertation explores issues involved in evangelizing and discipling East Asian students in the United States. Factors necessary for the production and use of media tools with this group are described. Chinese students from China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, Japanese and Korean students are studied with special emphasis on the East Asian Generation X. Receptors are described from the perspectives of acculturation patterns and worldview change, attractions and obstacles to faith and conversion patterns. Needs of students at three points in the spiritual decision process are identified, and sixty-four media tools which might meet those needs are evaluated. The study concludes with guidelines for the production and use of media tools with these students. A literature review on acculturation and worldview change led to the hypotheses that these students have traditional (Confucian and shamanistic), modern and postmodern assumptions in their worldviews and that the primary social network in the United States is the major influence on worldview change. It was further hypothesized that these students are more similar to their American peers than previous generations of foreign students were. Thirty-six new converts and seekers were interviewed concerning attractions and obstacles to faith and conversion patterns. This data was supplemented by surveys of seventy-one students. The hypotheses introduced above were supported by interview and survey data. The strongest attractions to faith were Christian groups and individuals; obstacles included difficulty believing in God, other unanswered apologetics questions and failure to experience God. The most common conversion pattern was conversion to community before conversion to Christ; the second was crisis followed by commitment. A third pattern, reversion to a previous faith following failure to get results from God, was noted. It was observed that the needs of students preparing to return home are often not met sufficiently. Many of the media tools evaluated seemed to have been produced on the assumption of sameness rather than the assumption of difference; this made them inadequate for international students. It was recommended that evangelism and discipling be based in international communities with student leadership. Media tools could then be used to supplement relational evangelism. [Source: DA]

Roberto, John. 1999. "The Center for Ministry Development: Promoting Innovative Minstry with Adolescents, Young Adults, and Families." Family Ministry vol. 13, pp. 59-68.

Winings, Kathy. 1999. "Campus Ministries and New Paradigms for Educating Religiously." Religious Education vol. 94, p. 329.
Abstract: This article summarizes a study of campus ministries and religious groups that asked how faith is expressed today, if college students view faith as irrelevant, and what programs are effective and needed. The survey encompassed public and private universities, four major faith groups--Jewish, Catholic, evangelical, and mainline Protestant--and each region of the United States. The article discusses marginality and relevance as well as effectiveness of the religious education programs, and concludes with a study of one project, the Religious Youth Service, which appears to be effective. The RYS draws on service-learning and interfaith dialogue and could become an effective paradigm for educating religiously in a religiously plural world. [Source: AS]

Winner, Lauren F. 1999. "Sword Drills and Stained Glass: What Children Really Learn in Sunday School." Christianity Today vol. 43, pp. 74-76.

Yurs, Mark E. 1999. "Confirmation or Graduation? Six Ways to Help Youth and Adults Reaffirm Their Faith." Christian Ministry vol. 30, pp. 16-19.

1998. "Catholic Education and Catechesis: A Light in the City." Momentum vol. 29, pp. 6-8.
Abstract: A special section on Catholic education and catechesis. Articles discuss the dramatically improved climate and increased support that Catholic inner-city schools have experienced in the last eight years; Mother Seton Academy, an innovative Catholic middle school in Baltimore; an on-site faith formation program in Houston, Texas, that is reconnecting public school students with their inner-city parish; the Business Leadership Organized for Catholic Schools organization in Philadelphia; the inspiration received from Dorothy Day (1897-1980) in keeping Saint Malachy Parish School going in North Philadelphia; the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust; Cristo Rey Jesuit High School in Chicago; directing a youth ministry in a large parish; how the Missionary Servants of the Most Blessed Trinity train barrio residents in Puerto Rico to protect, represent, and help troubled youth; the opportunity offered by city Catholic schools for implementing the goals of Catholic evangelization; the endeavors of St. Richard School to bring the word of Christ to North Omaha, Nebraska; a project entitled Faith in the City; and the Central City School Fund in Kansas City, Missouri. In addition, photographs of and quotes from Mother Teresa (1910-1997) when she spoke at the 1976 National Catholic Educational Association Convention are provided. [Source: EA]

Anderson, Carole Brousson. 1998. "The Experience of Growing up in a Minister's Home and the Religious Commitment of the Adult Child of a Minister." Pastoral Psychology pp. 393-411.

Bonam, Walter L. 1998. "Urban Youth Follow the Leader." Momentum vol. 29, pp. 30-32.
Abstract: Part of a special section on Catholic education and catechesis. Directing an effective youth ministry in a large parish is a complex and time-consuming effort. Leaders of successful youth ministries view youth as a gift to be recognized, cultivated, and nurtured rather than a problem to be solved. Taking account of the whole person, they try to provide programs and activities that incorporate the needs of the young for socialization, recreation, leadership development, community service, spirituality, and sports. A program of this scope demands energy and creativity on the part of leaders, but it also provides something for everyone. Because adolescence is a time of turbulent change, rigidity can be a grave impediment in relating to youth. To avoid rigidity, youth ministry leaders should constantly evaluate their decisions and actions. In addition, it is important to listen carefully to the young people themselves. This is because they are the ones most in touch with their own and their peers' needs. If adult leaders create a climate of trust and honesty, young people will follow them and will point the youth ministry in the direction it needs to go. [Source: EA]

Clark, Jeremiah K. 1998. "Religious Education in Adolescent and Young Adult Religiosity." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This dissertation contains three articles which address religious education and adolescent development. Each study was longitudinal in nature and employed an original sample of more than 3,000 adolescents and young-adults in the United States. In the first article, direct affects of home religious discussion and home religious ritual on adolescent religious identity, peer religiousness, and deviant behavior, and their indirect effects on the perceived effectiveness of religious education are shown. The second article demonstrates that religious education is best conceptualized multi-dimensionally and distinct from public religiosity. Religious education attendance affected future public religiosity and the perceived effectiveness of religious education influenced young adult religious belief and experience. Adolescent private religiosity was a robust influence on young-adult religiosity in general, which supported previous theory and research. The third article discusses the interrelations of home religious observance, public religiosity, private religiosity, peers, religious education attendance, and the perceived effectiveness of religious education on young adult religious plans. Adolescent private religiosity was strongly predictive of young adult religiosity. Public religiosity emerged as an important antecedent to religious education. Religious education attendance moderately affected religious plans. [Source: DA]

Cornwall, M. 1998. "The Influence of Three Agents of Religious Socialization: Family, Church, and Peers." Pp. 207-231 in The Religion and Family Connection: Social Science Perspectives, edited by D.L. Thomas. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center.

Dean, Kenda Creasy. 1998. "Research Report : Practical Theology and Adolescence in America." International Journal of Practical Theology pp. 132-154.

Faust, Wayne E. 1998. "A Model for Effective Adult and Adolescent Education in a Relational Mode." Religious Education vol. 93, p. 467.
Abstract: Presents information on a relational model for effective teaching of adults and adolescents in multiple religious settings. Description of the learning event; Dimensions that create dialogical learning; Text of a sample class dialogue. [Source: AS]

Flor, Douglas Leroy. 1998. "A Comparative Approach to the Internalization of Religiousness in Preadolescent Youth." Thesis, University of Georgia.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test two competing models of adolescent religious socialization: a transmission model and an integrated model which incorporates aspects from a transformation model with the transmission model. These models were tested and compared using data collected from 171 two parent families with an 11 or 12 year old child. The transmission model was based on social learning theory, with special emphasis on 'what' religious behaviors are internalized, as well as 'how' adolescents perceive that they are socialized to internalize their parents' values and beliefs. The transformational aspects of the integrated model are based on self-determination theory, with special emphasis on 'why' religious behaviors are expressed. The integrative model thus incorporates the 'how', 'what', and 'why' aspects of internalization. Both models fit the data equally well. Comparisons of separate nested LISREL analyses conducted for father-target and mother-target models revealed that the integrative theoretical approach was not able to fit the data significantly better than the social learning model of adolescent religiousness (change in X$p2$ = 4.07 for father-target and 2.15 for mother-target, $p>.05)$ for either parent -child model. Since the null hypothesis of the study could not be rejected, the more parsimonious social learning model was selected over the integrated model as a means of understanding factors related to adolescent religiousness. A key factor to this finding was the introduction of a domain specific parent-child process variable, dyadic discussions about faith. [Source: PI]

Grindberg, David A. 1998. "Language of the Heart." Dialog vol. 37, pp. 72-73.

Hahn, Todd, David Verhaagen, Ellen Verhaagen, Daniel Kruidenier, and Julie Culbreath. 1998. Gen Xers after God: Helping a Generation Pursue Jesus. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.

Kessler, Rachael. 1998. "Nourishing Students in Secular Schools." Educational Leadership vol. 56, pp. 49-52.
Abstract: Part of a special section on spirituality and public education. The Passages Program is a curriculum designed for adolescents that combines spirit, heart, and community with strong academics. The program addresses spiritual development and deals with friendship, communication skills, diversity, problem solving, stress management, health, and personal and social responsibility. The mapping of students' spiritual development comprises the six interconnected needs, longings, or hungers of the search for meaning and purpose, the longing for silence and solitude, the urge for transcendence, the hunger for joy and delight, the creative drive, and the need for initiation. Deep connection is the common thread in students' stories about each of these domains--deep connection to the self, to another person or meaningful group, or to nature, their lineage, or a higher power. By respecting the ways that individual students nourish their spirits and by supporting activities that enable them to experience deep connection, educators can give students a glimpse of soul enriching experiences. [Source: EA]

Kirk, Dolores. 1998. "What About the Children? A Case Study in Christian Education." Church and Society vol. 88, pp. 80-85.

McCarty, Robert J. 1998. "Wings and Roots." Momentum (Washington, D.C.) vol. 29, pp. 32-34.
Abstract: Part of a special section on spirituality in the new millennium. One of the most challenging pastoral tasks today is fostering the spiritual life of young people. Young people want to express their faith in concrete terms through involvement in liturgical and pastoral ministries and comprehensive youth programs and service experiences. Educators can help young people develop a religious literacy and form a Catholic identity by teaching them the church's traditions, creed, and teachings and sharing the story of Jesus and the Gospel message. Providing young people with experiences of church gatherings is especially important for their spirituality. When possible, youth should be encouraged to act out their faith by participating in school and parish activities that connect young people with their peers. Personal and community prayer should also be encouraged among young people to develop their relationship with God. As they grow, young people often break away from home, parents, and church, but positive memories of spiritual involvement will sustain their faith. [Source: EA]

Ranck, Lee (ed.). 1998. "The Shared Mission Focus on Young People." Christian Social Action vol. 11, pp. 2-42.
Abstract: Reordering Priorities to Focus on the Needs of Young People, by L. Ranck. Stifled, Overlooked, Ignored? The United Methodist Church is working to recognize and utilize the gifts, abilities and ministries of young people, by L. Smith. Focused ... on the Changing Church: This new type of church is "an attempt to answer the heartfelt cry of the disparaged post-modern generation", by I .Soto. Volunteering Is Me: A young adult's account of involvement points to rewards that come from "stretching beyond my comfort zone", by J. Brav. Ministering in the "Here and Now": The church will need to re-explore its role within the contemporary African society or risk losing the young people, by W. Kimathi. Reaching Out to Young People in Sweden, by E. Tullhage. Girl Power! Faith communities and all caring adults can join in the campaign to help young girls make the most of their lives, by V. Montgomery. Responding to Young People's Daily Life Dilemmas, by J. Domingues. Applying the Tools of Faith in a Shifting Culture, by T Carty. Being International About Ministering to the Whole Person, by C. Hemmerle. Empowering Young People in Church and Society, by F. Jett. Providing the Essential Tools, by S. Games. Keeping Alive the Church's Concern for Young People, by S. Downey. Preparing a New Generation of Christian Leaders, by H. Hartley. To Respond More Faithfully and Effectively, by M. Meadors. Initiatives Representatives Collaborate to Address Young People's Issues, by L. Green. The European Methodist Youth Council, by L. Fankhauser. [Source: RI]

Reddie, Anthony. 1998. Growing into Hope: Christian Education in Multi-Ethnic Churches. Peterborough: Methodist Publishing for the Birmingham Initiative and Methodist Church Connexional Team.

Rendon-Botello, Adriana. 1998. "Sources of Influence on Moral Decisions Made by Adolescent Females Attending a Catholic High School." M.S.W. Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach.
Abstract: This exploratory-descriptive study examined the sources of influence on the moral decisions made by 69 adolescent females attending a Catholic high school. Results indicate that parents are the greatest influence upon the moral decisions made by these adolescents. Contrary to popular belief the impact of friends, media (TV and radio), or books do not carry the impact of parents. Additionally, the years of exposure to Catholic education did not affect the moral decisions of adolescent females regardless of the stance of the Catholic Church. The findings suggest that the greatest influence continues to come from the family regardless of what different influences an adolescent may be exposed to. Implications for social work practice and recommendations for future research are presented. [Source: DA]

Rose, Kenny Wyndell. 1998. "A Resource Guide for Developing Self-Esteem and Character in Our Children and Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, The Union Institute, Cincinnati.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence that the role of church attendance has on character education. This study is designed to offer a solution to the at-risk behaviors demonstrated by today's youth. It includes an extensive review of literature on the subjects of self esteem and character building in children and youth. The research model of Lawrence Kohlberg was used as a guide. The study, using a 25-item character education questionnaire, focused on 46 students in an elementary school in Sumter, South Carolina. Character education was used as the dependent variable, measured by examining 46 youths between the ages of 8 and 12 in 1998. During the 1997-98 school year, this elementary school enrolled 891 students who were in grades prekindergarten through five. The racial make up was 53 percent Caucasian, 46 percent African American and 1 percent other. The solution espoused in this research is the need to develop positive self esteem and character in our children and youth. Based on the results using character education as a yard stick, children who were active church goers developed stronger character education skills. Results revealed that the background variables such as age, race, gender, church attendance and parental education do have a positive impact on children's character and moral development in school, home, and community. The practical implications of this is reflected in the accompanying resource guide that should be of particular interest to teachers, administrators, parents, and students of this elementary school in Sumter, South Carolina. The resource guide is intended for use by educators, health professional, religious leaders, youths, parents, and others concerned with the moral state of our youth. Specifically, its contents are user friendly and directed toward anyone who is genuinely interested in helping America's young people to successfully survive adolescence and become productive citizens. Special sections have been included to focus on the unique problems of children and youth of color. [Source: DA]

Sawyers, Pauline Sophia. 1998. "The Effects of Motivational Interviewing and Discussion on Father/Adolescent Religious Value Congruence." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
Abstract: This study represents one of the first attempts at experimentally facilitated transmission of religious beliefs/values from fathers to their adolescent children by (i) giving fathers motivational feedback about their fathering style aimed at enhancing the father/adolescent relationship and (ii) providing structured, supervised discussion of religious beliefs. Sixty-two 12-19 year-old adolescents and their fathers were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. At intake, all father/adolescent dyads completed the Personal Fathering Profile (Canfield, 1992), the Parent/Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1982), and the Religious Beliefs Survey (adapted from Hoge & Petrillo, 1978b). Experimental fathers received feedback about their fathering style by way of a motivational interview. They also discussed with their adolescents their inaccurate predictions of each others' responses on the Religious Beliefs Survey. One month later all families completed the questionnaires again. Control group families received the experimental manipulation after the post-test. Multiple analyses of covariance were performed to ascertain the effects of treatment on follow-up adolescent religious beliefs and father/adolescent religious belief congruence with intake values as covariates. Fathers and adolescents were significantly correlated in their religious beliefs both at intake and follow-up. In general, follow-up congruence between fathers' and adolescents' religious beliefs was not significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group, despite significantly more religious belief discussion in experimental families between intake and follow-up. There was a marginally significant follow-up difference between treatment and control groups in father/adolescent congruence in devotionalism, with experimental adolescents resembling their fathers more on devotionalism scores. On follow-up creedal assent scores, experimental group adolescents were significantly more congruent than control group adolescents with their perceptions of their fathers' creedal assent scores. There was also an interaction between treatment group and teen age on follow-up creedal assent and on follow-up father/adolescent creedal assent congruence. In general, late adolescents' in the experimental group were more traditional, and were more congruent with their fathers than control group late adolescents and experimental group early adolescents. In age-based model was proposed to integrate relevant findings in the literature. [Source: DA]

Smith, James Garfield, III. 1998. "Reversing an Environment of Mistrust: Urban Church Ministries Which Create Positive Relationships between Police and African American Youth." D.Min. Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project was designed with the aim of creating positive relationships between the police of Easton, Maryland and African American youths (ages 10-16) who attend Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC), Easton, Maryland. The goals were met through four sermons, four teaching sessions, and the use of mentors. The preaching, teaching, and mentoring focused on providing the youth with the skills that would enable them to protect themselves against violent crimes and acts of police brutality. The model was evaluated through the use of a questionnaire, and the results show that the youth developed positive relationships with the African American police. [Source: DA]

Strommen, Merton P. 1998. "A Family's Faith, a Child's Faith." Dialog vol. 37, pp. 177-184.

Suh, Suh Kyoung. 1998. "Toward the Recovery of Effective Youth Ministry for Korean Ethnic Churches in the United States." D.Miss. Thesis, Asbury Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The study investigated the exodus of younger Korean-Americans from Korean ethnic churches in the United States, and discovered that the problem is caused by a cultural barrier between the older and younger generations, inadequate spiritual nurturing of the younger persons, and the church's failure to prioritize youth ministry. The church leadership's decision-making patterns and cross culture knowledge were investigated. The church's involvement of youth in Bible study, prayer, and small-group activities, and the development of youth in evangelism and witness were also investigated. And the nature and sufficiency of programs to meet the needs of young people were explored as practical aspects of the problem. Findings confirmed that post-high school youth are exiting Korean-American churches, and ministries to teens in high school are stagnant. The investigation did not fully confirm the effect of Korean traditional cultural barriers on youth ministry. The findings affirmed the lack of cross-cultural knowledge in first- generation Korean-Americans and the absence of interesting programs based on the needs of young people, suggesting the churches were not prioritizing youth ministry. Suggestions to prevent or remedy these problems are: egalitarian leadership, cross-cultural training for all, a holistic approach in spiritual aspects, church programs based on needs, and networking among youth pastors and youth across Korean-American churches. [Source: DA]

Taylor, Anthony Lee, Sr. 1998. "Gather the Children: An Effective Church-Based Community Outreach Program for Youth Empowerment." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes a dialogical workshop, See-Judge-Act, to teach inner-city youth how to respond when confronted by social ills and how to avoid involvement in delinquent acts, testing it in the Huntersville neighborhood of Norfolk, Virginia, served by Union United Church of Christ. Youth involvement in the congregation's church school increases as a result of the workshop. [Source: RI]

Tung, John Pu Chiang. 1998. "Discipling Chinese-American Young Adults." Thesis, Westminster Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes and prepares a 13-week discipling curriculum to meet the perceived needs of Chinese American young adults in the "Generation X" age group (18-28) for meaning, security, and community. Surveys conducted with 80 Chinese young adults reveal significant differences between them and other members of their generation in the US as they search for their own identity between two cultures. Historical research in the Chinese churches in America and biblical study of discipling inform the curriculum's approach to these young Chinese Americans. [Source: RI]

Wi, Heekang. 1998. "Adolescent Identity Formation Curriculum in the Korean Youth Cultural Context." D.Min. Thesis, School of Theology At Claremont.
Abstract: Christian education can empower students to be fully alive in harmful surroundings. Moreover the educator's role is to lead youth to identify who they are in the midst of danger. This is the preliminary assumption for this project Christian educators make great efforts to get in touch with youth and help them to become fully Christian. In spite of sincere effort by teachers and educators, however, a great number of youth leave the church today. One of the main reasons is that the educators do not see the importance of the cultural context of the youth. This project emphasizes the importance of understanding youth culture and ministering in relation to the distinctive gifts and needs of youth. By so doing churches can help youth grow in their Christian identity, faith and vision. Based on that assumption, the project presents a model of adolescent identity formation curriculum. The first half of the project deals with a study of Korean youth culture, youth development theory, and youth identity formation theory. These sections are firm bases of the identity formation curriculum. In addition, the curriculum theory of Campbell Wyckoff as well as the traditioning theory of Mary Elizabeth Moore are theological bases for the author's practical program (identity formation curriculum). The practical identity formation program includes five major themes: encountering God, enlarging relationships with others, experiencing the present reign of God, engaging in the pain of the earth, and envisioning the future. These themes imply that identity formation in the present is deeply related to people's experience of the past and envisioning of the future. Finally, the theory of Basileia and Ecclesia of Joon Kwan Un also provides insight to pursuing the vision of youth ministry. Youth ministry is neither an easy work nor a sweet dream. However, someone must do that tough work. Why? The youth bring life to the present church; they are also the future and the hope to carry on the heritage of the faith, hospitality, and values. For these reasons, people can participate in this precious work with conviction. This ministry is for the future and the life of the church. [Source: DA]

Young, Tina Lynn. 1998. "Children, Liturgies, and Catechesis." Liturgical Ministry vol. 7, pp. 89-95.

Atkinson, Harley. 1997. Ministry with Youth in Crisis. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.

Barber, Brian K. 1997. "Adolescent Socialization in Context-Connection, Regulation, and Autonomy in Multiple Contexts." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 12, pp. 173-177.
Abstract: Introduces the second of two special journal issues (see abstracts of related articles) presenting the proceedings of the Second Brigham Young U Conference on Youth & Family (1995), which focused on the importance of connection, regulation, & psychological autonomy in various social contexts. Topics include autonomy & self-regulation in adolescent-parental/peer interpersonal relations, youth family-religious experiences linkages, regulation (ie, information social control) at the neighborhood level, social integration in school-based peer activities, & socialization domains as measures of youth experience in multiple settings. [Source: SA]

Benson, Peter. 1997. "Sprituality and the Adolescent Journey." Reclaiming Children and Youth vol. 5, pp. 206-209, 219.
Abstract: The author and his colleagues at the Search Institute have been at the leading edge in expanding our understanding of the moral and spiritual dimensions of the adolescent experience. This article examine spirituality as a facet of positive youth development and considers how religious training can either enhance or stifle adolescent spiritual growth. [Source: NS]

Benson, Peter L., Kevin S. Masters, and David B. Larson. 1997. "Religious Influences on Child and Adolescent Development." Pp. 206-219 in Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 4, edited by Norman E. Alessi. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Bishop, Carolyn Greenway. 1997. "American Adolescents Schooled Overseas: Expectations in Education, Relationships, Religion, and Cultural Perspectives." Ph.D. Thesis, Emory University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescent "missionary kids" (MKs) living abroad, adolescents living in the United States, parents of MKs, and parents of stateside adolescents differed in their expectations of educational experiences, relationships with parents and friends, religious beliefs and practices, and cultural perspectives. Four research questions focused on whether there were significant mean differences by filial class (student or parent) and resident status (overseas or stateside) as regards expectations for the four dependent measures in the study (education, relationships, religion, and cultural perspectives). The sample consisted of 54 adolescent MKs living overseas and a contrast group of 100 stateside high school youth. Parent respondents included 72 parents of the MK respondents and a contrast group of 52 parents of the stateside student respondents. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. MKs and overseas parents reported lower expectations about educational experiences and achievement than did stateside adolescents and parents. MKs had higher expectations about integration of connected relationships with their parents than did stateside adolescents and parents. MKs had higher expectations for conformity in relationships than did other participants. Parents had higher expectations about religious beliefs and practices than did adolescents; students and parents living overseas had higher religious expectations than did their stateside counterparts. There were no significant differences regarding expectations about cultural perspectives. These results are not consistent with previous research indicating that MKs tend to report higher expectations for educational experiences and academic achievement than stateside adolescents. Results are consistent, however, with other findings indicating that MKs and their parents share similar expectations regarding connectedness of familial relationships. [Source: DA]

Condos, Athena Sophia. 1997. "The Greek Language School as a Transmitter of Ethnicity: A Study of Linguistic, Cultural, and Religious Maintenance." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Connecticut.
Abstract: This study assessed the role of the Greek language school in relation to the linguistic, cultural and religious maintenance of the ethnic parish in which it operates. The study examined the following issues: the Greek school and its relations to the continuity of Greek identity; the linguistic and extralinguistic goals of the Greek school, the relationship between the school and the Greek Orthodox Church; and whether the school responds to parental aspirations. The general goal of the study was to determine whether the Greek language school is the basic vehicle of linguistic, cultural and religious maintenance of the Greek American community. A qualitative study was designed to determine participants' perceptions of the role of the Greek language school. The methods utilized in the study were, participant observation, focus groups, interviewing and questionnaires. The study took place at two Connecticut Greek language schools over a period of seven months. There were five focus group sessions, thirteen interviews, thirty adult questionnaire responses and sixteen adolescent questionnaire responses. Adolescent students' questionnaires attempted to assess the attitudes of the new generation of Greek Americans towards the Greek language, which in this study were found to be positive. The study focused on the adult participants who were divided in four categories: parents, teachers, administrators, and parish priests. The role of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, as well as the role of the Greek American volunteer associations, and the role of the Greek Ministry of Education in relation to the operation of the Greek school were also examined. The findings of the study indicated that adult participants believed the Greek language school to be the basic transmitter of the Greek language and culture to the younger generation of Greek Americans. The continuous use of the Greek language in the liturgy was found to be very important to linguistic continuity. It is recommended that the Greek language schools, utilize new methods of second language teaching, as well as available computer technology. To continue to be successful, all interested organizations should unite their resources and produce relatively uniform guidelines for the operation of all the afternoon Greek language schools. [Source: DA]

Emavardhana, Tipawadee and Christopher D. Tori. 1997. "Changes in Self-Concept, Ego Defense Mechanisms, and Religiosity Following Seven-Day Vipassana Meditation Retreats." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 36, pp. 194-206.

Johnson, Lou. 1997. "Christian Rites of Passage for African-American Youth." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project was designed to empower and equip African-American sixteen and seventeen-year-old male and female youth for passage into adulthood. The project was successfully implemented at the Friendship Missionary Baptist Church, Vallejo, California. A 'Christian Rites of Passage Curriculum Guide' was developed for the growth of these youth in: (1) Christian consciousness and commitment; and (2) Afrocentric cultural history, heritage, and identity; the product of which is self esteem. The project is tautological and relevant for Church leaders and parents as a teaching guide for youth preparing for twenty-first century living. [Source: PI]

Kelley, Jonathan and Nan Dirk De Graaf. 1997. "National Context, Parental Socialization, and Religious Belief: Results from 15 Nations." American Sociological Review vol. 62, pp. 639-659.
Abstract: How much does a nation's religious environment affect the religious beliefs of its citizens? Do religious nations differ from secular nations in how beliefs are passed on from generation to generation? To find out, we use data from the 1991 International Social Survey Programme collected in 15 nations from 19,815 respondents. We use diagonal reference models estimated by nonlinear regression to control for a nation's level of economic development and exposure to Communism, and for the individual's denomination, age, gender, and education. We find that (1) people living in religious nations will, in proportion to the religiosity of their fellow- citizens, acquire more orthodox beliefs than otherwise similar people living in secular nations; (2) in relatively secular nations, family religiosity strongly shapes children's religious beliefs, while the influence of national religious context is small; (3) in relatively religious nations family religiosity, although important, has less effect on children's beliefs than does national context. These three patterns hold in rich nations and in poor nations, in formerly Communist nations and in established democracies, and among old and young, men and women, the well-educated and the poorly educated, and for Catholics and Protestants. Findings on the link between belief and church attendance are inconsistent with the influential "supply-side" analysis of differences between nations. [Source: SS]

Kessler, Aharon. 1997. Educating the Jewish Adolescent in the Teachings of the Religion and Culture of Judaism. New York: Vantage Press.

Kilbourn, Phyllis (ed.). 1997. Street Children: A Guide to Effective Ministry. Monrovia Calif: Marc.
Abstract: Foreword, by L Sharp. Street children: who are they? Where are they?, by P Kilbourn. Why are children on the streets?, by T Culnane. Surviving on the streets, by A Alemu. Restoring fragile bonds: bonding and attachment issues, by C McKelvey. Healing deep emotional wounds, by T Wilshire. Promoting moral growth and development, by P Downs. Nurturing physical and mental development, by L Wenthe. Confronting drug and substance abuse, by J Anderson. Preventing and treating HIV and STDs, by E Ram. Street worker profile, by J Anderson. Street addiction can be broken, by H Shedd. Starting a ministry with street children, by J Anderson. Ready, set, engage!: gaining skills for counseling street youth, by M DiPaolo. Principles for effective intervention planning, by P Kilbourn. Effective intervention strategies: a compilation, by P Kilbourn. Caring for street educators, by C Eriksson. Exploring ethical issues, by D High. Changing society's attitudes, by D High. Becoming a voice for the children, by P Kilbourn. Treasures, not trash!, by D Nichols. [Source: RI]

Kim, Dohmin. 1997. "Identity Education of Korean-American Youth through Family Worship Service." Thesis, School of Theology at Claremont.
Abstract: This project seeks solutions for identity crises of young Korean Americans suspended between the cultures of their immigrant parents and their new homes in America. Based on research in current literature and field work in a Korean American community, the project proposes that spiritual or faith education in the home can transform a marginalized people. Family worship services as a ministry of churches can overcome the alienation of an immigrant home in a new environment. [Source: RI]

Letsinger, Robert Bruce. 1997. "Focus Groups: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Student Responses to a Christian School's Efforts at Spiritual Nurture." Thesis, Princeton Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The Stony Brook School is a Christian school that identifies the spiritual nurture of its students as part of its mission. For 70 years, the pattern of ministry has remained essentially the same: daily chapel and Bible classes communicate content and faculty reinforce it by example. The School community is ethnically, economically, and spiritually diverse, but all of its students share adolescence in common. The project was designed to provide insights into the attitudes, perceptions, opinions and experiences of a group of students who had come to Stony Brook as professing Christians expecting being at Stony Brook to be helpful in their spiritual growth. It consisted of two focus groups. This research method was chosen because it enables the researcher to 'see' a snapshot of where those people are at that time in their own words in relationship to the issue of concern. The findings were grouped by themes: (1) institutional ministries, (2) content, (3) faculty influence, and (4) time. The participants felt little connection between chapel and Bible classes and their spiritual growth. They also lacked direction in their spiritual journey; none were able to articulate the goal of their spiritual growth. All affirmed that a relationship of trust with an adult would be desirable for their spiritual growth but cited a number of reasons why this was attainable presently. Finally, they spoke of too little time to process their spiritual, emotional, and other experiences and learnings. Using the works of developmentalists Piaget, Erikson, and Fowler, and their followers, Letsinger demonstrates how the development of the self bears upon spiritual growth. Of paramount importance to the developing adolescent is the need for nurturing adult relationships. Drawing upon theology and the behavioral sciences, Letsinger encourages less reliance upon institutional ministries and faculty role-modeling in favor of more relational mentoring. He concludes his work with a suggested trainin [Source: PI]

Martinson, Roland D. 1997. "The Role of Family in the Faith and Value Formation of Children." Word & World vol. 17, pp. 396-404.

Max, D. A., B. F. Brokaw, and W. M. McQueen. 1997. "The Effects of Marital Disruption on the Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Values." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 25, pp. 199-207.
Abstract: This study sought to investigate the relationship between adolescent religiosity and parental religiosity between families where marriages were intact and those that were disrupted. It was hypothesized that adolescents who come from disrupted families, regardless of the level of discord in that family, would not reflect the religious values of their parents as well as their peers who come from intact families. The subjects for this study were 244 high school students who completed a questionnaire assessing their own religiosity, the perceived religiosity of their parents, and the perceived level of conflict between their parents. The results supported the main hypothesis. The results also showed a significant correlation between adolescent religiosity and perceived parental religiosity, and that adolescents are significantly less religious as a group from their mothers, but are more religious than their fathers. Finally, the results indicated that adolescents coming from disrupted families are less religious than adolescents coming from intact homes. [Source: SC]

Petrovich, Olivera. 1997. "Current Problems in Religious Education: Implications for Orthodox Christians." Sourozh vol. 70, pp. 13-20.

Redmond, Dyke Harold. 1997. "The Empowerment of Youth with Multimedia Production Skills for the African American Church Media Ministry." D.Min. Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project was designed to address the need for African American Churches to develop media ministries by empowering under-utilized youth with multimedia production skills. The goal of this project was to create a model for media ministry in the Black Church which will address the development of new and positive African American images, multimedia technology production skills training and spiritual growth. Results of this spiritually based project were evaluated by qualitative analysis instruments and shows that this model can serve as a prototype for multimedia ministry for the twenty-first century Church. [Source: DA]

Reid, Neil Waldemar. 1997. "Target Youth: Toward a New Paradigm to Nurture Holistically Black Urban Youth within the Ephesus Seventh-Day Adventist Church." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes and implements a new model of youth ministry to nurture the personhood of urban young people between the ages of 15 and 21 in Ephesus Seventh-day Adventist Church in New York's Harlem district. Senior youth leaders, parents, and church leaders design, implement, and evaluate 10 Bible-based lessons targeting mental, physical, and environmental issues for liberation of black youth in an urban context. The project leads to positive changes in comprehension, attitudes, and behaviors among participating young people. [Source: RI]

Roebben, Bert. 1997. "Shaping a Playground for the Transcendence: Postmodern Youth Ministry as a Radical Challenge." Religious Education vol. 92, p. 332.
Abstract: Explores possible contribution of youth ministry to a Western and radically postmodern complex of youth cultures. Analysis of problematic aspects of identity formation of contemporary youth; Reflection on paradigms for youth ministry; Relationship between these paradigms on youth, society and church; Problem of mediatization of young people. [Source: AS]

Schoenfeld, Stuart. 1997. "Late Modernity, Self Identity and Bar/Bat Mitzvah: Implications for Family Education." Journal of Jewish Education vol. 63, pp. 11-16.
Abstract: Drawing on research by Anthony Giddens, the writer considers the implications of late modernity for Jewish family education. In traditional society, the development of self- identity was strongly influenced by stereotypical social expectations and constraints. However, in late modern society, the development of self-identity is reflexive. The social expectation is that individuals construct and reconstruct their own self-identity. This has implications for the Jewish bar/bat mitzvah. Early adolescents, their families, the synagogue, and the Jewish school are struggling with a ceremony that professes faith in a culture of radical doubt and fear of ontological risks; with language that passes on a traditional identity that may be at odds with parental and adolescent reflexive identities; and with a society where claims to meaning are greeted with skepticism. [Source: EA]

Smith, Fred Douglas, Jr. 1997. "Without a Vision: A Functional Theological Proposal for a Prophetic Christian Religious Education for Black Boys." Thesis, Emory University, Atlanta.
Abstract: This dissertation seeks to develop a response to the violence in the lives of contemporary African-American male youth. Violence is a public health issue because it is the leading cause of death and injury among African-American youth. It is a spiritual and religious issue because it originates in nihilism. The religious basis for violence is found in the myth of redemptive violence which claims that violence saves or at least works to solve most human problems. Four case studies trace the way in which this myth works in the lives of African-American young men. The question this study seeks to answer is what religious education praxis can make a difference in the lives of these young men? First, a narrative theological method is used to explore how meaning is made in the lives of these young men. Second, the sociological and psychological aspects of oppression are examined as obstacles to meaning for these young men. An answer is found in a prophetic Christian religious education in which Jesus Christ is presented as an alternative model of desire and human behavior. The theoretical work of Rene Girard, Walter Wink, Theophus Smith, and Robert Hamerton-Kelly on acquisitive mimetic desire provides the theoretical structure for exploring the dynamics of violence among African-American young men and the construction of a theory of Christian religious education to inform public health and religious communities which seek to correct the misdirected quest for transcendence in the violence in African-American youth culture. This dissertation is a functional theological exploration of human nature and history as it relates to the violent education of young African-American males over the last two hundred years. It explores this educational history by means of a metaphorical narrative theological method to undercover root metaphors that have violently shaped the lives of these young men over the centuries. It then develops a prophetic Christian religious education proposal. [Source: PI]

Vane, Jennifer and Marjorie Hatch. 1997. "Family Environment as a Function of Religious Observance in American Jews." Journal of Psychology and Judaism vol. 21, pp. 121-134.

Alexander, Hanan A. (ed.). 1996. "Faith, Prayer, and Spirituality." Religious Education vol. 91, pp. 4-134.
Abstract: Faith Communities and Education, by H. Alexander. The Relationship between Personal Prayer and Purpose in Life among Churchgoing and Non-Churchgoing Twelve-to-Fifteen-Year-Olds in the UK, by L. Francis and T. Evans. Formation of a God Representation, by C. E. Nelson. Teaching Faith in the Family: A Historical Overview, by F. Proctor. Knowing God: Children, Play, and Paradox, by R. Cram. Religious Education and Mental Illness: A Higher Education Model, by S. Govig. The Tradition of Teresa of Avila and Its Implications for Mentoring of Religious Educators, by L. English. Friendship: Context and Content of Christian Religious Education, by D. Shields. Toward Understanding Homosexuality: An Agenda for Adult Christian Education's Contribution to Human Wholeness, by C. J. Rowell. [Source: RI]

Armstrong, Jack. 1996. "Ministry in a Mass Media Culture." Momentum vol. 27, pp. 27-28.
Abstract: Part of a special section on the theories and principles of Catholic education. Religious educators must take contemporary culture seriously if they are to be effective in their role. Society and culture are being molded by the stories told through electronic mass media, with the result that the church is no longer one of the primary storytellers for families and youth. Coordinators of youth ministry and directors of religious education should neither ignore the changes nor find ways to use every new piece of communications technology, instead, they should listen attentively and reflect. Suggestions on the changes that religious educators need to make in the way they approach their people and their culture are outlined. [Source: EA]

Celek, Tim, Dieter Zander, and Patrick Kampert. 1996. Inside the Soul of a New Generation: Insights and Strategies for Reaching Busters. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan.

Gibbs, Rhonda L. 1996. "Teaching Agape: Development of a Bi-Cultural Orientation Course to Reduce Racial Prejudice." D.Min. Thesis, Oral Roberts University.
Abstract: This study addressed the issue of teaching agape to a bi- cultural group of church youth with a view to reduce racial prejudice. The research hypothesis stated that if these bi-ethnic youth are given a clear understanding and a consistent demonstration of God's agape love, then some racial prejudice will be diminished. The project involved three groups of high school students, from different church youth groups in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The first group had six youth, the second five, and the third seven. Each group had six sessions in two weekends. The researcher led the meetings of all three groups, along with the help of several volunteers. Every session was comprised of three sections: a teaching on agape, an activity, and a workshop. A Situational Attitude Scale (SAS), which had five statements with ten different attitudinal responses for each of the five statements, was administered as a pretest and posttest. Course evaluations were collected from all the participants, and a comparison made between the pretest and posttest scores of all three groups. The results showed an increase in the posttest scores, which indicated a decrease in racial prejudice in all the participants, with the exception of one. A suggestion for doing a similar implementation of the project was that the project leader needed to develop a rapport with the youth's parents, in order to get more students to participate. A second suggestion for better implementation was to change the terms agape to a psychological term, like "unconditional positive regard," in order to take the ministry project into school systems and businesses. This would help to reduce racial prejudice not only in the church, but in all the world. [Source: DA]

Hahn, Todd and David Verhaagen. 1996. Reckless Hope: Understanding and Reaching Baby Busters. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books.

Hixon, David G. 1996. "Developing and Training Future Church Leaders through the Process of Mentoring." Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes to prepare young people for important roles in a local church through a series of basic training seminars reinforced by a relationship with adult mentors. Eight youth trainees and eight adult mentors participated in the pilot program, successfully meeting the goals set by the project. [Source: RI]

Johnson, D. Maurice. 1996. "The Teen Connection Ministry: The African-American Church and Youth Peer Counseling." Thesis, Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D.C.
Abstract: The Teen Connection project proposes that a peer counseling ministry can help to meet social, emotional, and spiritual needs of youth in the African American church. The project employs a pro-active research method to study the practice of peer counseling with African American youth. The Teen Connection project found that African American youth desire help from others, are receptive to help from peers, and are willing to be trained to help peers. Teen Connection peer counselors demonstrated their capability and willingness to become involved in responsible and challenging Christian service that ministered to the needs of their peers. Peer counselors report positive response from peer counselees and parents, and most of them claimed that the process helped them to address their own personal needs. [Source: RI]

Khoury, Maria C. 1996. "Enriching Children's Orthodox Identification." Pp. 185-189 in Personhood : Orthodox Christianity and the Connection between Body, Mind, and Soul, edited by J. Chirban. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey.

Martin, Arrold Nunn. 1996. "Ministry to African-American Children in the Midst of Social Crisis through the Children's Church." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project demonstrates ministry to children in social crisis through six months of structured, age-appropriate activities for African-American children between the ages of 8 and 12 in First Baptist Church Capitol Hill (Nashville, Tenn). In teaching of Christian doctrine, discussion of values, and self-esteem adventure programs, the project builds a biblical foundation for these children while enhancing their self-esteem and addressing social challenges that affect their lives. These activities expand and improve the worship experience of the children. [Source: RI]

Mette, Norbert and John Bowden. 1996. "Learning to Live and Believe with Children." Pp. 99-110 in Little Children Suffer, edited by M. Junker-Kenny and Norbert Mette. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books.

Myers, S. M. 1996. "An Interactive Model of Religiosity Inheritance: The Importance of Family Context." American Sociological Review vol. 61, pp. 858-866.
Abstract: I use an intergenerational data set that is uniquely suited to estimating the magnitude of religiosity inheritance. Interviews with 471 parents in 1980 and their adult offspring in 1992 address three related issues: (1) What are the effects of childhood, parental, and family influences on the religiosity of adult offspring? (2) What factors condition the ability of parents to transmit their religiosity? (3) How do the recent experiences of adult offspring modify earlier family influences on religiosity? The results suggest that three sets of variables aid the transmission of religiosity-parental religiosity, quality of the family relationship, and traditional family structure. One's religiosity is determined largely by the religiosity of one's parents. Parent's marital happiness, parent-child support, moderate strictness, and a working husband/nonworking wife increase the ability of parents to transmit their religious beliefs and practices. Although the recent experiences of adult offspring affect their religiosity, these experiences do not reduce the influence of parents and family context. [Source: SC]

Nye, Rebecca and David Hay. 1996. "Identifying Children's Spirituality: How Do You Start without a Starting Point?" British Journal of Religious Education vol. 18, pp. 144-154.

Parrett, Gary Allen. 1996. "Adapting Youth Ministry Materials for Use in a Korean-American Congregation: One Church's Attempt to Find Cultural Congruence." Ed.D. Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.
Abstract: This study addresses the problem of how youth ministry curriculum materials might be adapted for more effective use in a particular Korean-American congregation. The researcher, in a decade of ministry as Pastor to Korean American teens in three large, evangelical churches, had been frustrated by materials that have not seemed culturally responsive to his students. Publishers of these materials often encourage users to customize the materials for use in their unique settings. In this study the researcher has, with the help of others, attempted to do just that. In this curriculum revision project, the researcher worked with students and adult leaders of one Korean American church Youth Group. A revision committee of seven persons was formed to consider nine lessons of materials that were already being used for Bible studies in the Youth Group. The materials were evaluated and revised, with the aim of increasing cultural congruence for students of the group. The researcher assumed the role of "participant as observer" (Merriam 1988, 92-93). The revision committee worked through the lessons in small teams and as a group, in four sessions during a one-day retreat. The group sessions were audio-taped. The group's recommendations for revisions were given to all the Youth Group teachers, who were encouraged to consider further adaptations. Although it was not within the scope of this study to consider full implementation of the materials, teachers and committee members were consulted after two or three of the revised lessons had been taught. Data were collected through participant observation, field notes, a comparison of the curriculum documents--pre- and post-revision, and semi-structured interviews that included the use of stimulated recall. Various types of changes were suggested through the revision committee's efforts: revisions related to quality; revisions related to time constraints, revisions related to Korean American culture, and revisions related to other aspects deemed to be part of the culture of the Youth Group. The committee members were, generally, very enthusiastic about the work they had done with the materials. However, other teachers and students did not seem to share the same levels of enthusiasm. Although some of the committee members expressed some disappointment about initial implementation efforts, none expressed any disappointment about their involvement in the project. All spoke hopefully about continued implementation of the lessons they had revised. They were unanimous in the opinion that, through this effort, a good beginning had been made, and that similar efforts needed to continue in the ongoing life of the Youth Group. From the lessons learned in the revision effort, the researcher offers a guide for those who would attempt similar revisions related to cultural congruence. He calls for further research in the areas of cultural congruence as it relates to individual identity, and further study of the concept of culture itself. The researcher challenges evangelical Christian educators to give more serious attention to how issues of culture affect the process of educating young people for Christ. [Source: DA]

Sasso, Sandy Eisenberg. 1996. "Nurturing the Religious Imagination in Children." Thesis, Christian Theological Seminary.
Abstract: By the time they reach school age, all children, with or without religious instruction, have a concept of God. Despite their desire to talk about God and their innate ability to deal with theological ideas, spiritual education is often ineffective in nurturing the religious thinking of children. This project presents three children's books. In light of current faith development theory and her own pastoral experience, the author subjects these books to critical analysis and reflection. These books provide the tools and language to enable parents, teachers, and children of all traditions to engage in religious conversation and to grow in faith. [Source: RI]

Shire, Michael Jonathan. 1996. "Enhancing Adolescent Religiosity in Jewish Education: A Curriculum Inquiry." Ph.D. Thesis, Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion (California), Los Angeles.
Abstract: This dissertation seeks to investigate the strategies used in institutions of Jewish Education to enhance religiosity and to compare the impact of those strategies across a variety of educational settings. In order to define the elements of religiosity, an analysis of Jewish thought offers a view of religiosity in which the classical Jewish sources and modern thinkers develop, express and refine the Jewish notions of religiosity. This study is an exploration of these dimensions of religiosity, as viewed through the relationship between religious commitment and spiritual awareness, faith and belief, the educator/student relationship and the educational environment in the enhancement of religiosity in Jewish educational settings. Analysis of the data in each setting identifies the strategies used for the enhancement of religiosity and the ways in which they connect together. A comparison of the impact of the strategies in the four educational settings results in an examination of curriculum theory regarding the enhancement of religiosity. Three phases of curriculum are newly identified: Encounter, Reflection and Instruction for Religiosity. The enhancement of religiosity is promoted through the presence of all three phases in the curriculum. The spiritual awareness found in Encounter and the verbalizations that emerge from it can lead to articulation of questions in Reflection. These questions are responded to by the Jewish context offered in Instruction for Religiosity. However the three phases of Encounter, Reflection and Instruction are not sequential but operate concurrently. All three influence each other as Instruction can open up students for new Encounters. Reflection allows others to hear and share experiences which encourages a future disposition to such Encounters or a sensitivity that places Encounter in a Jewish context. Reflection is a crucial phase, however, in that it allows articulation of Implicit qualities of spiritual awareness to be connected to the phase of Explicit religiosity in Instruction. [Source: DA]

Stroman, William B. 1996. "God Still Delivers." Thesis, Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D.C.
Abstract: This project proposes a different kind of Christian education, about practicing theology. It seeks to provide formation, freedom, identity, justice, and hope for African-American youth. In American cities, including Washington, D.C., these young people are caught up in an epidemic of killings, gangs, and crimes and tragedies related to drugs and alcohol. This project contends that these problems are spiritual as well as societal, making for a crisis of black faith as well as identity. For many African-Americans, hopelessness and despair have replaced faith. Asking what it means to be Black and Christian in contemporary North America, this project delivers a Black theology of liberation to young people of Tabernacle Baptist Church in Washington DC. [Source: RI]

Zustiak, Gary. 1996. The Next Generation; Understanding & Meeting the Needs of Generation X. Joplin: College Press Publishing Company.

Bambic, Daryl. 1995. "Guiding the Religious Response of Adolescents: An Alternative Model of Religious Education." M.A. Thesis, Mcgill University (Canada).
Abstract: A review of the models of religious education reveals their weaknesses and limitations. The tension among the models and the leading theorists arises from the divergent understanding of the relationship of religion to education as well as the concept of personhood. The transcendent nature of persons is argued from both a psychological and philosophical perspective. The nature of the religious experience as well as religious development is examined in both adults and adolescents. Given the transcendent dimension of human nature, as witnessed through the religious response, it is argued that the first order activity of religious education should be the development of adolescent spirituality. [Source: DA]

Buckeridge, John and John Allan. 1995. Nurturing Young Disciples. London: Marshall Pickering.

Cohen, Steven M. 1995. "The Impact of Varieties of Jewish Education Upon Jewish Identity: An Inter-Generational Perspective." Contemporary Jewry vol. 16, pp. 68-96.
Abstract: Assesses the impact of several forms of Jewish education on composite measures of Jewish identity for Jewish-American parents & their teenage children (N = 1,464 & 615, respectively, surveyed by mail). The analysis controls for each generation's parents' Jewishness & other factors. All forms of Jewish education, except Sunday school, are associated with higher levels of Jewish identity in both generations. The putative effects of day school, including non-Orthodox day schools, are especially pronounced. Among adults, all forms of Jewish education, except Sunday school, are associated with lower rates of intermarriage. The likely impact of youth groups & travel to Israel on intermarriage rates is rather small. [Source: SA]

Coles, Robert. 1995. The Ongoing Journey: Awakening Spiritual Life in at-Risk Youth. Boys Town, Neb.: Boys Town Press.

Corbitt, John H. 1995. Black Churches Reaching College Students. Nashville, Tenn.: Townsend Press/Sunday School Board.

Gamble, G. Thomas. 1995. "A Study of Self-Concept between Sixth Graders Included in the Children's Ministry of the Local Church and Sixth Graders Included in the Youth Ministry of the Local Church." Ph.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: Problem. This study sought to determine the differences in self-concept of selected sixth graders categorized by "church program" and "school structure." "Church program" refers to whether sixth graders are part of the children's ministry or youth ministry. "School structure" refers to whether sixth graders are part of public elementary school or public middle school. Procedures. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was administered to sixth graders in selected Southern Baptist churches in the State of Texas. Sixth graders selected were grouped into four categories according to "church program" and "school structure": public middle school/children's ministry, public middle school/youth ministry, public elementary school/children's ministry, and public elementary school/youth ministry. The total self-concept score was used for the comparative data. A two-way analysis of variance, with.05 level of significance, was used to test the primary hypothesis. Subsequent hypotheses also were determined by the two- way analysis of variance. Findings and conclusions. There was no interaction between "church program" and "school structure." Interaction depicts the degree to which one factor depends on the level of the other factor. There was no significant difference between sixth graders who were in the youth ministry of a local church and sixth graders who were in the children's ministry of a local church. There was no significant difference between sixth graders who were in public middle school and sixth graders who were in public elementary school. The two variables, "church program" and "school structure," were not found to affect the total self-concept of sixth graders in selected Southern Baptist churches in the State of Texas. [Source: DA]

Hale, Janice E. 1995. "The Transmission of Faith to Young African-American Children." Pp. 193-207,245-247 in The Recovery of Black Presence, edited by R. Bailey. Nashville: Abingdon Press.

Hogan, Harold E., Jr. 1995. "Leading the Youth of First Baptist Church, Crockett, Tx, to Evaluate Opposite Sex Relationships in Light of the Biblical View of Agape Love." Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The author completed a thirteen-week Bible study on the biblical concept of agape love. The author explored three areas of opposite sex relationships in the context of agape love: friendship, family, and marriage. The author utilized video clips as teaching aids. The youth showed attitudinal changes which were more consistent with the biblical teaching on agape love. [Source: RI]

Klein, Ralph W. (ed.). 1995. "Youth Ministry!" Currents in Theology and Mission vol. 22, pp. 242-293.
Abstract: A Dedication to Youth Ministries, by P Hill. Setting Trustworthy Youth Ministry Arenas, by N Everist. Youth Ministry: Why is It So Hard?, by P Hill. Three Thuds, Four D's, and a Rubik's Cube of Children's Sermons, by J Nieman. Youth Ministry and Sexual Boundaries, by P Jung. Confirmation as Youth Ministry: The Task of Christian Formation, by C Nessan. Youth and Worship, by R Smith. Catechetical and Evangelistic Theology, by R Quere. A Pattern for Interpreting Biblical Texts, by J Bailey. Introduction to the Bible, by G Sayler. Youth, Religious Cults, and World Mission, by W Kang. Ministry with Youth in This Third Time of Testing, by R Fjeld. [Source: RI]

Reiff, Joseph T. 1995. "Nurturing and Equipping Children in the 'Public Church'." Pp. 199-218 in Work, Family, and Religion in Contemporary Society, edited by Nancy Tatom Ammerman and Wade Clark Roof. New York: Routledge.

Robinson Jr, Clyde O. 1995. "U.S. Churches and the Emerging Student Christian Movement: The Story of the Cescm." Journal of Ecumenical Studies vol. 32, p. 444.
Abstract: Presents a historical overview of the Council for Ecumenical Student Christian Ministries. Policies with regard to denominational and/or ecumenical student groups; Impact on the building of ecumenical student movements in the United States. [Source: AS]

Roehlkepartain, Eugene C. and Peter Scales. 1995. Youth Development in Congregations: An Exploration of the Potential and Barriers. Minneapolis: Search Institute.

Alexander, Hanan A. (ed.). 1994. "Religious Education and Child Abuse." Religious Education vol. 89, pp. 458-592.
Abstract: Cease Fire! Stopping the Gun War Against Children in the United States, by M Edelman. Faith on the Loose: Russia's New Experience of Religious Freedom, by J Lucinio. Ida, The Subway Station, and Thinking About Learning, by K Anderson. God in the Inner City, by C Johnson. For the Life of a Child: The "Religious" in the Education of the Public, by C Foster, R O'Gorman, and J Seymour. Educating Children Spiritually and Psychologically, by M Kelsey. Keeping Faith with God and Our Children: A Practical Theological Perspective, by J Fowler. Strategies to Halt Violence Against American Youth: Too Late, Too Soon, by P McLaren. The Role of Educators in Combatting Violence, by N Noddings. Serving Idols or Faithfulness: Will We Heed Marian Wright Edelman's Call?, by P O'Hare. Using the Tools of Contestation: A Response to Marian Wright Edelman's "Cease Fire," by M Warren. Response to "For the Life of a Child," by C Martinez Estrada. Response to "For the Life of a Child," by D Heischman. Response to "For the Life of a Child," by R Novak. [Source: RI]

Anderson, Sharon L. Hedrick. 1994. "Intergenerational Religious Value Concordance: Mothers and Young Adults." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Delaware, Newark.
Abstract: The acquisition of values within the family matrix has intrigued and indeed perplexed scholars throughout history. The empirical studies that are available present conflicting and contradictory evidence regarding intergenerational value transmission. This study examines the relationships between mothers' religious values and those of their young adult offspring, whether expression of these values can be seen in corresponding behaviors, whether there is concordance between maternal and youth religious behaviors, and whether mothers and young adults accurately perceive each others' religious values and behaviors. One hundred and twenty-five mother-youth dyads from Messiah College, a Christian liberal arts institution, and 84 mother-youth dyads from the University of Delaware completed a five-part survey designed by the researcher. This instrument was used in a pilot study in 1990, and reliability analyses yielded strong scores, indicating that the instruments are highly reliable. The results of the study indicated that the respondents' born-again status was the significant main effect which explained the greatest amount of variance in religious value and behavior scores. Mothers' religious value and behavior scores were generally higher than the corresponding youths' scores. All of the mothers and the youth who reported concordant born-again status with the mothers showed strong correlations between their stated religious values and behaviors. Concordant mothers tended to accurately perceive both the religious values and behaviors of their offspring. For the discordant dyads, the youth tended to perceive the values and behaviors of the mothers more accurately than the mothers perceived the youths' values and behaviors. For the concordant pairs, the young people's religious values correlated with their perceptions of their mothers' religious values one hundred percent of the time, and the mothers' religious values were highly correlated with the mothers' perceptions of the youth values. The mothers' and the youths' perceptions of each others' religious values did not correlate with their own religious values for the discordant pairs. Implications for theory development as well as practical implications for parents are discussed. Implications for future research are suggested. [Source: DA]

Brock, Peter (ed.). 1994. "Youth in Mission: Wcc Youth Team." International Review of Mission vol. 83, pp. 545-620.
Abstract: Guest Editorial, by P Brock. Youth In Mission Amidst An Emerging "Youth" Culture, by M Manohar. Mission As Participation With God In Bringing Wholeness And Life, by V Palu. Catholic Youth Mission In Tonga, by L Mafi. Youth, Mission And The Reality Of Our Churches In Tonga, by M Funaki. Visioning With Asian Youth, by Y Chang. Computers And Change In Mission, by E Sutinen, P Silander. Political Transformation In Former East Germany And The Renewal Of Mission: Re-Discovering Christian Identity In Mission, by M Malina. The Lord's Effective Ambassadors, by A Iskander. Ban", by K Page. A Testimony, by K Rygh. Challenge And Faith In Jesus Christ, by M Dansokho. Youth In Mission, by S Jeyakumar. Tamar, by S Gibbons. Youth, by M Maher. [Source: RI]

Dudley, Roger L. 1994. "Faith Maturity and Social Concern in College-Age Youth: Does Christian Education Make a Difference?" Journal of Research on Christian Education: JRCE vol. 3, pp. 34-49.

Glesbrecht, Norman. 1994. "Parental Factors Related to and Predictive of Adolescent Religious Commitment." M.Ed. Thesis, The University of Regina (Canada).
Abstract: The influence of parents' religious commitment, parenting support and control style and spousal agreement in parenting style on adolescents' religious commitment was examined in this study. Subjects consisted of 132 students, 14 through 18 years of age, and their parents. The students attended a conservative evangelical high school in rural Saskatchewan. Correlations and step-wise multiple regression were used to identify the parental factors related to and predictive of adolescent religious commitment. The following conclusions were drawn: (a) parenting style and spousal agreement in parenting style but not parental faith were significantly related to adolescent religious commitment, (b) adolescent Intrinsic commitment was significantly and positively related to and predicted by parental authoritative control and support, spousal authoritarian and permissive control agreement, and the God concepts of Forgiving and Freeing, (c) socially-oriented Extrinsic commitment in male adolescents was significantly and positively related to and predicted by father's and mother's permissive control, and (d) personally-oriented Extrinsic commitment in female adolescents was significantly and negatively related to and predicted by mother's authoritative control and support. An additional analysis clustered adolescent scores into four groups: Intrinsic, Indiscriminately Pro-Religious, Status Quo, and Anti-Religious. These categories differed significantly in parental authoritative and permissive control, support, and spousal authoritarian and permissive agreement. [Source: DA]

Greene, R. Dallas. 1994. "Developing Individuative-Reflective Faith through Doctrinal and Apologetic Teaching and Ministry Experience." Thesis, Denver Conservative Baptist Seminary.
Abstract: This thesis is an attempt to move adolescents toward a personalized faith that has been examined and appropriated. Thirty-eight adolescents spent ten weeks of intensive examination of biblical truth in and out of class; they then invested one week in a missions experience. Much of the classroom experience was adapted from Josh McDowell's and Rich Van Pelt's material. The students were pre- and post-tested, using James Fowler's Faith Development Essay Instrument. Both the males and the females made significant gains, with the males making gains of 26.2 percent and the females 24.7 percent. [Source: RI]

Hoge, Dean R. , Benton Johnson, and Donald Luidens. 1994. Vanishing Boundaries: The Religion of Mainline Protestant Baby Boomers. Louisville Ky: Westminster/John Knox.

Hong, Kye Ile. 1994. "Helping Korean-American Youth Develop Christian Identity through a Confirmation Class." Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston.
Abstract: A confirmation class combining instruction in basic aspects of Christian faith and orientation to elements of Korean culture, including the traditional music of samulnori, was carried out in a Korean United Methodist Church. It was based on an approach to confirmation as a process of identity formation. The project concluded with a "mission worship" led by the youth in which samulnori and other aspects of Korean culture were introduced into the confirmation service. Evaluation consisted of written statements by the youth at a concluding retreat of parents and church members after the worship, which expressed very positive responses to the experiences. [Source: RI]

Johnson, Dale Austin. 1994. "Parental Influence in the Development of Religious Values among Selected Adolescents in Church Education." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield.
Abstract: The research examined parental and adolescent identification and interaction with regard to church- taught religious values, among a narrow sector of families (white, middle-class, two-parent) whose children shared the common religious experience of participation in the youth program of local, evangelical Christian church. The intent was to more fully understand the interaction of family and church influences with regard to the religious development of young people within the sector itself, and to use the initial sector as a framework for comparisons with other sector within the realm of families influenced by local church Christian education ministry. A qualitative, interview-based research design was used to gather data from subjects, who were divided into separate sets based on the variable of the current church participation level of both the young people and their parents. Among the conclusions resulting from the study were the following, (1) In the majority of cases the religious values identification of adolescent subjects reflected, in discernible ways, that of one or both parents. (2) The home environment of an adolescent was never religiously neutral, and either reinforced or undermined church-taught religious values. (3) Parental perspectives on the non-home religious education of their children varied widely, and related to the adolescent's level of personal identification with church-taught religious values. (4) In cases of parental non-participation in church with their children, the specific reasons for such non-participation varied widely, and related to the adolescent's level of personal identification with church-taught religious values. (5) Within most families (in all subject sets), parents and adolescents reported that verbal interaction dealing with religious values-related matters declined as the child moved from childhood through adolescence. However, current patterns of such interaction varied between subject sets. (6) Higher adolescent identification with church-taught religious values was related to higher-adolescent awareness of parental practice of personal Bible study and prayer. (7) For parents and adolescents, human interpersonal relationships (parental, peer, and church worker) played an important role in personal religious values identification (perception, content, and practice). Implications for ministry practice, and suggestions for further research were described. [Source: DA]

Martin, Russell Franklin. 1994. "Training Youth for Service: An Evaluation of Cross-Cultural Mission Experience for Christian Leadership Development." D.Min. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary Doctor of Ministry Program, Pasadena.
Abstract: The primary thrust of this dissertation is the development of Christian leaders, by the method of short term cross-cultural mission involvement. The special target group consisted of Christian high school students, from northern California. Between the years of 1980 and 1986, I was involved in a program that trained young people for such a ministry, and then led them on a short term mission to selected Latin American countries. I have drawn from the pool of 108 teenagers who went through the program in order to establish the benefits of this ministry in the formation of their Christian leadership skills. The inspiration for the program, as well as the details of training process are a large part of the dissertation. This allows the program to be recreated by any group willing to pursue it as a ministry. Our target group currently ranges in age from 22 to 31. At the time of their specific involvement in the program their ages ranged from 14 to 18. I have tracked their Christian involvement since their mission experience and have cited in detail their belief that their own Christian world-view can be traced to this specific ministry. I have also included documentation of the impact of this ministry on the team leaders, the missionaries and members of the Latin American Churches that were served, the sending Churches and the family members of these teenage missionaries. I have especially emphasized the impact of this ministry upon me personally. This emphasis is for the purpose of inspiring others to similar ministries. The main conclusion is that the evidence builds a strong case for the value of this type of program for the development of Christian leaders and the building of the kingdom of God. The strategy is to multiply this ministry as many times as possible within my own denomination, and among any other Christian groups who will respond to the challenge. [Source: DA]

McLaughlin, Milbrey W. , Merita A. Irby, and Juliet Langman. 1994. Urban Sanctuaries: Neighborhood Organizations in the Lives and Futures of Inner-City Youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rebeck, Victoria A. (ed.). 1994. "Confirming--and Keeping--Youth." Christian Ministry vol. 25, pp. 9-18.
Abstract: Positive Youth, by E Roehlkepartain. Continual Confirmation, by C Dudley. Nurturing Commitment through Four Streams of Faith, by R Kirchherr. Understanding Confirmands' Emotional and Spiritual Lives, by S Patterson-Sumwalt. Making Disciples by Building Relationships, by W Willimon. [Source: RI]

Samuel, Vinay , Ronald J. Sider, and C. Ren" Padilla, (eds.). 1994. "Youth Ministry and World Mission." Transformation vol. 11, pp. 13-20.
Abstract: Youth, Culture, and the Media: Contemporary Youth Ministry, by D Borgman. "Adolescence, Youth Ministry and World Mission." Popular Culture and Youth Ministry in an English Context, by P Ward. [Source: RI]

Scalise, Charles J. and Doris Borchert, (eds.). 1994. "Ministry to Children and Youth." Review and Expositor vol. 91, pp. 309-405.
Abstract: A Call for Compassion and Justice: Rescuing Our Nation's Children and Their Families, by M. Edelman. When Children Get Sick: Teacher Turned Chaplain, by K. Chapman. Sex Education and the Church, by T. Lines. Pastoral Counseling With Teenagers in Crisis, by W. Rowatt. Congregational Ministries with Children, by D. Garland. Genesis 16:1-16; 21:8-21--The Uncherished Child: A "Modern" Wilderness of the Heart, by D. Stancil. Mark 10:13-16, by L. Eubanks. [Source: RI]

Shafran, Steven. 1994. "The Educational Method of Saint John Bosco as School Culture in the Salesian High Schools in the United States." Ed.D. Thesis, University of San Francisco, San Francisco.
Abstract: Every school has its own character or unique personality. The research of Deal and Peterson (1990) and Sergiovanni (1984) refer to this character as the school culture determined by all the elements of a particular school. Catholic schools have common cultural traits, many with a distinctive cultural flavor. The Salesians, a religious order dedicated to youth ministry and founded by Saint John Bosco, promote a school culture based on a family environment through a holistic educational methodology. This study describes the extent of the practice of the Salesian educational methodology and determines the characteristics of a Salesian school culture that arise from the literature. The methodology for this descriptive study was survey research augmented by qualitative data. The researcher developed an eighty-eight item instrument based on elements of the Salesian methodology. Eight attitudes and five areas of the methodology were employed from the Salesian experts (Braido, 1964; Stella, 1985). A representative sample of 946 students and 425 educators completed and returned the survey. Data were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed to show the extent of the methodology according to the perceptions of students and educators. A three-dimensional graph was developed to visually capture the landscape of the Salesian school culture. A "landscape" structure was selected to convey the multi-faceted dimensions. The surveys indicated that the Salesian methodology and school culture studied were strongly perceived by the students and educators. Students and educators agreed that a unique blend of components of the methodology pervade the school and create a particular "feel" within it. Recommendations included the need for an organized training program, a new written resource on the Salesian educational methodology, increased involvement by students in planning and decision-making, and an increase in emphasis of the methodology as important to preserving the school culture. The study indicated that the educational methodology promotes a Salesian school where every member of the educative community is involved in shaping the school culture. The study also furthers the research on school culture and provides a model for Catholic schools administered by religious congregations for identifying their school culture. [Source: DA]

Walter, Clare M. 1994. "From Anguish to Mission: Seeking an Approach to Ministry with Institutionalized Adolescents." Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project examines a planned discussion series for institutionalized youth who have been declared wards of the court. Using input about their personal issues, the role of God, and faith development, from both current adolescents at Crossroad and the staff who work with them, the project identifies the most pressing issues for these young people. The discussion series addresses the concerns with residents who chose to attend. The effectiveness of the project is measured by pre- and post-interviews with participating adolescents; by an ongoing diary of conversations; and by feedback from the residents and staff at Crossroad. From this series the author hopes to explore the effects of social chaos on the development of adolescents and find means of more adequately responding to them in ministry. [Source: RI]

Woethen, Lyndell P., Jr. 1994. "Helping High School Youths to Use the Bible through a Study of Its Origins and the Application of Basic Hermeneutical Principles." Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project is aimed at a selected group of ten high school students who give evidence of spiritual maturity, and a willingness to engage in an intensive study of the history of the Bible and the hermeneutical principles for interpreting the Bible. The project will be conducted over an eight-week period. The students will read collateral readings prior to each session, and interact with a reading-discussion guide which is designed to focus attention on the specific principles to be learned. The project will be evaluated by means of a pre-test and a post-test, which will be given to those in the project group and a group of students of similar ability who will not engage in the project. The goal of the project is to show that with proper instruction youths will become better interpreters of the Word of God. [Source: RI]

Adams, Buford H. 1993. "A Model for Effective Church Youth Ministry." Thesis, Columbia Theological Seminary, New York.
Abstract: Creating and maintaining an effective ministry to and with teenagers is an increasingly difficult challenge for the average church. As the traditional family structure continues to change and the secular world becomes more sophisticated in its appeal, the church faces the danger of becoming irrelevant to today's young person. In this project the biblical and psychological basis of youth ministry is examined. A youth ministry model entertaining young people is contrasted with a model that seeks to involve the teenagers themselves in ministry. A small group of senior high students on the south side of Atlanta are questioned concerning their level of spiritual commitment before and after a six-week ministry project involving them in an evangelistic outreach to other teens. Adult evaluators give their opinion of the effectiveness of the ministry project and an outside youth ministry expert reviews the basis of the ministry model used. This model could be used by any church to effectively involve their young people in ministry projects and thus maintain a high interest level among those teens. [Source: RI]

Brunson, Jesse. 1993. "Celebrating African-American History and Culture through Christian Education." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University, Madison.
Abstract: Celebrating African-American history and culture is an intentional study conducted by Wilson Temple United Methodist Church, Raleigh, North Carolina, teaching children ages five to eighteen, their history and culture in an attempt to motivate positive self-esteem. The project set forth to prove through, historical, biblical and psychological documentation that western history and basic Christian education has not given African-American children positive images of themselves. It was out of this premise that the whole project was developed and conducted. The organization phases of the project brought together strong leadership from both the community and the local church into a supportive team as an advisory committee. The committee functioned as both a support staff and a planning team for the project. Their leadership was also crucial in the development of curriculum design, teacher selection, and project and candidate evaluation. The main intent of the project was to teach children and youth historical information designed to expose them to a new dimension of the African-American story. Thus the goal was to lift up images that did not present the African-American as one with a worthless history and a doubtful future. Therefore, the essence of the project was a celebration of the African-American spirit, and an invitation to all to come share in our celebration of life. [Source: DA]

Calhoun, George K. 1993. "An Education Program to Enhance Self-Esteem among the Youth of Hilton Terrace Baptist Church, Columbus, Georgia." Thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to design an education program which would enhance positive self-esteem among adolescents. Two separate studies were conducted during the project. An eight-week course for youth looked at biblical perspectives on self-esteem. A ten-week class for parents surveyed ways to provide a positive environment within the home. Questionnaires provided before and after the studies revealed that improvement was evident. The self-esteem of youth was raised, and parenting skills of the adults were enhanced. [Source: RI]

Ellison, Christopher G. and Darren E. Sherkat. 1993. "Obedience and Autonomy: Religion and Parental Values Reconsidered." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, pp. 313-329.

Flaugher, Dennis W. 1993. "Religious Education in the Secondary School." Thesis, Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The issue addresses the development of an approach for teaching scriptural studies to high school students that allows them to study the stories of the Bible as a source for biblical knowledge and wisdom. The research reflects nine weeks of classroom instruction in a ninth grade Old Testament class of 25 girls in all-girl Catholic school in Louisville, Kentucky, and details the instructor's educational and theological assumptions that inform his understanding of the learning process. Survey results indicate students respond positively to a variety of teaching strategies and methods, and desire a learning environment that is controlled yet flexible to meet student needs. [Source: RI]

Hammond, J. A., B. S. Cole, and S. H. Beck. 1993. "Religious Heritage and Teenage Marriage." Review of Religious Research vol. 35, pp. 117-133.
Abstract: Teen marriage may be a way of legitimately culminating a sexual relationship and attaining adult status. Our purpose is to investigate whether the religion in which a young person was raised has an impact on the decision to marry early. Extrapolating from our findings on premarital sex as well as previous research of others, we hypothesized that Fundamentalist and Institutional Sect backgrounds produce higher rates of teen marriage. We utilized data from the NLSY between 1979 and 1984 for Whites and female Blacks. The logistic regressions indicated substantial differences in the likelihood of teen marriage by religious heritage category for male and female Whites, but not for female African-Americans. Using mainline Protestants as the comparison group, we find that young Whites with Fundamentalist and Sect-like backgrounds are much more likely to marry by age 19, while Catholics and non-Christians are significantly less likely to marry early. These differences persist even when controlling for geographic factors, parental and family characteristics, church attendance, and expectations for adult roles. [Source: SC]

Harrison, Thomas F. 1993. "A Program of Discipleship Training for Middle School Youth at the Broadmoor Baptist Church (Shrevport, La)." Thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to foster spiritual growth that leads to church involvement among middle school youth. A curriculum was designed that consisted of eleven discipleship training sessions. These discipleship training sessions took place weekly. To determine the effectiveness of the program, the experimental research method was used. The group of middle school youth who participated in the discipleship training program achieved significant changes in spiritual growth. [Source: RI]

Herzbrun, Michael B. 1993. "Father-Adolescent Religious Consensus in the Jewish Community: A Preliminary Report." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, pp. 163-168.
Abstract: Examined the relationship among a sample of 122 Jewish adolescents (75 males and 47 females) between father's religious communication and father's support (the predictor variables) and religious consensus (the outcome variable). Among sons of traditional fathers, a strong religious consensus correlated with father's emotional support, but was not affected by father's religious communication; the opposite was true for correlations among sons of religiously liberal fathers. Father's denominational affiliation had no mediating effects for daughters. [Source: PI]

Hoge, Dean R. and Benton Johnson. 1993. "Determinants of Church Involvement of Young Adults Who Grew up in Presbyterian Churches." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, p. 242.
Abstract: Studies church involvement of young adults in Presbyterian churches. Influence of early religious socialization; Cultural broadening during college years; Liberalization of beliefs; Religious beliefs; Commitment of people with conservative beliefs; Adult family experiences. [Source: AS]

McQueen, Malcolm L. 1993. "Being and Becoming Christian: One Approach to Confirmation in the Presbyterian Church (USA)." Thesis, San Francisco Theological Seminary.
Abstract: Confirmation has been an integral part of Christian nurture and faith formation of adolescent youth in the Presbyterian Church (USA). Most confirmation experiences involve youth in early adolescence. Yet studies indicate these same youth often "drop out" of the church 3-5 years later. Why? This dissertation is an attempt to answer this question and seek an educational approach to help a confirmation experience be more effective. The approach used is one developed by Christian educator Thomas Groome and is known as "shared Christian praxis." This dissertation suggests this approach can be effective as an educational methodology in a confirmation process. [Source: RI]

Olson, Daniel V. A. 1993. "Fellowship Ties and the Transmission of Religious Identity." Pp. 32-53 in Beyond Establishment: Protestant Identity in a Post-Protestant Age, edited by Jackson Carroll and Wade Clark Roof. Louisville: Westmisnter/John Knox Press.

Ryan, Cynthia G. 1993. "Teenagers and Despair: Finding Hope in Faith and in One Another: A Group Ministry Experience." Thesis, Brite Divinity School, Forth Worth.
Abstract: This project is a pastoral care response to the issue of teenage depression and despair which is the root cause of many of the confusing acting-out behaviors exhibited by teens and also is at the base of much of adolescent inner pain and turmoil. This project is an attempt for the church to utilize its theology of hope, its use of mystery and ritual and its sense of identity and other resources to prevent teenage depression and despair. This project includes a support group for 9th and 10th graders at First United Methodist Church of Graham, Texas, which met five times for confidential sharing, peer feedback, education about depression and spiritual reflection. [Source: RI]

Smit, Harvey A. (ed.). 1993. "Youth in Worship: Perspectives and Resources." Reformed Worship vol. 28, pp. 2-34.
Abstract: Listen to Them: Teens want to worship. Why don't they?, by H Smit. Debunking the Stereotypes: Understanding the adolescents in our churches, by G Stronks. One Step at a Time: Youth pastors learn there's no instant success, by P Ten Elshof. The Dreaded Eutychus Syndrome: Have things changed since that night in Troas?, by R Scates. Way to Worship!, by B Bosscher. Blending Voices: Making "their" music part of "our" worship, by J Ippel. Peepholes and Picture Windows: Educating youth for worship, by K Krebs. The Gospel's the Thing: Don't turn your worship over to a good actor, by J Schuurman. Adolescens: A conversation with the worship demon, by R Vorsteeg. Objection Overruled: A series on objections to the Christian faith, by N Overduin. The Psychedelic Deacon, by J Schaap. [Source: RI]

Yake, John C. 1993. "The Contributions of the Cor Retreat Weekend to the Faith Development of Adolescents." Thesis, University of St Michael's College.
Abstract: The study evaluates the potential of the COR retreat (Christ in Others Retreat) to evangelize young people, seventeen to twenty-one years of age. COR is a three-day experience of Christian living, popular with youth, but which has not been critically examined in the church. A school-based COR was analyzed for its ability to enhance faith development using the faith development research instruments derived from the faith development theory of Dr James Fowler. Results: COR has potential to transform the aspects of faith development theory, nurturing and supporting adolescent faith development, primarily Fowler's stage three, synthetic-conventional faith. [Source: RI]

Alfano, Leslee A. 1992. "Intergenerational Education in the Faith Community: Bringing Children and Adults Together for Theological Reflection." Thesis, Emmanuel College of Victoria University, Toronto.
Abstract: This report describes the experience of an intergenerational group of older children, ages eleven to thirteen, and adults of various ages who gathered to explore faith and life questions as a means of theological reflection. Phenomenological and qualitative research methodology formed the framework of study, guided by perspectives of grounded research and symbolic interactionism. Results identify principles for the development of this intergenerational group. The study concludes that the emergence of a sense of shared faith journey narrowed the gap of expected differences between generations and increased appreciation for an exchange of faith and life insights between generations. [Source: RI]

Benson, Peter L. 1992. "Religion, Religious Institutions, and the Development of Caring." Paper presented at Lilly Endowment Conference on Youth and Caring.

Hyde, Ricky L. 1992. "Educating and Involving a Congregation in the Faith Development and Worship Capabilities of Children through Corporate Worship Experiences." Thesis, Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Kansas City.
Abstract: The primary goal of this project was to include and increase the involvement of children (grades one through six) in corporate worship services. Both children and adults were educated on the faith development and worship capabilities of children in the corporate worship setting. Biblical and psychological research was used to formulate sermons, worship manuals, and aids. A worship committee comprised of adults and children planned and evaluated a corporate worship service to reflect the goals. The worship committee and the author concluded that children are capable of and benefit from worshiping with adults. [Source: RI]

Jackson, William J., Jr. 1992. "Leading the Triethnic Youth of Garden Villas Baptist Church to Establish a Relationship of Christian Covenant." Thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to lead a representative group of triethnic youth, grades six through twelve, in Garden Villas Baptist Church, Houston, Texas, into a Christian covenant relationship. The concept of "covenant" was examined, as were factors which inhibited or enhanced relationships. Methodology relied heavily upon activities appropriate for youth: worksheets, role play, skit, video, and team work. Youth developed a statement of relationship to which they subscribed in a formal "covenant ceremony." Attitude change data suggested younger youth gained a more realistic perception of racial relationships; older youth developed a more realistic perception of themselves. [Source: RI]

Keith Lucas, Alan. 1992. "Encounters with Children: Children and Religion." Residential Treatment for Children and Youth vol. 10, pp. 65-73.
Abstract: Presents observations on the role of religion in the treatment of troubled children and adolescents. The importance of showing children love and answering their questions honestly is stressed. Examples from the author's experience are presented. [Source: PI]

Max, Dana Allen. 1992. "The Effects of Marital Disruption on the Intergenerational Transmission of Religious Values." Psy.D. Thesis, Rosemead School of Psychology Biola University, La Mirada.
Abstract: Many studies have been conducted that have shown a strong and positive correlation between adolescent religiosity and parental religiosity. All of these studies, however, have either limited their subjects to intact families, or ignored marital status as a variable that might affect the relationship between these variables. Given the dramatic increase of marital disruption over the last few decades, and the negative effects marital disruption and interparental discord appear to have on children, these variables were included in a study on religious values. A final sample of 244 high school students from one private and two public high schools were surveyed. The students completed a questionnaire that asked for demographic information and then assessed adolescent religiosity, parental religiosity, and the level of interparental discord. It was hypothesized that the correlation between adolescent religiosity and parental religiosity is significantly stronger in adolescents from intact families than in adolescents from disrupted families. The data was analyzed using partial correlations to eliminate the effects of interparental discord. These correlations were then compared using a Z transformation. The main hypothesis was supported. Moreover, female adolescents were found to be more religious than male adolescents, and adolescents perceived their mothers to be more religious than their fathers. Maternal religiosity and paternal religiosity were equally correlated with adolescent religiosity, regardless of the gender of the adolescent. While adolescent religiosity was found to be significantly and positively correlated to parental religiosity, adolescents were also found to be significantly less religious than their mothers, but significantly more religious than their fathers. Parents whose marriages had been disrupted were significantly less religious than parents whose marriages were still intact, and adolescents from disrupted families were also found to be less religious than adolescents from intact homes. Although it is difficult to definitively interpret these findings, the results could support an object relations view of religious development. The theoretical interpretation would suggest that corresponding to the external split in the parental pair, the internal God-images, which are based on early life experiences with both parents, are also split or somehow damaged. [Source: DA]

McElroy, Robert. 1992. "Gaining Insights into the African-American Youth World and Issues Utilizing Interview/Rap Sessions and Surveys for Planning Youth Ministries." Thesis, Perkins School of Theology at Southern Methodist Univ.
Abstract: The African-American church is experiencing great difficulty in reaching and keeping its youth involved in the church. The purpose of this practicum/project was to gain insights into the world of African-American youths; to identify major problems, concerns and needs; and to determine whether ministry programs informed through dialogue with youth offer greater appeal and increased probabilities for reaching and keeping more of the youth population active in the church. Project participants consisted of African-American church and high school youths offering personal views of their world and issues of concern, utilizing open forums and survey forms. The revealing data offered and the high levels of interest displayed during the study revealed that they have many good ideas to share and desire greater dialogue with the church. These findings strongly suggest that including youth representatives in ministry planning could result in more appealing youth programs. [Source: RI]

McLendon, Ronald P. 1992. "Developing a Program to Equip Christian Parents in Nurturing Their Newly Converted Children." Thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The three project goals focused on helping parents nurture the faith of their newly converted children by meeting the physical and spiritual needs of their children. The first goal was to develop an instrument which would determine if a select group of parents were meeting the spiritual needs of their children. The second goal was to develop a structured program which would enable parents to meet the spiritual needs of their children. The third goal was to enlist and train ten to twelve people who would commit to meeting the spiritual needs of their developing children. Ten people completed the course of study to help equip them to nurture their children's faith. As a result of the course, the parents showed a 12 per cent improvement in nurturing knowledge and ability. [Source: RI]

O'Malley, W. J. 1992. "The Grail Quest: Male Spirituality." America vol. 5, p. 402.
Abstract: Looks at masculine and feminine differences and suggests ways in which the church could function as a rite of passage to manhood for adolescent boys. What the Catholic ministry can do to save the Christian male's spirituality from atrophy; Male and female aspects of God and the church. [Source: AS]

Rodriguez Rasmussen, Olga. 1992. "A Salesian High School Curriculum Using Groome's Shared Praxis." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The theses of this project were to develop a high school curriculum to preserve Salesian spirituality, and that Thomas Groome's method of shared praxis is an appropriate pedagogy for teaching youth and engaging them in dialogue with Salesian spirituality. Volume 1 is a narrative description of the project, volume 2 the curriculum. A high school curriculum was developed using Groome's method of shared Christian praxis to pass on the spirituality of the Order of Visitation. The curriculum was field-tested by two Visitation schools and deemed successful. It is the first phase of a long-range project dedicated to preserving Salesian spirituality. [Source: RI]

Spickard, Paul A. 1992. "The Changing Status of Children of Jewish Intermarriage in the United States." Pp. 191-203 in Jewish Assimilation, Acculturation, and Accomodation, edited by Menachem Mor. Lanham: University Press of America.

Arriaga, Jose Jesus. 1991. "A Missionary Call to Hispanic Youth: Their Mestizo Identity as Hispanics and Catholics." D.Min. Thesis, The Catholic University of America.
Abstract: The increasing presence of young Catholic Hispanics in the metropolitan area of Washington, D.C., urgently needs the Church's pastoral attention. Confronted by different cultures and different religious groups, many young Hispanics face problems of self-identity, as individuals, as immigrants, and as Christians. Given the close relationship between Hispanic culture and their Catholic faith, what works to the detriment of one necessarily affects the other. Thus, there is a need for youth to address their mestizo identity, as Hispanics and as Christians. This pastoral project was designed to assist recent young immigrants to claim their mestizo identity as Hispanics and Catholics. The project took the form of three weekend encuentros, each with seven sessions: (1) The first encuentro provided participants an opportunity for determining and discussing their Myers-Briggs personality-type as presented by Keirsey-Bates in Please Understand Me. (2) In the second encuentro, participants reflected on their Christian identity in light of (a) the Pauline teaching on Baptism in Romans 5:12-6:11, and (b) the findings about Catholic identity in the survey of Gonzalez and LaVelle, The Hispanic Catholic in the United States. (3) The focus of the third encuentro was the missionary character of the Christian, in light of the relation between culture and evangelization, as presented by Elizondo's Christianity and Culture. The report records in detail the actual implementation of the project, including adaptations dictated by circumstances. The immediate result of the project was the formation of a team of a dozen young Hispanics who presently serve as jovenes misioneros in their respective parishes. This report also provides a design for the formation of similar groups at the parochial and diocesan levels. [Source: DA]

Beckwith, Ivy. 1991. "Youth Summer Mission Trips: A Case Study." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield.
Abstract: This research studied one youth summer mission trip in an attempt to discover the important components of the summer mission trip experience and the educational conditions created by the experience which may lead to greater psycho-social maturity in the youth who participate. It sought to discover the learning outcomes of the trip as perceived by the adolescent participants. Precedent literature in the areas of experiential education, adolescence, psycho-social maturity, and youth summer mission trips was explored as a background to this study. These precedents in the literature were helpful in discerning the research questions as well as the research methodology. The research design was that of participant-observation and interview. The participant-observer followed the summer mission team from its inception through its termination keeping field notes and a journal which recorded all the experiences of the project participants. The program participants were interviewed prior to leaving on the project in order to determine their expectations for the project, their worries about the project, and what they hoped to gain from the project. They were interviewed during the trip, itself. These questions sought to solicit from the program participants what they were thinking about the experience at that point in the process, what they were liking and disliking about it, and what they thought they would learn from the project. After the participants returned from the summer mission trip they were interviewed a third time. This interview sought to discover what the participants thought about the experience after they returned, what they perceived to be the most important components of the experience, and what they perceived to be their own personal learning outcomes from the experience. The data from the field notes and the interviews was broken down into categories in order to answer the research questions. The data was analyzed in order to discover the components of the experience, how these components worked together to provide the educational conditions optimal for psycho-social growth in the adolescent, and to discover what the students perceived to be the personal learning outcomes from the experience. Conclusions offered recommendations for program administrators of mission trips, recommendations for other educational programs, and suggestions for further research. [Source: DA]

Brown, Diane R. and Lawrence E. Gary. 1991. "Religious Socialization and Educational Attainment among African-Americans: An Empirical Assessment." Journal of Negro Education vol. 60, pp. 411-426.

Dodrill, Mark Andrew. 1991. "Christian Youth Ministry in Hispanic Chicago and Barcelona: An Inquiry into Similarities, Dissimilarities and Cross-Cultural Themes." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: The study seeks to describe, compare, and contrast the purposes and procedures of volunteer-led, Christian youth ministries in evangelical churches of Hispanic Chicago and Barcelona, Spain. Three cases were selected from each setting on the basis of their reputation for effectiveness in volunteer-led youth ministry and maximum diversity in such areas as denominational affiliations, levels of acculturation, and socioeconomic status. Data was gathered through observation of youth group activities, a sentence completion survey of group members, any available documents, and semi-structured interviews of various leaders. The small size of the sample precludes statistical generalizations to the larger populations. Nevertheless, the following tentative conclusions were advanced as topics for further research: (1) Some Christian youth groups are able to use their social power to help raise the socioeconomic levels of lower-class youth. (2) The effectiveness of volunteer-led youth groups is correlated with that of their sponsoring congregation. (3) The goals of youth ministry are quite similar among evangelical churches across a variety of Hispanic cultural settings. (4) Differing emphases within this set of goals may be related to different stages of group development. (5) The combination of different ministry strategies increases their effectiveness in reaching group goals. (6) These strategies can be grouped under the headings of specialized youth activities, whole church activities, and personal ministry. (7) The number of specialized youth activities in a given program may be related to factors such as the size of the congregation, the level of acculturation to dominant societal values, and the relationships between youth and adults within the congregation. (8) Both acceptance by the group members and recognition by the church as a whole are prerequisites for effective youth leaders. (9) The leadership styles of youth leaders tend to mirror the styles of their pastors. (10) A congregational model seems to be the most effective leadership structure for volunteer-led youth ministry. (11) Effective leaders demonstrate their concern for youth through their commitment of time, energy and resources. (12) A variety of leadership development activities are necessary for the continuity of volunteer-led youth ministries. [Source: DA]

Kubick, Arthur J. (ed.). 1991. Confirming the Faith of Adolescents: An Alternative Future for Confirmation. New York: Paulist.
Abstract: Introduction. Christian initiation: practice and theology, T Marsh. A case for adolescent confirmation, K Sawyer. Toward a pastoral theology of confirmation, G Fourez. Adolescent confirmation and the Paschal mystery, R Reichert. Confirmation at St Elizabeth's parish: a reflection, A Kubick. Confirmation at age sixteen: Milwaukee's story, L Neu. A look at confirmation through "Spanish" eyes, T Viramontes-Gutierrez. Building Christians: toward reclaiming a theology of confirmation - a Protestant perspective, G Davis. Confirmation: an Episcopal Church perspective, J Westerhoff, III. Rethinking confirmation: possible ways forward, C Cox. An afterword, B Cooke. [Source: RI]

Liebes, Tamar, Elihu Katz, and Rivka Ribak. 1991. "Ideological Reproduction." Political Behavior vol. 13, pp. 237-252.
Abstract: Interview data from 400 Jewish families concerning conditions under which parents reproduce ideologies in their adolescent children (aged 12-28 yrs) show that (1) parents reproduced their political outlooks, (2) there was a greater likelihood that "hawkish" parents will have like-minded children than "dovish" ones, and (3) whereas the reproduction of "doves"was dependent on higher education, "hawks" reproduced regardless of their education level. Cohort and lineage analysis were used to explain change from generation to generation and the continuity and change within families. Clues to the tendency to move to the political right were observed in the relative hawkishness of nonreligious parents of 18-yr-olds who were about to begin their army service and in the relative complexity of the dovish position. [Source: PI]

Lull, Patricia J. 1991. "Telling the Truth: Introducing Death and Resurrection to the Young." Word & World vol. 11, pp. 36-43.

Merrell, Arthur R. 1991. "Developing a Pastoral Care Program for Use in the Juvenile Justice System." Thesis, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
Abstract: A study of facilities in the juvenile justice system indicates that the pastoral care program would be more effective with delinquent youth if: (1) program emphasis was changed from delivering services to institutions to "tracking" individual youngsters through a series of institutions; and (2) if our catechetical materials, sermons, and liturgical worship would take into consideration the fact that these youth do not come from traditional families or communities. The church might have more influence among these young people if it were perceived to be less the agent that calls to repentance than the place that facilitates personal change. [Source: RI]

Morris, Bonnie J. 1991. "The Children's Crusade: The Tzivos Hashem Youth Movement as an Aspect of Hasidic Identity." Judaism vol. 40, pp. 333-343.

Myers, William. 1991. Black and White Styles of Youth Ministry: Two Congregations in America. New York: Pilgrim Press.

Ross, James E. 1991. "Nurturing the Faith Experience of Children: Madison Baptist Church, Madison, Georgia." Thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville.
Abstract: The objective of the project was to nurture the faith experience of children in the Madison Baptist Church (Madison, Georgia). Representative biblical, historical, and theological considerations are reviewed in reference to children. Psychological and sociological factors are summarized. These include: the influences of home and society, the work of Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, and the faith development studies of James Fowler, Temp Sparkman, and John Westerhoff. The minister led an eight-session children's discipleship class and a four-session class for parents and children's workers. [Source: RI]

Stronks, Gloria Goris. 1991. "To See the Church through Their Eyes." Perspectives vol. 6, pp. 17-20.

Sultan, Talat. 1991. "Educational Formation of American Muslim Youth." Journal, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs vol. 12, pp. 520-526.

Wilson, Paul R. 1991. Educating Street Kids: A Ministry to Young People in the Charism of Edmund Rice. New York: Alba House.

Zylberberg, Jacques and Jean Remy, (eds.). 1991. "Youth and Religious Socializations." Social Compass pp. 339-431.
Abstract: Introduction: Socialization and Socializations, by J Remy, J Zylberberg. Perpetuated Youth and Self-sanctification: Historico-anthropological Deliberations on the Transformation of Youth and Concepts of Identity, by D A Lenzen. La religion et la recomposition du symbolique chez les jeunes Fran"ais, by Y Lambert. The Formation of Religious Attitudes and World Views: A Longitudinal Study of Young Finns, by H Helve. Perception de la religion chez les jeunes au Qu"bec, by J P Montminy and R Richard. Les jeunes et le mariage religieux: une "mancipation du sacr", by L Voy". Jesus Says, "Order, Children!": Ethnography of a Catholic Classroom, by J Zylberberg and Y Shiose. [Source: RI]

Archer, Karen Denise. 1990. "A Sociological Examination of Catholic Youth Retreats." M.A. Thesis, University of Louisville, Louisville.
Abstract: This thesis analyzes Catholic youth retreats within a sociological framework. Data were collected through in- depth interviews with thirty-two respondents. The major finding of this thesis is that the affects of youth retreats are not long-term. Retreats, as religious rituals, are created by humanity to connect with the sacred. This thesis shows that retreats fail in influencing individuals over long periods of time because rituals are created to simply remind individuals of their connection with the sacred; rituals are not created to allow individuals to continually live out a connection with the sacred. Because our social structure does not support a continuing religious consciousness, the emotions generated from the retreats do not continue affecting retreatments. [Source: DA]

Barazangi, Nimat Hafez. 1990. "The Education of North American Muslim Parents and Children: Conceptual Change as a Contribution to Islamization of Education." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences vol. 7, pp. 385-402.

Bromley, Shirlee M. 1990. "Enabling the Spiritual Growth of the Youth through the Introduction of an Intensive Youth Ministry Program." Thesis, Hartford Seminary.
Abstract: The basic premise of this project is that youth are largely absent from our churches today. The project, working with a confirmation class, tried to provide a youth ministry program that enabled these young people to become active in the church and to grow spiritually. Chapter one tells how the project began and describes the development of the youth ministry program (First Congregational Church, Greenfield, Mass). Chapter two looks at the biblical, theological, and theoretical bases of youth ministry. Faith development and biblical themes are examined and definitions of spirituality are explored. Chapter three evaluates the project and describes the enthusiasm of the congregation for an on-going ministry with youth. The concluding reflections address the effectiveness of the project, the impact that it had on the life of the youth and the congregation, and the importance of doing theological reflection in the community of faith. [Source: RI]

Cornwall, Marie and Darwin L. Thomas. 1990. "Family, Religion, and Personal Communities: Examples from Mormonism." Marriage and Family Review vol. 15, pp. 229-252.
Abstract: Examines the role of personal communities in the family and religion interface, using empirical data from Mormon populations. Topics discussed include (1) religious communities and the church-sect continuum, (2) religious socialization, (3) religion and family influence on adolescent social competence, and (4) religion, family, and adult well-being. [Source: PI]

De Hart, J. 1990. "Impact of Religious Socialization in the Family." Journal of Empirical Theology vol. 3, pp. 59-78.

Halsey, Alison E. 1990. "Will Your Children Have Faith? The Effect Parents Have on the Faith Development of Their Younger Adolescent Children." D.Min. Thesis, Colgate Rochester Divinity School/Bexley Hall/Crozer Theol. Seminary, Rochester.

Kent, Ricky R. 1990. "The Religiosity and Parent/Child Socialization Connection with Adolescent Substance Abuse." Pp. 143-165 in Parent Adolescent Relationships, edited by Brian K. Barber and Boyd C. Rollins. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Abstract: (from the preface) empirically addresses the unique and joint effects of these two social systems [religion and the family] on adolescent behavior / the simultaneous analysis of family and religiosity represents important methodological and theoretical contributions to the literature on adolescent substance abuse. [Source: PI]

Kim, Dea Hee. 1990. "A Cultural Program as an Effective Means of Ministry with the Second Generation Korean Youth in the United States of America." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University.
Abstract: Korean youth in America are going through a very unique experience due to their Korean ethnicity. Today, however, virtually all Korean churches in American are struggling in dealing with ministry for the youth, and it has become one of the toughest challenges for Korean churches in their ministry. This phenomenon is a result of the growing number of youth in the Korean community and proportionally increasing problems such as suicide, run-aways, crimes, etc. Needless to say, these problems of Korean youth today are very serious ones that shake the Korean community as a whole. By no means is youth ministry in Korean churches a simple task. It involves not only religious dimensions but all social as well as cultural dimensions, because of their Korean ethnicity. In order to build an effective youth ministry, it is also important to understand the situation that Korean youth in America face. Korean youths are confronted by the two different cultures, and often struggling to find the ways to balance these two cultures. Obviously, for them, it is not an easy task, and there is a need for much guidance and support which must be provided by youth ministry. Given these issues, youth ministry for the Korean youth must embrace three dimensions: Cultural, Social, and Religious. The ultimate goal of youth ministry must be designed in such a way that is becomes an effective means to help the youth grasp the love of God, and through experience of that love, to become responsible individuals of God in society. However, in order to achieve that goal, it is essential to incorporate the above three dimensions. [Source: DA]

Kl"ckener, Martin. 1990. "The Estranged Relationship between Young People and Liturgy." Studia Liturgica pp. 137-161.

Manning, William Henry. 1990. "The Influence of the Home and School on the Religious Socialization of Puerto Rican Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to focus on the responsiveness of the Catholic school and the home to the religious socialization of Puerto Rican teenagers. This study attempted to examine intergenerational similarities and differences concerning faith development expectations grandparents and parents in the Puerto Rican family had of their adolescent son/daughter who was in his/her senior year of Catholic high school. In addition this study sought to determine to what extent the Puerto Rican family identified with a particular parish, its forms of worship, and its religious traditions. The total sample of the study included 27 persons who were randomly selected from intergenerationally linked Puerto Rican families made up of grandparents, parents, and students (nine persons formed each group) who lived in New York City. Three questionnaires, which were designed for each intergenerational respondent, were used to collect the data. The major findings of this study were: (a) Generally speaking, the differences which were found within the home that had an effect on the religious development of Puerto Rican youth were attributed to family instability, divorce, and an ambivalent attitude of parents toward active teenage sexuality; (b) this study found a high degree of discontinuity between each generation with respect to the influence the home had on the religious development of the youth; (c) the majority of the respondents had a weak identification with their local parish because of divorce and a lack of a sense of belonging; (d) the attitudes of the majority of parents and students toward the religious education program of their respective high schools was very positive and the school proved to be a strong reinforcer of values and student morale. The major conclusions were: (a) Age of arrival in New York City determined the devotional and religious characteristics of the Puerto Rican immigrants in this study; (b) parents who regularly communicated with their children by talking with them about God and by the religious environment they provided in the home positively influenced the religious development of their children; (c) the role of the parents as transmitter of religious faith values was on the decline primarily because of divorce; (d) the reception of the Sacrament of Penance was problematic for each generation of respondents; (e) the Catholic high school met the expectations of the parents with respect to their children's religious development. [Source: DA]

McNamara, Patrick H. 1990. "Peer-Constructed Moral Attitudes: Cross-Cultural Findings among American and British Adolescents." Paper presented at International Sociological Association (ISA).
Abstract: Previous research by S. Dornbush has underlined the importance of peer evaluative pressure in predicting adolescent moral choices when presented with written moral dilemmas, & raised questions about the internalization of moral standards in a modern society characterized by a diversity of standards & by considerable geographic mobility, both of which free individuals from constant observation & adult social controls. The effects of parents' strength of convictions & the time & attention they give to the discussion of moral issues with adolescent children have not been investigated. It is suspected here that, since baby-boom generation parents in the US grew up in a climate of challenge to & uncertainty concerning traditional values, & are likely to both be in the full-time paid labor force, they may spend less time with their children, thus reducing their moral influence on them. Proposed research focusing on Catholic adolescents in GB is described that will explore Ss' perceptions of their parents' values & the extent of communication between parents & children. It is expected that peer influence on moral choices will be significantly diminished within a cultural setting of greater consensus regarding tradition & in which fewer parents are both in the full-time paid labor force. [Source: SA]

Nelson, Hart M. 1990. "The Religious Identification of Children of Interfaith Marriages." Review of Religious Research vol. 32, pp. 122-134.
Abstract: Questionnaire data obtained in 1974 from a national sample of adolescents (N = 13,122) are used to test the hypotheses that children identify with their parents' religious denomination, the religious training of one parent predominates over that of the other, & gender influences youths' religious identification. Results indicate that if both parents are Catholic, almost all the children will be also. If only the mother is Catholic, the majority of the children will follow that religion; but if only the father is Catholic, less than half the children will be Catholic. If the mother is Protestant & a conservative, & the father Catholic, children are more likely to follow the mother's beliefs: however, if she is liberal, identification with the father's religion predominates. If both parents are Protestant, 91%-96% of the children follow. If parents are nonreligious, so will be 85% of the children. Within interfaith Protestant marriages, the tendency is for children to follow their mother's religion. Further analysis relating to Catholic mixed marriages & nonreligious parents is discussed, & questions raised by the findings are addressed. [Source: SA]

Schwalter, Richard P., Jr. 1990. "Youth Peer Ministry: The Peer/Heirarchic Ministry Continuum." D.Min Thesis, Minn Consortium of Theological Schools, D.Min Program.
Abstract: Youth peer ministry is discussed conceptually, biblically, developmentally, and studied as implemented in various models of ministry or counseling. Conceptually, peer ministry is placed on a continuum with hierarchic ministry. Biblically the gospel of Luke is studied as a possible emphasis for peer ministry. Adolescent development is seen as conducive to the use of peer ministry. The study shows that youth peer ministry is an important but neglected tool for the church. [Source: RI]

Scotland, Robert M. 1990. "Developing a Model of Christian Education for Adolescents in Rural Black Baptists Churches." Thesis, Columbia Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a model of Christian education for adolescents in rural Black Baptist churches. A study of developmental theories; an understanding of what adolescents perceive their needs to be; a demographic study of adolescents in Greenwood, South Carolina; a survey of rural Black Baptist churches; and the presentation of a theory are suggested which cover the areas of basic doctrines, Christian growth, Christian living, and relationships. [Source: RI]

Thompson, Virgil. 1990. "The Promise of Catechesis." Lutheran Quarterly ns vol. 4, pp. 259-270.

Benson, Peter L., Michael J. Donahue, and Joseph A. Erickson. 1989. "Adolescence and Religion: A Review of the Literature from 1970 to 1986." Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion vol. 1, pp. 153-181.
Abstract: This review examines recent research on the religiousness of individuals aged 10 to 18. National profiles of religiousness indices for adolescents reveal a decline in most forms of religiousness over the adolescent years, and gender and race differences correspond to reported for adults. Research concerning cognitive processes in religious development indicate that this "adolescent apostasy" may be due in part to a rejection of the concrete religious images of childhood. Parental transmission of religious practices and values is found to be influenced both by the consistency and content of the parental messages. The impact of religious schooling, however, is less clear. Most social-personality research reflects interest in religion as a personal control against deviance rather than the function of religion in the adolescent personality. An overview of the literature reveals a general lack of sophistication in measurement. The research in adolescent religiousness has tended to be the by-product of research in other areas, rather than an interest in itself. [Source: NS]

Brown, Kathy and Frank C. Sokol (eds.). 1989. Issues in the Christian Initiation of Children: Catechesis and Liturgy. Chicago: Liturgy Training Pubns.
Abstract: Preface. The catechumenate for children of catechetical age: what, who, how, why?, F Sokol. Order for the Christian Initiation of Children: the ritual text, M Collins. Initiating children: historical sketch and contemporary reflections, A Kavanagh. Baptismal catechesis for children of catechetical age, C Dooley. The creed and doctrine in catechesis for children, B Marthaler. Initiation: an event that remembers itself, R Pearl-Koller. Companions: the role of peers, D Neumann. Companions: the role of the adult community, K Brown. First Penance and the initiation rites, L Gaupin. People of the heart: initiating children with mental retardation, G Harding. The formative nature of the liturgy: cultic life and the initiation of children, J Westerhoff, III. Children's ritual enculturation, P Philibert. Discerning conversion in children, R Duggan. Children's initiation for the future: where are we going?, R Moudry. [Source: RI]

Campolo, Anthony. 1989. Growing up in America: A Sociology of Youth Ministry. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Youth Specialties.

Drake, Michael Andrew. 1989. "Challenge to Hopelessness: The Church's Role in Counteracting Youth Despair." D.Min. Thesis, Hartford Seminary.
Abstract: This project addresses the fact that the church has a critical ministry to afford youth in the development and sustenance of hope. My thesis is that Christian faith can undermine the power of hopelessness, even in the face of the devastating things which happen to us all. The project was carried out with youth in a congregation of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., located in the New York City suburb of Larchmont. It took the form of a six- week mini-course, developed as a result of the information received from a data-gathering instrument submitted previously to these youth, their parents, and young adults in the congregation. The introductory material explores the ways I have perceived a growing hopelessness in youth, vis a vis lack of purpose, withdrawal, confusion over values and various self-destructive behaviors. Chapter Two offers a theology of hope, informed by Moltmann, Frankl and Brueggemann. It sees life as the unfolding of the promises of God, which allows the person of faith to endure the hope-threatening experiences of life. The chapter explores examples of God's hopeful activity in the Exodus, Job and the Resurrection, emphasizing the pivotal power of suffering and the fact that hope is found through community and the self-emptying of persons for others. Chapter Three considers the contemporary denial of community, using the work of de Tocqueville and Robert Bellah to discuss the intense trend toward individualism in American society. Chapter Four continues the discussion of individualism specifically as it relates to youth, and the ways it has been a contributing factor in the self-destructive behavior of youth. The chapter assesses the need for the church to reassert the importance of community and interdependence in the lives of youth. Chapter Five discusses a data-gathering instrument used to confirm youth attitudes toward hopelessness. It concludes with an outline of a six-week mini-course for strengthening hope based upon this material. Chapter Six contains conclusions regarding the project. Chapter Seven includes two appendices: a chart of James Fowler's faith stages, and a set of "scripted" lesson plans for the mini-course. Chapter Eight is bibliographic material. [Source: DA]

Echerd, Pam and Alice Arathoon (eds.). 1989. Planning for Missionary Kid (Mk) Nurture. Pasadena Calif: William Carey Library.
Abstract: The state of MK education, P Nelson. The state of MK ministry, D Pollock. What people world-wide have in common, H Brandt. Cross-cultural implications of an MK's self-concept, B Lewter. Developing healthy sexuality in the MK and the Christian community, D Kliewer. Personal integration: blending transition, learning, and relationships, J Powell. Ministering to maturing MKs, A Brawand. Developing a caring core on the college campus, R Gathro and D Pollock. The art of encouragement, L Lindquist. Counseling models for MKs, N Duvall and D Kliewer. Therapeutic community: its application to the MK, G Taylor. Counseling at the elementary level, D Morris. Comprehensive counseling: part of the caring community, D Fonseca. MKs, are they in their right minds?, E Danielson. Stages of spiritual response in children, D Greenhalgh. MK education in a cross-cultural context, T Moore. Principles of curriculum development for a multinational school, P Blackwell. The school that internationalizes - reducing limitations on the gospel, T Ward. Effective educational ministry through cultural diversity, D Wells. Different culture, different perspective, different curriculae, one campus, D Vogan and R Foster. How to deal with socioeconomic differences in an MK school, R Whippe. Mission board involvement, B Blaschke, F Schlorff, L Davis. Prefield preparation of MKs, R Lindman, P Mortenson, R Rowen. Prefield orientation of MK teachers and boarding home parents, P Mortenson and P Renicks. The home school movement, P Nelson. Implications for a model of MK ministry, W Viser. Recruiting and screening quality teachers for MK educational programs, J Smotherman. Upgrading faculty in MK schools, D Lotz. Caring for "down under" MKs, R Dyer. Marketing principles and the MK school, W Rice. ACSI services to MK schools, P Renicks. ACSI school-to-school program, P Renicks and W Rich. Accreditation and the MK school, L Siverson. The future of the boarding school, D Brooks. Resident schools as the helping hub for alternative education, D Boesel. Growing with single staff members, E Danielson. Contingency preparation for MK school personnel, B Klamser. Caring for the MK in times of crisis, P Bartram. Building an alumni network, K Landers and R Quiring. The Christian philosophy of education, H Garrick. Values development in the Christian schools, K Hall. Keeping up-to-date professionally, G Barnes. Programs for non-academically-inclined students, D Vogan. Gifted children in the classroom, J Limburg. Curriculum development: science, S Long. Developing thinking skills in young children, L Pelton. Predeparture re-entry preparation, R Young and R Young. Computers in the classroom, N Peterson. Itinerant teachers in remote settings, S Haag. Index. [Source: RI]

Frye, William Randall. 1989. "Development of Discipleship among Senior High Youth at First United Methodist Church, Morristown, Tennessee." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University, Madison.
Abstract: Much of the current literature in youth ministry indicates a growing need for the inclusion of intentional discipleship training in our ministries with youth. This project thesis describes one church's response to that concern, and, as such, it provides a tool for enabling youth to understand and express their faith as Christian disciples. Nine youth from the First United Methodist Church of Morristown, Tennessee participated in this project, and their experiences and growth are described in this report. Research for the project was concentrated in two areas: the meaning of Christian discipleship and the developmental needs of youth. With regard to the former issue, examination of such concepts as the biblical model of discipleship, our purpose in discipleship training, and the foundations for contemporary programs of discipleship were conducted. In order to make those findings applicable to our ministry with youth, an examination of the developmental needs of youth was also conducted, and the implications of that research for youth discipleship were recorded. The result was a program constructed upon general discipling principles with explicit application for youth. Drawing upon the findings of that research, a three dimensional program of small group discipleship was provided for the youth of First United Methodist Church. The program's primary foundation was a twelve week course of study in which the participants examined a variety of issues relating to one's faith and response to Jesus' invitation, "follow me." Augmenting the study sessions were "Acts of Ministry" in which the project participants engaged in activities including, but not limited to, intercessory prayer, assisting in worship, discovering their gifts, and participating in service projects. Use of daily devotional guides provided our third foundation. Those guides included reading, meditation exercises, and questions for reflection and were included to promote the disciplines of study and prayer. While this project was introductory in nature, the results indicated that the participants experienced substantial growth in their understanding of the meaning, relevancy, and challenge of the Christian faith. Through their involvement in this endeavor, an interest in additional discipleship programs was also generated. Achieving those results were our primary objectives. [Source: DA]

Gunter, William A. 1989. "A Self-Esteem Course for the Adolescents of the Calvary Baptist Church of Kingsport, Tennessee." Thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project was designed to increase the self-esteem level of a group of adolescents through the use of a course on the biblical basis for self-esteem. The Hudson Index of self-esteem was used as a pretest and posttest for two groups. Groups A was exposed to the course which included practical instruction in hospital visitation. Group B was exposed only to the pretest and posttest. Fifty percent of the Group A participants experienced a signficant increase in their self-esteem level. Research indicates a positive correlation between adolescent developmental needs and the biblical responses. [Source: RI]

Little, Sara P. (ed.). 1989. "Youth and Youth Ministry." Affirmation vol. 2, pp. 1-105.
Abstract: Challenges to youth ministry in the mainline churches: thought provokers, by R R Osmer. What language shall we borrow? Talking to and about God, by R Maas. A rich heritage, by M R Marshall. Confirmation and American Presbyterians, by W T Kosanovich, Jr. A pastoral care response to adolescents in crisis, by G W Rowatt. Five differences between black and white Protestant youth, by D R Hoge. The pastor: key to effective youth ministry, by F M Anderson. Rites of passage youth ministry: an alternative, by S D McLean. Resources. [Source: RI]

Stepp, Theodore J. Jr. 1989. "Serving Samoan Youth in Honolulu: Culture, Religious Education, and Social Adjustment." M.A. Thesis, University of Hawaii, Manoa.
Abstract: A study of Samoan behavioral norms, Samoan Christianity, and the history of Samoan migration to Hawai'i reveals the complex cultural and psychological dimensions of social adjustment problems among immigrant Samoan youth and the potential for religious education to contribute to the resolution of some of these problems. The purpose of this study was to bring the research insights to bear on current Roman Catholic parish religious education programs in order to propose enhancements to those programs that might benefit Samoan immigrant youth in particular. Recommendations based on the research and analysis include policy and program proposals in the areas of theology and culture, teacher recruitment and training, curriculum development and methodology, and parental involvement in the religious education process. [Source: DA]

Barazangi, Nimat Hafez. 1988. "Perceptions of the Islamic Belief System: The Muslims in North America." Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca.
Abstract: Muslims in North America want to transmit the Islamic ideological and cultural heritage to their children, but attempts at developing curricula to do so have not always been successful, in part because of failure to understand the Muslims' perceptions of Islam. The problem has two aspects: differences among adult Muslims with different ethnic origins and interpretations of the Islamic view, not all of which are derived from Al Qur'an, and differences in the views of immigrant parents and their North American-reared children. The children may participate in the North American culture to a greater extent than their parents and are constantly faced with the need to accommodate potentially conflicting points of view. Effective educational planning requires determination of nature and extensiveness of parents' and children's different interpretations and how they are reflected in the practice of Islam. The basic assumption is that unless educators of Muslims identify and reconcile the ambiguities in the perception and practice of Islam by American and Canadian Muslims, a culture rather than an ideology intended to shape character and guide conduct will be transmitted to the next generation. Forty Muslim families from varied ethnic backgrounds were interviewed and tested with a 70-item questionnaire. The findings indicate that parents and youth have significantly different levels and natures of perception. Parents have higher levels of perception for the central concept of Islam, Tawhid, in an abstract form, whereas youth tend to emphasize the tertiary concepts of Islam, human interrelationships, in the context of Western values. These findings may explain (1) the difficulties parents encounter in effectively transmitting the Islamic belief system to their children, and (2) the youths' inability to make ideological distinctions between the Islamic and the Western systems. The implications of these findings are incorporated in a set of recommendations for the design of formal and informal curricula for both parents and youth. These curricula are premised on two intertwined assumptions: (1) there is no separation of faith and world order in Islam, but (2) Muslims in North America are faced with the need to maintain faith and their belief system while integrating with the Western (secular) society. [Source: DA]

Carmody, Denise Lardner. 1988. "Religious Education of Children." Pp. 143-145 in A Catholic Bill of Rights, edited by L. Swidler and H. O'Brien. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward.

Clark, Cynthia A., Everett L. Worthington, Jr., and Donald B. Danser. 1988. "The Transmission of Religious Beliefs and Practices from Parents to Firstborn Early Adolescent Sons." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 50, pp. 463-472.
Abstract: An examination of family & religious variables that affect the transmission of religious values from parents to early adolescent sons, using questionnaire & scale data on 68 mother-father-son triads from Protestant congregations. Canonical correlation analyses described relationships between parent-son agreement & parent variables on religious beliefs, experience, & practice. Mother-son & father-son agreement were examined separately. Few variables affected agreement on religious belief. For religious experience & practice, mothers mostly influenced sons' practical application of religion, while fathers influenced sons' church attendance. It is concluded that mothers & fathers functioned differently in transmitting religious values to their children. [Source: SA]

Coburn, Carol K. 1988. "Religion, Gender and Education among the German-Lutherans of Block, Kansas, 1868-1945." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Kansas.
Abstract: Since the mid 1960s, historians of education have begun to look at ethnicity, and to a lesser extent gender and religion, as key factors in the creation, function, and transformation of the public school system. However, even as historians of education have broadened their perspective beyond the white male, middle-class educational experience, they have concentrated most research on school attendance, public school settings, and urban populations. By contrast with history of education scholars, social historians have focused extensively on differences in gender, ethnicity, and religion, attempting to analyze the experiences of "common people." However, much of this research tends to view education only in terms of school experience. This interdisciplinary study attempts to explore and integrate perspectives in history of education, social history and women's studies by studying the interaction of religion, gender and education in a rural-ethnic community in Eastern Kansas. The term 'education' is used in its broadest sense to include values, beliefs and the transmission of culture across generations. Extensive church records and primary documents are combined with oral interviews to provide a plethora of sources and information spanning four generations. In order to avoid the oft used public/private gender dichotomy, this research focuses on four networks of association: church, school, family, outside world. This theoretical framework provides the opportunity to analyze generational change, the male-defined institutions of church and parochial school, the affects of the rural environment on assimilation, and the interdependency of women, men and children in the family and community setting. Although the study explores many themes, some conclusions can be drawn. Aided by rural isolation, Block's protective and insular institutions of church and school functioned with unparalleled authority, staving off religious and cultural threats to its unity. Block's third generation, bolstered by economic needs and the anti-German hysteria of World War I, began to enter the "outside world" and breakdown the homogeneous networks of association. Women gained autonomy through their domestic production and their adolescent experiences of working as "hired girls." [Source: DA]

Gordon, Samuel A. 1988. "The Impact of Adolescent and Maternal Religiousness on the Psychological Functioning of Chronically Ill Adolescents." Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park.

Greer, John E. 1988. "Religious Education and Psme: The Gospel According to Grimmitt." British Journal of Religious Education vol. 11, pp. 11-14.

Hiller, Charles Donald. 1988. "The Implementation of a Temporary Emergency Shelter Program for Mechanicsburg Area School District." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University, Madison.
Abstract: This professional project concerns the implementation of a Temporary Emergency Shelter Program within the community of Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. Cooperating in this project were the Mechanicsburg Ministerium, the Mechanicsburg School District, and Cumberland County Children and Youth Services. The purpose was to provide the community with a shelter project which would furnish the high school counselors with a temporary solution for homeless youth while a permanent plan was being worked out. The project does not attempt to find the causes or reasons for homeless youth in general. Rather, the project centers its attention upon the needs of families and youth within the community of Mechanicsburg. The advantage of the Temporary Emergency Shelter Program is that it combines the resources of the agencies involved to provide a coordinated care program for the community. Chapter One provides the reader with the Biblical and theological understanding of the role of a pastor within the secular community as a caregiver to families in crisis. Chapter Two discusses the community of Mechanicsburg and its relationships to schools, religious organizations, business and employment. Chapter Two also presents a description of the agencies which worked together to organize a Temporary Emergency Shelter Program. Chapter Three describes the development and implementation of a temporary emergency shelter program for the Mechanicsburg School District. The chapter also describes the operational procedures of the shelter placement process. Case studies of five youth who came into the shelter program conclude the chapter. Chapter Four evaluates the achievements of the Temporary Emergency Shelter Program within the community of Mechanicsburg. It includes interviews with key persons who shared in the development of the project. Chapter Five deals with the importance of the Temporary Emergency Shelter Program in the ministerial setting as a means of helping other communities implement a similar program. The Temporary Emergency Shelter Program is a care-giving ministry which meets a particular need in the community of Mechanicsburg. The community's use of the project has provided a Christian ministry within the secular community. [Source: DA]

Hunt, Angela Elwell. 1988. "Annice Craddock's Book of Love." Fundamentalist Journal vol. 7, pp. 30-33.
Abstract: This project was designed to increase the self-esteem level of a group of adolescents through the use of a course on the biblical basis for self-esteem. The Hudson Index of self-esteem was used as a pretest and posttest for two groups. Groups A was exposed to the course which included practical instruction in hospital visitation. Group B was exposed only to the pretest and posttest. Fifty percent of the Group A participants experienced a signficant increase in their self-esteem level. Research indicates a positive correlation between adolescent developmental needs and the biblical responses. [Source: RI]

Lorch, B. R. and R. H. Hughes. 1988. "Church, Youth, Alcohol and Drug-Education Programs and Youth Substance Use." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education vol. 33, pp. 14-26.

Parkerson, D. H. and J. A. Parkerson. 1988. "Fewer Children of Greater Spiritual Quality - Religion and the Decline of Fertility in 19th-Century America." Social Science History vol. 12, pp. 49-70.

Brown, George, Jr. 1987. "Children's Faith." Reformed Review vol. 40, pp. 214-224.

Grubbs, Carl W. 1987. "Confirmation." Thesis, Candler School of Theology at Emory University.
Abstract: This project is inspired by the author's belief that contemporary methods of confirmation are less than adequate. He calls for a new model of confirmation which will overcome the growing sense of dislocation felt by our youth. He develops a plan which includes a sense of personal and corporate story that is intergenerational in scope. The project uses Arnold van Gennep's theory that rites of passage follow a universal tripartite rhythm of separation, transition, and incorporation. The process must occur if a person is to make the transition from one stage of life to another. One of the more important life crises, or transitions, is the coming of age. This project unites the concepts of faith development theory and practice into a plan which facilitates the young confirmand's necessary movement through separation from childhood, transitional learning, and incorporation into the body of Christ as a new being. [Source: RI]

Kieren, Dianne K. and Brenda Munro. 1987. "Following the Leaders: Parents' Influence on Adolescent Religious Activity." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 26, pp. 249-255.
Abstract: The relationship between the religious activity of mothers & fathers, & that of M & F adolescents was investigated. Gender of the adolescent was seen as an important variable. Data on intact families (N = 235) with adolescents drawn from D. H. Olson's, H. McCubbin's, H. Barnes's, A. Larsen's, M. Muxen's, & M. Wilson's data set of 1,140 families (Families - What Makes Them Work, Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983) were analyzed. Findings indicate that only paternal religious activity variables were significantly related to F adolescent religious activity, while both maternal & paternal variables were significantly associated with the religious activity of M adolescents. However, even in relation to M religious activity, more paternal religious activity variables were significant than maternal ones. [Source: SA]

Ludwick, Cleo VanderMolen. 1987. "Ministering to Adolescents in an Institutional Setting." Thesis, Western Theological Seminary, Holland.
Abstract: This project is a descriptive design of ministry to adolescents who are institutionalized for treatment of emotional and behavioral problems. It illustrates how a particular kind of ministry facilitates faith development and spiritual formation. The work is composed of three sections with sub-headings, a bibliography and an appendix with hands-on material. The three sections are: 1) the theological, biblical and ministerial context of the project; 2) the chaplain as spiritual physician; 3) the chaplain as spiritual guide. [Source: RI]

Abraham, Kitty G. 1986. "Ego-Identity Differences among Anglo-American and Mexican-American Adolescents." Journal of Adolescence vol. 9, pp. 151-166.
Abstract: Potential differences in ideological/occupational & interpersonal ego identity among Anglo- & Mexican-American adolescents were investigated among a sample of 841 high school students in a southwestern state. All Ss were administered the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status to determine their level of identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, & identity achievement. Multivariate analyses of covariance with discriminant analysis were conducted separately for the two types of identity; mothers' & fathers' education were included as covariates. Results indicate that Mexican-American youth are more foreclosed than Anglo-American youth in ideological/occupational identity, & may be more inclined to adopt their parents' commitments to religious & political beliefs, occupational preferences, & philosophical lifestyles. Results also indicate that Mexican-American youth differ from Anglo-American youth in interpersonal identity as a function of grade (9-12). Interpretation of these results from both cultural & minority status perspectives are discussed. [Source: SA]

Ban, Joseph D. 1986. "Adolescents in Canadian Culture: Religious Development." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 225-238.
Abstract: Discusses a survey conducted by R. W. Bibby and D. C. Posterski (1985) of 3,600 Canadian high school students (15-29 yrs old) and its implications for Christian education among adolescents. The survey found that Ss placed high value on the terminal values of friendship, love, and freedom and on the instrumental values of honesty, cleanliness, and hard work. Relationships and music were what made the Ss happy. 85% believed in the existence of God, although only 1 in 4 attended religious services very often. Ss tended to hold a positive view of organized religion. It is suggested that adolescents must be presented with adults and peers who are wholesome, vital models. Church congregations must also support youth groups in the church and community. [Source: PI]

Chambers, Victoria J. 1986. "A Test of the Effect of Parental Religious Socialization on Second Generation Adult Offspring." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This paper examines the effect of parental church attendance and parental home-centered religious activity on the religiosity of second generation adult offspring. These effects are examined first by marital status of the second generation subject and then by age group. Results indicate a significant effect of parental religious socialization on the second generation's likelihood of attending religious classes, selecting a religiously active spouse, and level of religiosity. Once married, the influence of the spouse's religiosity predominates over that of the parents. An anticipated weakening of the relationship between the parents' level of religiosity and that for adolescent and young adult offspring is not found, but an unexpected strengthening of this relationship is found for subjects forty-five years of age and older. [Source: DA]

Davis, Gary L. 1986. "Spiritual Direction: A Model for Adolescent Catechesis." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 267-278.
Abstract: Discusses the spiritual quest of the adolescent and ways in which spiritual direction can be offered. The spiritual component of the adolescent identity crisis has often been ignored, although studies show that adolescents care deeply about spiritual questionings and changes in their lives. Developmental studies confirm that adolescents can grasp spiritual and external realities. At this age, adolescents' ideas of God become more personalized, and prayer is approached differently. Adults who offer spiritual guidance to adolescents should be willing to take the adolescent struggle seriously, to be open to questions about life and faith, and to provide a model of spiritual groundedness. Adolescent spiritual direction should involve a relationship that is incarnational in nature. [Source: PI]

Dudley, Roger L. and Margaret G. Dudley. 1986. "Transmission of Religious Values from Parents to Adolescents." Review of Religious Research vol. 28, pp. 3-15.
Abstract: Father-mother-youth triads were asked to complete surveys showing amount of agreement with religious value statements. Individual questionnaire surveys (total N = 712, forming 218 triads & 29 dyads) were received from 21 randomly selected Seventh-Day Adventist congregations in the US. A Value Attitude Scale was constructed from 20 of the items. Significant differences were found between the youth & their parents on the scale & the majority of the individual items, indicating that the mothers were the most traditional, followed by the fathers, with the youth being least traditional. The youth were also significantly correlated with their parents on the Value Attitude Scale with correlations between youth & mothers being somewhat stronger than between youth & fathers on the majority of the items. A multiple regression analysis revealed that it was possible to predict about 27% of the variance in the youth Value Attitude scores by an equation containing Value Attitude scores of the mothers & fathers, & whether or not the youth were actually baptized members of the congregation. [Source: SA]

Glass, Jennifer, Vern L. Bengtson, and Charlotte Chorn Dunham. 1986. "Attitude Similarity in Three-Generation Families: Socialization, Status Inheritance, or Reciprocal Influence?" American Sociological Review vol. 51, pp. 685-698.
Abstract: The hypotheses of attitude transmission across three ideological domains (gender roles, politics, religion) are examined to access the adequacy of direct socialization, status inheritance, & reciprocal influence models in a developmental aging perspective. Data are from mailed questionnaires completed by 2,044 members of 3-generation families, grouped to form parent-youth (G2-G3) & grandparent-parent (G1-G2) dyads. Results suggest that: there is little convergence of parent-child attitudes with age when viewed cross-sectionally; status inheritance processes account for a substantial amount of observed parent-child similarity, but parental attitudes continue to significantly predict children's orientations after childhood; & child influences on parental attitudes are relatively strong & stable across age groups, while parental influence decreases with age, although the exact pattern of influence varies by attitude domain. [Source: SA]

Hauerwas, Stanley. 1986. "How Christian Universities Contribute to the Corruption of Youth: Church and University in a Confused Age." Katallagete pp. 21-28.

Inskeep, Kenneth Wesley. 1986. "Religious Organizational Socialization in the Evangelical Free Church of America." Ph.D. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago.
Abstract: The study addresses the problems of religious socialization and the maintenance of a conservative "evangelical" religious identity in five congregations of the Evangelical Free Church of America. The impact of various institutional settings on the level of orthodox religious commitment among Free Church high school students is examined. Particular attention is given to the family, the church, and private Christian schooling. A model of religious organizational socialization is developed and tested using survey data collected from the five Free Church congregations, and data is also collected from three United Presbyterian congregations to provide a basis for comparison. In general, much that is important to the maintenance of an evangelical identity is passed on to the children of Free Church parents. The various indexes of religious commitment indicate that the children in these Free Church congregations are orthodox. Basic doctrinal beliefs, devotional behaviors, experiential feelings, and consequential perspectives on important social and political issues are shared. At the same time, there is also evidence that the level of commitment among the Evangelical Free Church adolescents, while strong, is substantively less than that of their parents. On index after index percentage differences do exist, and these differences are most significant on the index dealing with the impact of religion on social and political beliefs. In terms of the model of organizational religious socialization variation within the two denominational settings is clearly evident. For the Free Church adolescents religious commitment is the result of the combined effects of the parents and the environmental setting provided by the local congregation. For the Presbyterian youth orthodox parents are the only important factor in determining the level of adolescent orthodox religious commitment. Many variables, thought to be important, such as the private, Christian school, are of little or no substantive importance in understanding the effective socialization of orthodox children in either of these two congregational settings. [Source: DA]

Kaye, Lenard W. 1986. "Educating Our Children About Growing Older: A Challenge to Jewish Education." Journal of Aging and Judaism vol. 1, pp. 6-21.
Abstract: A rationale & strategy are presented for teaching Jewish youth (& other learners throughout their life cycles) about aging, within the context of the Jewish system of education. US sociodemographic trends that will inevitably influence this education are explored, along with some new approaches offered by secular education, particularly in gerontology. Some broad educational principles, as well as specific initiatives that might be implemented, are explored. [Source: SA]

Masek, James J. 1986. "The Churches' Outreach to Adolescents: Working toward a Holistic Youth Ministry." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The project established an integrated, total youth ministry process in a local Roman Catholic parish. The hypothesis was that youth perceptions of a local congregation will change measurably if personal needs assessment, coordination of youth activities and establishment of a central youth forum are undertaken by the leadership on behalf of young people. The project involved five distinct methods: 1) a needs assessment, 2) the recruiting of volunteers, 3) the preparation of the volunteers for ministry, 4) the development of a youth council, 5) an evaluation of effectiveness. Pre- and post-project evaluation showed that youth perceptions of the parish became more "positive". The hypothesis was accepted. [Source: RI]

Rooks, Carole Ann. 1986. "A Local Church Model for Developing Leadership Education Skills in Senior High Youth for Use in Adult Planning and Participation Groups." Thesis, San Francisco Theological Seminary, San Francisco.
Abstract: This project shows that senior high school youth can be prepared to fulfill effectively their mandated roles in decision making bodies. It provides a leader's guide and student book which develop positive attitudes about adults, the role of youth in the life of the church and conflict. It gives information about the polity and structure of the United Methodist Church and helps in developing skills in communication and group process. Testing at the end of the study shows there is positive change in attitudes about adults, perception and participation levels and increased knowledge about the United Methodist Church. [Source: RI]

Russo, Don. 1986. ""Youth and the Language of Faith": II. A Response to Dykstra." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 188-193.
Abstract: Comments on C. Dykstra's (see record 1987-18411-001) article on encouraging use of religious language among adolescents, noting that Dykstra's use of the terms religious faith and religious language is unclear. [Source: PI]

Rymes, Ervin D. 1986. "A Program for Youth to Evaluate Their Assumptions About Marriage in a Christian-Biblical Context." Thesis, San Francisco Theological Seminary, San Francisco.
Abstract: In the United States, divorce has become an acceptable, often attractive, method for resolving conflict in marriage, while the resulting pain and dislocation are hidden from the public view. A consequence is that young people are led to think a troubled marriage may be discarded conveniently. The purpose of this project is to bring together biblical references and values, a study of current literature and insights gained from a survey of the attitudes of youth, to produce a program which influences young people in their attitudes and expectations regarding marriage. Chapter 4 of the dissertation contains an outline of the thirteen classes. [Source: RI]

Schoenberg, Elliot S. 1986. "Conservative Judaism and Adolescence." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 251-266.
Abstract: Discusses 3 problems facing Jewish education on the secondary level and outlines possible solutions. The problems are continuity in religious education, the pressure to teach more advanced Judaica, and motivating the student body to study rabbinic source material. Solutions include, respectively, emphasizing self-contained teaching units, development of a learnable corpus of rabbinic texts, and matching the Jewish agenda to the adolescent agenda. The importance of the Bar/Bat Mitzvah to the adolescent and the adolescent's family is discussed. [Source: PI]

Shelley, Bruce. 1986. "The Rise of Evangelical Youth Movements." Fides et Historia pp. 45-63.

Sloat, Donald. 1986. The Dangers of Growing up in a Christian Home. Nashville: T. Nelson Publishers.

Tillyrides, Andreas. 1986. "A Message to the Greek Orthodox Youth." Orthodox Thought and Life pp. 2-3.

Brickley, Lynne Templeton. 1985. "Sarah Pierce's Litchfield Female Academy, 1792 - 1833." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: Established in 1792, Sarah Pierce's Litchfield Female Academy was one of the first major educational institutions for women in the United States. The Connecticut school was founded and administered by a woman, enrolled as many as one hundred and forty students at a time, drew pupils from throughout the republic, and evolved a highly academic curriculum during its forty-one year existence. The role of the early female academies in shaping later developments in the history of women's education in the United States has been ignored or misinterpreted in the scholarly literature. The history of Sarah Pierce's school documents the extent to which such institutions provided important new educational opportunities for women in the opening decades of the nineteenth century. The study is based on archival materials including student diaries and journals, correspondence, compositions, teachers' journals and writings, and institutional documents. Materials on other educational institutions of the period have been used to provide a comparative context and major prescriptive writings of the era are examined to trace their influence on the development of Sarah Pierce's educational philosophy and the evolution of the school's curriculum. The thesis investigated the reasons for the emergence of the school in Litchfield, Connecticut, exploring the support provided by the leading families of the town. Through an examination of enrollments, the geographic distribution of the student body, family backgrounds and socio-economic status, the study draws a collective portrait of the more than 1,500 students known to have attended the school. The examination of the forty-year evolution of the curriculum challenges conventional assumptions as to the intellectual rigors of education at early female academies, especially when compared to the curricula at the major male academies and colleges of the period. The study explores the many ways in which religion permeated every aspect of life at the school, focusing on female adolescent conversion crises. The family boarding system, social life, courtship and marriage are also examined in terms of the influence academy attendance exerted on the students' lives. Throughout the study materials are presented which create a vivid portrait of the daily life of students at the Litchfield Female Academy. The students' writings present a new and fascinating insight into the world of educated young women of the early republic. [Source: DA]

Day, Dick. 1985. "The Role of the Family in Shaping Today's Youth." Pp. 73-87 in Disclipling the Young Person, edited by P. Fleischmann. San Bernardino, CA: Here's Life Publishers.

Elliot, Daniel William. 1985. "Exploring Conflict and Its Resolution with Early Adolescents in an Outdoor Christian Education Setting." Thesis, Candler School of Theology at Emory University, Atlanta.
Abstract: The project records the design, administration and evaluation of an educational model for early adolescent youth. This educational model explores the phenomenon of conflict with these youth. It has participants practice conflict resolution skills which relate primarily to personal lifestyles and interpersonal relationships. The project is informed by a biblical-theological-ethical understanding of conflict which has as its foundation the theology of Reinhold Niebuhr. It also takes into account human developmental psychology in the forms put forward by James Fowler, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg. The educational theory and methodology of the project uses Thomas Groome's model of shared Christian praxis. [Source: RI]

Fleischmann, Paul (ed.). 1985. Discipling the Young Person. San Bernardino Calif: Here's Life Publishers Inc.
Abstract: Foreword, C Klein. Introduction, P Fleischmann. The power of prayer in youth ministry, E Hill. Power to minister in a secular world, B Bright. The authority of the believer, J McDowell. Youth ministry and the hidden dynamics of secular culture, W Hurd. Communicating absolutes--relatively speaking, J Miller. The role of the family in shaping today's youth, D Day. Relating Christ naturally, B Pippert. Helping students share Christ, C Renzelman. Stimulating spiritual interest through classroom speaking, B Reif. Discipleship: steps to becoming like Christ, B St Clair. Creating a willingness within students for spiritual maturity, D Busby. Equipping disciples who multiply, D Nuss. Recruiting and discipling adult volunteers, D Smythe. Commitment to Christ, D McAllister. Commitment to youth ministry, B Stewart. Commitment to marriage and family, B St Clair and C St Clair. Commitment to the cause, E Hill. [Source: RI]

Guttman, Mary J. 1985. "A Peer Counselling Model: Social Outreach." Canadian Counsellor vol. 19, pp. 135-143.
Abstract: Describes a peer counseling model implemented in a community student organization designed to meet social and religious needs of adolescents. The model emphasizes outreach social activities and school community liaison. Selection, the 9-mo training course, supervision, and peer counseling assignments are outlined. Evaluation of this model according to (1) counselors' self-reports and (2) student clients' evaluations indicates that peer counselors were perceived as highly effective in social leadership, group discussion, and individual counseling roles. In addition, over 60% of student clients indicated they sought out individual sessions with counselors, with 42% seeking multiple contacts. [Source: PI]

Kuiper, Foeke H. 1985. "Can Research Challenge and Foster Religious Education?" Religious Education vol. 80, pp. 215-231.
Abstract: Empirical data on the religious behavior and attitudes of children and young people could be very useful in the design of religious education courses and materials. The available empirical data are not generally tailored to the needs of the religious educator. The author suggests three areas in which new data would be beneficial. These are characterised as seeing, experiencing, and hearing. What have young people seen of lived faith and religion? how do they experience life and the religious interpretation? have they heard essential elements of the religious tradition? and how do they feel about these dimensions?. [Source: RI]

Minney, Robin. 1985. "Religious Education and the Crisis of Literacy." Religious Education vol. 80, pp. 29-36.
Abstract: Argues that children's perceptions, rather than being purely cognitive, are characterized by values and feelings from the very beginning; therefore, educating them in "objective" thought presents special problems. The crisis of literacy in modern society involves either objectifying religion like other school subjects and losing interest, or shutting religion off from any kind of critical understanding and verging on a splitting of the mind. Only a few can successfully resolve this crisis of literacy. It is concluded that if religious education is to be a feature in schools, teachers need to understand a great deal more about the emotional development of children and adolescents and find out the rudimentary values and experiences on which religious understanding can be built. [Source: PI]

Paik, Mary. 1985. "The Church and Young Adults." Pp. 79-86 in Always Being Reformed, edited by John Purdy. Philadelphia: Geneva Press.

Hesch, John Beaman. 1984. "A Program for Teaching Prayer to Junior High Students." Thesis, Catholic University Of America.
Abstract: Helping students learn more about praying and to practice a variety of forms of prayer was the goal of this project. A theoretical basis derived from Erickson's theory of ego development and the spiritual theologies of Nouwen and Macquarrie were used to critique and design a program for junior high students. Breakaway, a program of prayer and meditation (by Mark Link) was adapted and implemented with a group of sixty-one junior highs over a period of twenty-eight weeks. The program was evaluated by questionnaires and interviews with students and professional educators. Although the students did not increase their frequency of prayer, their understanding was broadened, they were using a greater variety of prayer forms, and showed a willingness to pray with other people. Further modifications of the program should use a greater variety of prayer forms, aids to prayer, environments for prayer, and voluntary participation. [Source: RI]

Hunsberger, B. and L.B. Brown. 1984. "Religious Socialization, Apostacy, and the Impact of Family Background." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 23, pp. 239-251.

Nelsen, Hart M. and Arshad Rizvi. 1984. "Gender and Religious Socialization: Comparisons from Pakistan and the United States." Journal of Comparative Family Studies vol. 15, pp. 281-290.
Abstract: Interviewed 348 11-28 yr old Pakistani Christians attending Catholic schools in Karachi in 1980 and used data collected from 3,000 US youths attending Catholic and public schools in 1975 to compare the impact of mothers and fathers on youth's religious orientation. Results show that parental religiosity (PR) significantly predicted religiosity for Pakistani males, while parental support (PS) significantly predicted religiosity for Pakistani females. For US Catholic males, both PS and PR were significantly related to their own religiosity, while for US Catholic females, only PR was significantly related to their own religiosity. For US Protestant Ss, PR rather than PS significantly predicted their own religiosity. For Catholic Ss attending public schools in the US, PR was a better predictor than PS of youth religiosity. It is suggested that the PS variable taps identification with or dependence on parents, so that Ss who have moved into secular settings are more affected by PR. (Spanish & French abstracts) [Source: PI]

Taylor, Marvin J. (ed.). 1984. Changing Patterns of Religious Education. Nashville Tenn: Abingdon Pr.
Abstract: Introduction, M. Taylor. Theological foundations for religious nurture, C. Nelson. Protestant philosophies of religious education, D. Wyckoff. Philosophies of religious education among Roman Catholics, G. Moran. Evangelical philosophies of religious education, W. Benson. Faith development issues and religious nurture, C. Dykstra. Religious education as a discipline, A. Moore. Research in religious education, J. Peatling. Changing patterns of religious education practice in Protestant churches since World War II, H. Grimes. The practice of Evangelical Christian education since World War II, C. Anderson. Protestant religious education in Canada, D. Dyke. Roman Catholic religious education in Canadian churches, M. Jeffery. Women, power, and the work of religious education, G. Durka. Blacks and the religious education movement, P. Nichols. The profession of director or minister of Christian education in Protestant churches, D. Furnish. US directors of religious education in Roman Catholic parishes, M. Harris. Changing patterns of Protestant curriculum, I. Cully. The childhood years and religious nurture, L. Barber. Youth and religious nurture, M. Warren. Adult religious life and nurture, N. Thompson. Intergenerational religious education, C. Foster. Family life experience and religious nurture, J. Wynn. Selected bibliography: since 1973. Index. [Source: RI]

Villeneuve, Claude Michel. 1984. "Religious Value Transmission among Seventh-Day Adventist White American Families: A Cognitive Approach to Parental Values and Relationship as Perceived by Youth." Ed.D. Thesis, Andrews University.
Abstract: Three research questions were examined: (1) What role does cognitive-attribution play in religious value transmission? (2) Is there a generation gap in the religious values of Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) families? (3) What is the influence of parental support on value transmission? The Religious Value Transmission Study (RVTS) questionnaire was developed. The internal reliabilities of the fundamental belief, attitude, and behavior scales was, for each scale, above .80. A factor analysis with a rotation of factors confirmed the construct validity of the scales. A nation-wide random selection of SDA college freshmen and sophomores, and their parents returned 1089 questionnaires representing an answer rate of 61 percent for the students and 65 percent for the parents. Thus, 228 daughter-parents and 135 son-parents triads were gathered and analyzed using correlational and group mean comparisons. The ninety null hypotheses and subhypotheses were tested at .05 level and the statistical power set at .90. It was found that: (1) The misattribution of belief and attitude confirms the role of cognitive-attribution in value transmission. However the study shows no misattribution of parents' behavior. Therefore the cognitive-attribution theory seems to apply only to cognitively oriented aspects of the transmission. (2) The generation gap between parents and children as a group or cohort, although statistically significant, seems to be less central to the problem of transmission than the gap existing between children's beliefs or attitudes and their behavior. Therefore, the practical conclusion is to focus on the integration of these dimensions in order for individuals to achieve consistency. (3) The role of family interaction in transmission needs further study using a more sophisticated paradigm with multiple dimensions. [Source: DA]

Warren, Michael. 1984. "Youth and Religious Nurture." Pp. 244-255 in Changing Patterns of Religious Education, edited by M. Taylor. Nashville: Abingdon Press.

Apostolos Cappadona, Diane (ed.). 1983. The Sacred Play of Children. New York, NY: Seabury Pr.
Abstract: Preface, F McManus. Introduction, G Ryan. Is the adult church ready for liturgy with young Christians?, M Collins. To celebrate with children: a developmentalist approach, J Hiesberger. Reflections: children and symbols and five years after the Directory for Masses with Children, J Gelineau. A look at questions for the future: the Eucharist, E Jeep. Taste and see: Orthodox children at worship, C Tarasar. Children and worship, L Weil. The Rite of Anointing and the pastoral care of sick children, J Berryman. Assembly, G Huck. Seasons, G Huck. Drama, liturgy, and children, T Kane. Liturgy for young people: the present situation in England, E Matthews. Planning our sacred play, G Ryan. The pre-schooler in the liturgy, G Schmidt. Children at worship: a Presbyterian perspective, V Thomas. Appendices: The Directory for Masses with Children; Resource bibliography for liturgies with young children, M Bryce. [Source: RI]

Cardenal, Fernando. 1983. "Fernando Cardenal, National Vice-Coordinator of the Sandinista Youth Movement." Pp. 45-89 in Ministers of God, edited by T. Cabestrero. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis Books.

Fishburn, Janet F. 1983. "The Family as a Means of Grace in American Theology." Religious Education vol. 78, pp. 90-102.
Abstract: This survey of representative American theologians suggests that until quite recently the family has been treated as the primary means of grace in the Protestant church tradition. The theory of Christian nurture of the Victorian Horace Bushnell was related to, but different from, the filial piety seen in Puritan theologians like John Cotton and Peter Bulkeley. It is in Bushnell that the Puritan insistence that the family is the necessary but not sufficient means of God's grace was reversed. Bushnell's emphasis on the socializing power of Christian parents in the lives of their children has provided an inadequate theological foundation for Christian education. The roles of church and of family in the faith development process are currently being reassessed theologically in the work of John Westerhoff and in the faith development theories of James Fowler and James Lorder. [Source: RI]

Holeton, David R. 1983. "Confirmation in the 1980's." Pp. 68-89 in Ecumenical Perspectives, edited by M. Thurian. Geneva: World Council of Churches.

Kaffer, Roger L. 1983. "The Experience of Christian Community: A Better Way to Communicate to Youth Christian Values." Thesis, University of St Mary of the Lake.
Abstract: Adolescents best assimilate Christian values when they experience them in the context of Christian community. The elements from the Kairos retreat program were distilled and included in a high school freshman program designed to initiate and integrate the freshman class more quickly. The result was an earlier incorporation of that particular freshman class into the community. Peer ministry (six students with five faculty) and appropriate symbols were utilized. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of lateral ministry in conveying Jesus' message of peace, justice and love (Christian values) by a good experience of Christian community. [Source: RI]

Orthodox Roman Catholic, Consultation. 1983. "Children of Orthodox-Roman Catholic Couples." Diakonia pp. 84-86.

Shelton, Charles M. 1983. Adolescent Spirituality: Pastoral Ministry for High School and College Youth. Chicago: Loyola University Press.

Hoge, Dean R., E. Heffernan, E. F. Hemrick, H. M. Nelsen, J. P. Oconnor, P. J. Philibert, and A. D. Thompson. 1982. "Desired Outcomes of Religious Education and Youth Ministry in Six Denominations." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 230-254.
Abstract: Representative samples of religious educators and parents of adolescents in six denominations (N=1853) completed questionnaires including 62 goal statements describing what the religiously well-educated and well-socialized youth should be like near the end of high school. All respondents rated the 62 goals as to priority, and by factor-analysis we constructed 10 goal scales. In the Southern Baptist Convention and Church of God, conversion and personal religious life are the foremost goals, while in the Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church in the US, Episcopal Church, and Catholic Church, moral maturity is the foremost goal. In these last four denominations the highest-priority goals are rather general to human development, not specific to faith or church commitment. Parent-educator differences are small. The main predictors of the desired goals are denomination and several theological measures--creedal assent, relativism, and moral concreteness. [Source: RI]

Hoge, Dean R., Gregory H. Petrillo, and Ella I. Smith. 1982. "Transmission of Religious and Social Values from Parents to Teenage Children." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 44, pp. 569-580.
Abstract: Investigated patterns of parent-child value transmission using 254 mother-father-youth triads from Catholic, Baptist, and Methodist churches. Children's mean age was 16 yrs and parents' 45.3 yrs. Parent-child correlations were mixed but often weak. 33 family factors were tested for effect on value transmission; measures included the Creedal Assent Index, the Religious Relativism Index, the Religious Individualism Index, and the Devotionalism Index. Most factors had no effect, but several enhanced religious value transmission--younger age of parents, parental agreement about religion, and good parent-child relationships. Membership in a denomination predicted children's values more so than that of their parents, indicating that value socialization takes place in cultural subgroups more than in nuclear families. [Source: PI]

Hoge, Dean R. and Andrew D. Thompson. 1982. "Research Note: Different Conceptualizations of Goals of Religious Education and Youth Ministry in Six Denominations." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 297-304.
Abstract: To see if the six denominations conceptualized the goals of religious education and youth ministry in the same way, we factor-analyzed each denomination separately. Five factors were identical or nearly so in three or more denominations; the others were unique to one or two denominations. The number of interpretable factors was lower in the theologically conservative denominations (Southern Baptist and Church of God). Five denominations perceived an opposition between commitment to Jesus Christ (or personal piety) and either universalizing faith or ecumenism; they had reservations especially about universalizing faith, seeing it as possibly weakening personal religion. [Source: RI]

Kim, Mark Heung Soo. 1982. "The Role of the Korean Church in Ministry with Korean Immigrant Youth." Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston.
Abstract: This report describes the development and evaluation of ministry programs with Korean immigrant youth. These were implemented in the local church, Chicago metropolitan area, and as a national youth leadership program. This project included a nationwide questionnaire survey which identified needs and problems of Korean youth, and is based on study of the transition of biculturalism of Korean immigrants, with special reference to youth-parent relationships. It is grounded in a "vision theology" for Korean immigrants that has both theoretical and practical aspects. Recommendations included bilingual preaching, fostering parent-teen understanding, and a "selective assimilation" approach. [Source: RI]

McEniry, Robert. 1982. "Values Clarification: An Aid to Adolescent Religious Education." Counseling and Values vol. 27, pp. 40-51.
Abstract: Summarizes the tenets of humanistic psychology that provided the matrix for values clarification (VC) and describes the substance of VC as expressed in its terminology, theory, process, and strategies. Ways in which VC can aid adolescent religious education are also presented. One way is by balancing religious content with process; a 2nd is by balancing abstract religious theory with concrete experience; and a 3rd is by providing a structured method of clarifying religious values for applying general religious principles to specific adolescent life situations by a decision making process. The contributions that VC can make to adolescent religious identity are contrasted to those of religion as a set of childhood roles. It is concluded that VC in adolescent religious education offers hope that religious people will develop a permanent religious identity. [Source: PI]

Miller, Donald E. 1982. "Religious Education Goals for Youth: A Response to the Boys Town Center Study." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 311-315.

Neville, Gwen Kennedy. 1982. "Culture, Youth, and Socialization in American Protestantism." Pp. 75-99 in Religious Education: Ministry with Youth, edited by D. Wyckoff and Don Richter. Birmingham, Ala.: Religious Education Press.

Philibert, Paul J. 1982. "Moral Maturity and Education Beyond Conventional Morality." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 286-296.
Abstract: "Moral Maturity" was the first goal of four of the denominations in our study and was rated second and third by the other two. What does this mean? three perspectives are developed here. 1) An examination of the items in the Moral Maturity scale shows that postconventional elements appear there enough to warrant thinking that adults want youth to be reasonably independent. 2) A refactoring of the ten goals of part 1 yielded two new factors, whose analysis indicates that the denominations vary in their support for postconventional morality, with the Evangelicals least supportive. 3) Given Fowler's stages of faith as an interpretive tool, only two denominations prefer critical stage four to conventional stage three for the outcome of religious education; none want stage five (a postcritical and universalizing posture). [Source: RI]

Philibert, Paul J. and James P. O'Connor, (eds.). 1982. "Adolescent Religious Socialization: Goal Priorities According to Parents and Religious Educators." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 226-315.
Abstract: Editors' introduction, by P. J. Philibert and J. P. O'Connor. Desired outcomes of religious education and youth ministry in six denominations, by D. R. Hoge, E. Heffernan, E. F. Hemrick, H.M. Nelsen, J.P. O'Connor, P.J. Philibert, and A.D. Thompson. The influence of social and theological factors upon the goals of religious education, by H.M. Nelsen. Teachers, pedagogy and the process of religious education, by P.J. Philibert and D.R. Hoge. Moral maturity and education beyond conventional morality, by P.J. Philibert. Different conceptualizations of goals of religious education and youth ministry in six denominations, by D.R. Hoge and A.D. Thompson. Response: "Moral maturity" and social justice goals, by H.C. Simmons. Response: religious education goals for youth, by D.E. Miller. Glossary of technical terms. [Source: RI]

Richards, Lawrence O. 1982. "Youth and Church Renewal." Pp. 149-165 in Religious Education: Ministry with Youth, edited by D. Wyckoff and Don Richter. Birmingham, Ala.: Religious Education Press.

Richter, Don. 1982. "A Bibliographical Survey of Youth and Youth Ministry." Pp. 1-53 in Religious Education: Ministry with Youth, edited by D. Wyckoff. Birmingham, Ala.: Religious Education Press.

Thompson, Andrew D. and Eugene F. Hemrick. 1982. The Last Fifteen Years: A Statistical Survey of Catholic Elementary and Secondary Formal Religious Education, 1965-1980. Washington, D.C.: Office of Pub. Services, United States Catholic Conference.

Warren, Michael. 1982. Youth and the Future of the Church: Ministry with Youth and Young Adults. New York: Seabury Press.

Wyckoff, D. Campbell and Don Eds Richter. 1982. Religious Education: Ministry with Youth. Birmingham AL: Religious socialization Pr.
Abstract: Preface. A bibliographical survey on youth and youth ministry, by D Richter. Questions the church needs to answer about youth, by F Gardner. Culture, youth, and socialization in American Protestantism, by G Neville. Problems, predicaments, and gravity, by R Paine. Desired outcomes of religious education and youth ministry in six denominations, by D Hoge, et al. Youth and church renewal, by L Richards. Kairos and youth: a call for community, by J Smith. The creative process in adolescent development, by D Richter. Afterword, by D Wyckoff. [Source: RI]

Devonshire, Winfield Jay Jr. 1981. "Two Models of Confirmation Ministry: A Descriptive Study of Relationships between Models of Confirmation Ministry and the Perceptions of Eighth and Ninth Grade Lutheran Youth Regarding Their Identity and Participation in the Church." D.Min. Thesis, Lancaster Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to seek clarity in the current Lutheran Church in America's definition of confirmation ministry by describing the relationship between models of confirmation ministry and the perceptions of eighth and ninth grade youth regarding their identity and participation in their congregations. The study identified characteristics of two approaches or models of confirmation ministry. One approach, model A, included characteristics drawn primarily from an overview of the historical development of confirmation. Another approach, model B, included characteristics drawn from implications of the current Lutheran Church in America's definition of confirmation ministry. The study was conducted among single Lutheran congregations in Adams and York counties. The project design included six congregations equally representing models A and B out of a total of fifty-three congregations surveyed by means of a pretested questionnaire mailed to the pastors and two lay leaders of each congregation. The questionnaire was composed of eight groups of five statements each variously representing characteristics of models A and B. Six congregations were selected according to the manner in which the respondents ranked each of the statements. Twenty-four youth, equally representing the six model A and B congregations, boys and girls, and eighth and ninth grades, participated in a pretested interview. The interview format solicited from youth perceptions of their identity and participation in the life of the congregation. A content analysis of the interview responses indicated certain tendencies in youth perceptions in relation to dominant characteristics of the two models of confirmation ministry. First, youth in the model A congregations tended to speak of instruction as a dominant factor in their identity and participation in the church, while youth in the model B congregations tended to speak of caring as a dominant factor. Second, youth from both models tended to perceive adults as non- learners. These youth indicated that adults have little to learn from youth regarding the Christian faith. Third, model B youth perceived their membership as contributing to the present ministry of the congregation, whereas model A youth perceived of their membership as awaiting contributory opportunities after the rite of confirmation. Fourth, model B youth tended to be less certain than model A youth about the difference between their present membership and their membership after the rite of confirmation. The difference in this response lay apparently in the fact that the model B youth generally participated in more areas of the congregation's life than did model A youth. Further, model B youth spoke with greater frequency about relationships with significant adults in the congregation than did the model A youth. The concluding chapter provides recommendations for congregational planning of confirmation ministry based on the project findings. [Source: DA]

Lindquist, Brent E. 1981. "Relationships among Personal Religion, Dimensions of Moral Character, and Parent-Child Interactions." Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology.

Nelsen, Hart M. 1981. "Gender Differences in the Effects of Parental Discord on Preadolescent Religiousness." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 20, pp. 351-360.
Abstract: Differences in gender socialization have male youths receiving more power assertion, while female youths are given more nurture. Self-reliance and increasing autonomy are emphasized for the former, while obedience is the pattern for the latter. Applied to religious transmission, with parental discord as one context, and coupled with Kelman's processes of social influence, this suggests that by junior high school, boys, especially those perceiving their parents as high in discord, should show a decline in religiousness, compared to boys in grades 4-6 (the data are cross-sectional and are from 2724 youths in intact families in Minnesota). For this group the decline should occur only for those receiving corporal punishment. T-tests of means supported this hypothesis. An examination of the means suggests that boys in this same group at grades 4-6 score higher in religiousness than would be expected based on their perceptions of their parents' religious levels. Parental discord does not have as clear an effect upon girls. In general girls in grades 7-8 are less likely to see their parents as religious than are girls in grades 4-6. There is a general decline in religiousness by grade for girls. [Source: RI]

O'Brien, John Charles. 1981. "Directed Religious Encounter as Intrinsic Learning." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: Abraham Maslow contends that finding and developing an awareness of the self is done through a process of intrinsic learning. Intrinsic learning is "field independence". Intrinsic learning enables the individual to realize: (a)personhood, (b)community integration, and, (c)a coalescing of personal energy and resources. The elements of the process of intrinsic learning are: (1)understanding intrinsic development of the self; (2)the study of consciousness constructs; and, (3)experiencing the construct matrix or matrices by developing: (a)perceptions; (b)communication; (c)physical awareness and experience; (d)creative awareness and expression; (e)centering; (f)sacralization; and (g)community integration and participation. This study is an attempt to validate group encounter as an intrinsic learning matrix. The rite of initiation is reviewed as an historic form of intrinsic learning. Teens Encounter Christ (TEC), a directed religious encounter experience designed for high school juniors and seniors, was used as the basic experimental intrinsic matrix. T.E.C. is designed to prepare the student for the rite of confirmation (an initiation rite in the Roman Catholic Church) and/or to aid the student in reaffirming the meaning of that rite in his life. Carl Rogers' group process was used as the consciousness construct matrix for this phenomenological study. Fifteen young men who had experienced a TEC weekend were interviewed. The research data were extracted from the audio tapes of these interviews by the selection of responses colored by an affective lilt in the voice of the interviewee. The responses were divided into anticipated and unanticipated phenomena. The phenomena expressed in the responses in both areas strongly supported the TEC experience as a significant intrinsic learning matrix in the lives of the fifteen interviewees. The responses to the questions were sorted by their relationship to the components of initiation and their relationship to the Group Process as a consciousness construct matrix. Out of these responses seven major themes with sub-themes emerged: (A)Openness: dispensing with inhibitions; (B)Surviving masculinity and male intimacy; (C)Intimacy of community; (D)Altered awareness; (F)Suppression of emotion; (H)Feelings of normalcy; of being like others; (I)Integration...Congruity. Two groupings of significant comments are included with the themes: (E)Summary Comments on TEC; (G)Young adults' feelings about religion today. The results of the phenomenological inquiry indicate that the group encounter can be used as an intrinsic learning matrix. Specifically, Teens Encounter Christ (TEC), like the ancient rite of initiation, fulfills the three results of intrinsic learning: (1)personhood, (2)community integration, and (3)coalescing and self-direction of personal energy. From this experiment, the researcher suggests that future attempts to use group encounter as an intrinsic learning matrix are appropriate. [Source: DA]

Ross, Richard Allen. 1981. "The Effect of the Teaching Methodology as Presented in the Southern Baptist Curriculum Base Design on Selected Attitudes Related to Mate Selection among High School Students." Ed.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Dallas.
Abstract: Problem. The accepted teaching methodology upon which all Southern Baptist youth curricula are based has never been tested. It was the purpose of this study to test the effectiveness of that methodology in producing changes in attitudes. Procedures. Sixteen Texas churches were selected for this study according to size and geographical location. Churches were paired by similarity in these two criteria. One church of the pair was assigned to a control group and the other to the experimental process. The author developed four experiential learning sessions. The learning procedures were developed exclusively from the curriculum base design, the foundation document for all Southern Baptist curricula. High school youth in the eight experimental churches participated in these four one-hour sessions. The subject matter dealt with choosing a mate. A Likert Scale developed by the author was administered to both control and experimental churches at the beginning and at the end of the four-week experimental period. The scale was designed to detect changes in attitudes related to mate selection. Findings and Conclusions. Statistical analyses of pre and posttest data revealed that (1) attitudes related to mate selection among students in the control group remained stable over the four-week period, and (2) attitudes related to mate selection among students in the experimental group showed very significant change during the four-week period. This study was able to conclude that (1) the teaching methodology as presented in the Southern Baptist curriculum base design is effective in producing changes in the affective domain, (2) further research should include longitudinal studies to note the longevity of changes in attitude produced by educational experiences, and (3) further research should test the efficacy of the Southern Baptist methodology in the other educational domains. [Source: DA]

Williams, Carlton Llewellyn. 1981. "Incorporating Youth in the Life and Mission of the St Thomas Assembly of God." Thesis, Northern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: Youth is the church's greatest challenge as well as its greatest resource. Against this backdrop, this study focused on incorporating youth in the life and mission of the St Thomas Assembly of God. To facilitate this, adults and adolescents were called upon to recognize their weaknesses and seek for harmony. Adults must be engaged in mission for, by, and with youth and never fail to recognize them as a part of the people of God. This prepositional approach to youth ministry is explosive and has provided the youth of the church with an opportunity to discover and address their fundamental needs of self-worth, self-identity, and awareness of God in a more definitive manner. [Source: RI]

De Vaus, David A. 1980. "Education and Religious Change among Senior Adolescents, Pt 1: Questioning Some Common Research Assumptions." Journal of Christian Education Papers vol. 69, pp. 13-24.
Abstract: This paper takes issue with the conventional wisdom that secular, scientific man has ceased to exhibit religious needs and motivations. In particular, it challenges the widely held view that religious change among young people is due to what they learn at school or university or to the supposed "scientific" ethos of modern society. It argues that the published research does not establish such a link and that social rather than intellectual factors are far more potent in the process of religious change among young people. A subsequent paper will present survey results which support this argument. [Source: RI]

Kahn, Charlotte. 1980. "I Am That I Am: Toward a Psychology of Teenage Jewish Identity." Religious Education vol. 75, pp. 354-363.
Abstract: Reviews concepts of adolescent development (psychoanalytic, ego psychology, and cognitive) as background for suggestions about religious education for Jewish adolescents. Diaspora Jewish youth have opportunities to develop rich identities from exposure to both the Jewish culture and the prevailing cultures in which they live. Models for identity, including bicultural lives, are represented in Bible stories. Bible characters also represent the sequence of developmental tasks and provide hope in the face of the adolescent's unknown future. [Source: PI]

Kim, Paul Shu. 1980. "A Study of Ministry to Second Generation Korean Immigrants in the Church." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University, Madison.
Abstract: For several years the author has been convinced that there is a desperate need to awaken the Korean Church to its mission to second generation Korean immigrants. He has discerned a tendency on the part of many young Korean-Americans to stay away from church, feeling the Church is not interested in youth and its problems. To ascertain whether his theory is correct, the author took steps toward identification of the basic problems of the Korean immigrant churches in their life situations in America. He then sought to find a solution for the same. This project has been developed in six areas. A brief history is presented of Korean emigration to American from 1903 to the present, explaining the characteristics of the different immigrant groups and their reasons for emigrating. The social problems facing the Korean immigrant in the new world are: racial, cultural, economic, educational (children), differences in family life between parents and children, language, and assimilation. The four periods through which the Korean immigrant churches in America have passed are: (1) Their beginnings and growth (1903-1918); (2) The period of conflicts, divisions (1919-1945); (3) The period of status quo (1946-1967); (4) The period of revival (1968 - ). The author interviewed forty Korean pastors of Greater New York delving into the problems of the churches. He discusses the pastors, their qualifications, theology and roles; also the make-up of the congregations. The author, believing the ideal ministry has our Lord at its center with equal emphasis placed on worship, mission, fellowship, education, service to the community, discusses the three functions of the church: (1) Kerygmatic; (2) Diakonic; (3) Koinoniac. Leadership for the second generation is lacking; the curricula supplied is inadequate; the worship services are irrelevant to second generation Korean-American youth and their problems. The character of the Korean Church is unique, functioning not solely as a religious institution but forming the basis and source for the Korean immigrant's new life within his community, supplying him with the cultural, mental and political sustenance he needs. To ascertain the basic needs of the youth ministry in the church, the author created and distributed a six- page questionnaire which was filled out by 125 Korean- American youths. Their answers, indicating problems and giving suggestions, were tabulated. A one-day seminar on Christian Education for Second Generation Korean Immigrants was held. As part of the seminar the author led a workshop to determine the unique need of a ministry to second generation Koreans. The workshop was divided into four study groups: (1) Worship; (2) Christian Education; (3) Identity; (4) Image of Pastor and Church Administration. Each group rendered a report of their findings. The author conducted a thirteen-week experimental bi- lingual ministry starting with fifteen youths from his own congregation which increased to twenty-five. They met for two hours a week on Saturdays for three months. The program created by the author was attended twice by some of the parents. At its conclusion the program was evaluated by both the first and second generations. Theological foundation for this project is based upon a concept of the church as the body of Christ where the Holy Spirit is at work, which finds its expression in a worshipping, reconciling and serving fellowship. The differences existing between the first and second generation's theological understanding of culture and faith were explored and the theological basis cited for the author's suggested ministry of reconciliation. Basically the goal of the project can be summed up as a program of Christian nurture for the second generation Korean. The author concludes there is a definite necessity for a ministry to the second generation. He believes that while retaining the second generation's cultural heritage, such a ministry should be Christ-centered. He submits his thirteen-week bi-lingual ministry as a model. [Source: DA]

Nelsen, H.M. 1980. "Religious Transmission Versus Religious Formation: Preadolescent Parent Interaction." Sociological Quarterly vol. 21, pp. 207-218.

Allanach, Robert C. 1979. "The Troubled Adolescent." Christian Ministry pp. 22-25.

Culnane, William R. 1979. "Erikson, Religious Education, and Mid-Adolescent Attitudes: An Interdisciplinary Approach." Thesis, Boston College.

Zuck, Roy B. and Warren S. Benson (eds.). 1979. Youth Education in the Church; Rev Ed. Chicago: Moody Pr.
Abstract: Articles by Warren S Benson, Kenneth O Gangel, William M Pinson, Edwin J Potts, Donald E Pugh, Milford S Sholund, J Roland Fleck, Donald M Joy, Lawrence O Richards, Edward D Seely, Rex E Johnson, Donald Williams, William R Goetz, Donald S Aultman, Russ Cadle, Ardith Hooten, Emily Nicholson, David H Roper, Julie A Gorman, E Dee Freeborn, Mark Senter, Virginia Patterson, Edward L Hayes, Bill Bynum, Robert A Crandall, David A Hockenberry, David M Howard, Paul E Little, Vic Glavach, William D Gwinn, Lloyd O Cory, Marlene D LeFever, Werner C Graendorf, Gary R Collins, H Norman Wright, and Jay Kesler. [Source: RI]

Acock, Alan C. and Vern L. Bengtson. 1978. "On the Relative Influence of Mothers and Fathers: A Covariance Analysis of Political and Religious Socialization." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 40, pp. 519-530.
Abstract: It often is suggested that the father exerts greater influence on socialization of instrumental orientations than the mother and that there is greater transmission between same-sex generational dyads than between cross-sex pairs. This research examined intergenerational similarity in political and religious orientations among 653 father-mother-youth triads. Results indicate substantial parental prediction of children's responses. Moreover, mothers consistently showed higher levels of prediction than fathers on most variables. There was no evidence of specific sex-lineage contrasts. Significant differences did exist at the group (cohort) level, despite the high degree of within-family (lineage) predictivity. Results suggest that socialization theory should give greater emphasis to parental influence, particularly that of the mother, on political and religious orientations. [Source: PI]

Kuczmarski, Susan Smith. 1978. "A Field Study of Enculturation and Socialization in Three Non-School Youth Organizations." Ed.D. Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.
Abstract: Exploring the idea that schools constitute an excessively narrow focus in the study of education, this field work looks at the function of three youth organizations--a youth drop-in center, a YMCA, and a church group--in providing adolescents with educational experiences. The scope includes a systematic description of what occurs in the three youth organizations, and an examination and comparison of how their activities serve to enculturate and socialize youth. The methodology used represents well established procedures in field research. It requires the researcher to be placed in the socio-cultural milieu of the youth organizations and to describe their experiences, using both participant observation and interviewing techniques. The collected data were analyzed in terms of two emerging themes: enculturation and socialization. Enculturation is used to refer to the process of "gaining acceptance" in which non-members are transformed into members, and the process of "community-building" in which the culture of the group is perpetuated through time. Socialization, the learning of adult roles, involved three primary experiences: learning socially appropriate behavior; learning to assume individual responsibility; and learning to collaborate or take collective responsibility. Little difference in the enculturation process was found within the three organizations studied. Youth within each group defined their membership criteria, recruited members, and passed them through a "gaining acceptance" period that was followed by more sustained efforts to maintain and support their peer community. On the other hand, all three socializing experiences existed in the three organizations, but each took different forms. In the drop-in center, youth learned to get along in a social group, to take individual responsibility for their behavior, and to be mutually supportive of the other group members. Youth in both the YMCA and the church group learned more refined social skills (e.g., speaking in front of a group, discussing issues), and to take individual and collective responsibility for instrumental activities. The behavior of adults in each group was integral to the learning of adult roles. All three youth groups served an integrative function in their attempt to transfer the identification and solidarity within the youth group to the larger social system. Youth are assimilated into the wider society by providing them with common experiences in the youth groups which encourage shared attitudes and values. This is seen in the community-building process within each group, which acts to integrate youth by teaching them how to become a member of a group. The three adult-created youth organizations also act as social controls by the accessibility of adult roles available for youth to select. To varying degrees, the three groups have opportunities for youth to be "potential performers" of adult roles by the nature and number of roles offered. Comparatively speaking, the drop-in center youth are less prepared and more poorly equipped than youth in the other two groups because they lack the role-specific knowledge connected with responsibility-taking in task-oriented activities. It follows that youth from the drop-in center have "fewer credentials" for taking responsibility in instrumental activities within society. If the socializing experiences can be viewed in developmental terms, drop-in center youth learn to become identifiable and responsible members of a social group, prior to learning more about other adult roles (e.g., cooperating in task-oriented groups and taking instrumental leadership roles). [Source: DA]

Fair, Frank T. 1977. Orita for Black Youth: An Initiation into Christian Adulthood. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

Sparkman, G. Temp (ed.). 1977. Knowing and Helping Youth. Nashville: Broadman Press.
Abstract: Identity: the major task of adolescence, Gloria Durka. Adolescents in the family and subculture, Robert E. Poerschke. Cognitive processes in adolescence, G. Temp Sparkman. Religious thinking in adolescence, John H. Peatling. Moral development in adolescence, Margaret Webster. Counseling with youth, Stanley J. Watson. Youth and the affirmation of faith, G. Temp Sparkman. Involving youth in worship and learning, William R. Cromer, Jr. Involving youth in mission and witnessing, Dan Boling. [Source: RI]

Keeley, Benjamin J. 1976. "Generations in Tension: Intergenerational Differences and Continuities in Religion and Religion-Related Behavior." Review of Religious Research vol. 17, pp. 221-231.
Abstract: Although one of Durkheim's early interests was in the intergenerational transmission of values and moral beliefs, this has been a neglected area of research and an issue concerning which there are numerous contradictory assertions. The two-year study of 5,000 Lutherans by Strommen et al. of the Youth Research Center of Minnesota is one of the few carefully done pieces of research comparing the religious beliefs and values of youth and their parents with reference to a so-called generational gap. Using a multi-denominational sample, this research tests the major propositions of the model of intergenerational tensions developed by Strommen et al. The label, generation gap, is exaggerating and misleading. The data indicate that only on some religious issues are there intergenerational discontinuities between youth and their parents. On some issues, there are significant differences with only one parent; on others, there is consensus between youth and both parents. When compared to the parental generation, the younger generation seems to have a greater uncertainty about the meaning of life, a lower level of satisfaction with it, and a great fear of death. [Source: RI]

Tanner, William C. 1976. "Participation in Family-Related Activities and Family Affectional Relationships as Perceived by Adolescent Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints." Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee.

Horder, Donald. 1975. "Religious Education in Secondary Schools." Pp. 175-187 in New Movements in Religious Education, edited by N. Smart and Donald Horder. London: Temple Smith.

Krol, John Abp. 1975. "Young People and the Church." Pp. 106-108 in Evangelization, edited by G. Anderson.

Mueller, Mary L. 1975. "Reducing the Fear of Death in Early Adolescents through Religious Education." Thesis, University of Notre Dame.

Weiting, S. 1975. "An Examination of Intergenerational Patterns of Religious Belief and Practice." Sociological Analysis vol. 36, pp. 137-149.

Wieting, Stephen G. 1975. "Examination of Intergenerational Patterns of Religious Belief and Practice." Sociological Analysis vol. 36, pp. 137-149.
Abstract: The paper presents data documenting adolescent-parent intergenerational patterns of belief and practice for a range of religious factors. Results show discontinuity in orientation toward the religious institution; partial continuity over religious beliefs; and similarity in meanings attached to classic religious symbols. The patterns suggest intergenerational differences may be more in the form of expression than in belief; and that symbolic data may be a useful complement to belief and behavioral data for making intergenerational comparisons. [Source: RI]

Kahnle, Walter Edward. 1974. "Youth Ministry: A New Stance for Adolescent Religious Education." D.Min. Thesis, Emory University.

Thomas, D.L., V. Gecas, A. Weigert, and E. Rooney. 1974. Family Socialization and the Adolescent. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Beales, Ross Worn Jr. 1971. "Cares for the Rising Generation: Youth and Religion in Colonial New England." Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Davis, Davis.

Kimball, James N. 1970. "A Generation Apart - the Gap and the Church." Dialogue vol. 5, pp. 35-39.

Weigert, Andrew J. and Darwin L. Thomas. 1970. "Socialization and Religiosity: A Cross-National Analysis of Catholic Adolescents." Sociometry vol. 33, pp. 305-326.

Nelson, C. Ellis. 1969. "Symposium on Our Divided Society: A Challenge to Religious Education: Vii. Can Protestantism Make It with the "Now" Generation?" Religious Education vol. 64, pp. 376-383.
Abstract: Social values, world view, and self-image differ significantly for the generation that came of age during the past 10-15 yr. from that of the generation that came of age before World War II. A clash of cultures has arisen between the institutional church and many church-nurtured young people who challenge the assumptions on which the church-culture operates. Issues that form the clash include: (a) Where is authority in religion? (b) What is the purpose of religion? (c) What makes a person religious? Reorientation of the church to serve human needs is necessary to the resolution of the clash. [Source: PI]

Stinehelfer, Jeffrey N. 1969. "Dig This: The Revealing of Jesus Christ." Religious Education vol. 64, pp. 467-472.

Bruce, Paul. 1968. "The Quest for Identity: How Religious Education Can Help Young People Develop Firm Sense of Identity." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 44, pp. 48-49.

Cromer, William R. 1968. "Church and Youth." Review and Expositor vol. 65, pp. 161-170.

Engel, David E. 1968. "Education and Identity: The Function of Questions in Religious Education." Religious Education vol. 63, pp. 371-375.
Abstract: Education is fundamentally concerned, not with answering questions, but with identifying and analyzing central questions of experience. The question of identity raised in adolescence, though it changes its form in different eras, has theoretical implications for education at any age since this period is pivotal for human development. "The job of religious education is to see that the ultimate dimensions of . . . identity questions are not overlooked." [Source: PI]

Hyde, Kenneth E. 1968. "Critique of Goldman's Research: Iii. Symposium on Ronald Goldman and Religious Education." Religious Education vol. 63, pp. 429-435.
Abstract: Analysis of Goldman's study of religious thinking from childhood to adolescence leads to recognition of its merits and suggests that "too much, too soon" may account for the ineffectiveness of some religious education programs. In answer to Goldman's critics: "It is 1 thing to object on a priori grounds to Goldman's conclusion; it is a very different matter to show by research that they are wrong. Until such research is forthcoming unfounded criticism will remain unconvincing." [Source: PI]

Irving, Roy G. and Roy B. Zuck. 1968. Youth and the Church: A Survey of the Church's Ministry to Youth. Chicago: Moody Press.

Weigert, Andrew Joseph. 1968. "Parent-Child Interaction Patterns and Adolescent Religiosity: A Cross-National Analysis." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota.

Finney, Rose F. 1966. "The Psychodynamics of Adolescence and Religious Education." Insight: Quarterly Review of Religion and Mental Health vol. 4, pp. 8-23.
Abstract: Presents the psychological and religious aspects of the adolescent personality for a meaningful catechetical approach, and exposes the need for cooperation between religion and psychology. [Source: PI]

Babin, Pierre. 1965. Faith and the Adolescent. New York: Herder and Herder.

Hyde, Kenneth E. 1965. Religious Learning in Adolescence. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd for University of Birmingham, Institute of Education.

Miller, Randolph Crump (ed.). 1965. "The Proper Age for a Declaration of Faith." Religious Education vol. 60, pp. 290-302.
Abstract: Confirmation and the identity crisis, by C W Stewart. The proper age for a declaration of faith, by R J Becker. A declaration of faith in Swiss Presbyterian churches, by W Neidhart. The right age for Bar Mitzvah, by S E Rosenberg. The implications of conversion among young children, by G T Sparkman. [Source: RI]

Strommen, Merton P. 1964. "Research into Youth and the Congregation." Pastoral Psychology vol. 15, pp. 7-13.

Bogardus, LaDonna. 1963. Christian Education for Retarded Children and Youth. New York: Abingdon Press for Cooperative Publication Association.

Ligon, Ernest M. and William T. Penrod. 1963. "Religious and Character Education as a Catalyzing Force in Personality." Character Potential: A Record of Research pp. 3-18.
Abstract: The basic hypothesis presented is that "the role of religious and character education is to provide the catalyzers with which the growing youth can make wise decisions toward achieving his maximum potential destiny." Both home and church school are discussed in regard to their roles in character education. The church school can provide catalyzers in the following areas: Heritage of the Ages, The Dramatic and Poetic, The Power in Purpose, Basic Christian Principles, Climate for Peer Group Thinking, Developing Skills for a Dynamic Tolerance. Each area of discussion is supported by pertinent evidence from the literature. [Source: PI]

Strommen, Merton P. 1963. Profiles of Church Youth; Report on a Four-Year Study of 3,000 Lutheran High School Youth. Saint Louis: Concordia Pub. House.

Fichter, J.H. 1962. "Religion and Socialization among Children." Review of Religious Research vol. 4, pp. 24-33.

Garrity, Frank D. 1961. "A Study of Some Secondary Modern School Pupils' Attitudes Towards Religious Education." Religious Education vol. 56, pp. 141-143.
Abstract: A 22-item attitude scale was devised and administered to 4040 pupils in 8 secondary schools. The results indicate a moderately favorable attitude towards religious education. The boys were less favorable than the girls, and the older pupils were less favorable than younger. Those who attended Sunday School or read the Bible at home were more favorable than those who didn't. Attitude was not affected by difference in intelligence. [Source: PI]

Grimm, Robert E. 1961. "Young People Enter the Larger Church." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 38, pp. 18-20.

Hilliard, F. H. 1959. "The Influence of Religious Education Upon the Development of Children's Moral Ideas." British Journal of Educational Psychology vol. 29, pp. 50-59.
Abstract: Studies made by Forester, Moreton, Kuhlen and Arnold, and Bradshaw have shown that later adolescents question and tend to abandon the concept of God rewarding the good and punishing the bad. Data gathered by Hilliard from the responses of 220 education students to a questionnaire also generally support previous findings. The majority of adolescents believe, in general, "that religion can and should help them to live a morally good life . . . . religious education which deals effectively, in middle and later adolescence particularly, with religio-moral principles and their application to current problems is likely to meet with an interested response from adolescents." [Source: PI]

Laydes, Morris A. 1955. "Jewish Primary Children and Jewish Religious Symbolism." Religious Education vol. 50, pp. 398-401.
Abstract: The attempt to teach the subtle meanings of religious symbols to a child is wasteful. "It is enough that they are there and part of his familiar environment." "The child is allowed to assimilate it in his environmental experience and to understand it at his own level of comprehension." [Source: PI]

McMaster, Anna Frances. 1954. "The Phenomenon of the Adolescent Peer Group and Its Bearing on Christian Education." M.R.E Thesis, Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, N.J.,.

Thomas, J.L. 1951. "Religious Training in the Catholic Family." American Journal of Sociology pp. 178-183.

Limbert, Paul M. 1950. "New Light on the Needs of Adolescents." Religious Education vol. 45, pp. 287-291.
Abstract: Much that is done in religious education is irrelevant to the real needs of youth. Three basic needs are understanding of one's self and society, setting of goals and the development of a framework of standards and convictions. [Source: PI]

Van Dorn, V. and F. Mayfarth. 1949. "Religious Nurture and Childhood Education." Religious Education vol. 44, pp. 141-148.
Abstract: Religious education has to do with our attitudes, feelings, appreciations, and understandings from which children learn more than our carefully worded explanations. The authors suggest 4 premises concerning the place of religion in childhood education: (1) religion is experience rather than belief; (2) by interpreting the experiences we provide for them, they find faith in themselves and their world; (3) by emotional conditioning children come to assume their share of responsibility for the welfare of others; (4) by ceaseless searching and effort life comes to have meaning and purpose, the causes of aggression may be recognized and conflicts in social practices resolved. [Source: PI]

Backhouse, W. H. 1947. Religion and the Adolescent Character; the Secondary School and the Christian Church. London: Lutterworth Press.

Beckes, Isaac. 1947. "Emotions in the Religious Development of Young People." Religious Education vol. 42, pp. 281-284.
Abstract: Motivation for learning and growth rises from adequate emotional appeal. Religious programs are often stereotyped and fail to gain emotional response. Young people desire new experiences, awareness of the presence of God, to be useful and altruistic, to participate responsibly, to belong to a wholesome fellowship, to understand accepted religious affirmations, to enjoy democratic religious authority rather than moral chaos. The Youth for Christ International had the dramatic appeal of mass meetings but failed to satisfy the need for a rational faith and offended by sensational methods. Emotion cannot be separated from normal religious experience. The tendency has been to overstimulate or understimulate adolescent emotions. If religious leaders are too busy to nurture emotion effectively young people will increasingly be absent from church activities. [Source: PI]

Weaver, P. 1946. "Using Psychological Insights in the Religious Education of Adolescents and Young Adults." Religious Education vol. 41, pp. 276-283.
Abstract: After reviewing psychological studies of attitude and of religion, the author brings together the implications of these studies in a suggested program of religious education. [Source: PI]

McCaffrey, Dominic Augustine. 1941. "Youth in a Catholic Parish." Ph.D. Thesis, The Catholic University of America.

Smart, M. S. 1939. "Child Development and Religious Education." Childhood Education vol. 16, pp. 159-164.

Forrest, I. 1930. Child Life and Religion. NY: R. R. Smith.
Abstract: A study of small children and their thinking, and a discussion of some principles of psychology and teaching with special reference to religious education. [Source: PI]

Fahs, S. L. 1929. "How Childish Should a Child's Religion Be?" Religious Education vol. 24, pp. 910-917.
Abstract: If the religious instruction of children is confined to the teaching that God is a father who does everything for them, their religious development may be dwarfed. Religion should be a growing experience which comes to face the real problems of life. [Source: PI]

Faris, E. 1929. "On the Fundamental Tendencies of Children." Religious Education vol. 24, pp. 808-812.
Abstract: It is natural for children to fit into any skilfully presented cultural pattern. In order for religious education to succeed it must compete with old motives and supplant them with better ones. [Source: PI]

Tilson, A. 1929. "Religious Education of the Pre-School Child." Religious Education vol. 24, pp. 923-926.
Abstract: Young children may be given a part in family devotions. Although they may not understand much that is said, the kindliness and tolerance which accompany the acts and the opportunity to employ them makes the child's religion real to him. [Source: PI]

Watson, G. B. 1929. "An Approach to the Study of Worship." Religious Education vol. 24, pp. 849-858.
Abstract: A variety of religious services was arranged for older boys. They were asked to judge of the effect of these upon themselves, and the results were tabulated. It was found that they responded freely to services in modern phraseology dealing with events of modern life. Their greatest response was to emotional services. [Source: PI]

Bose, R. G. 1928. The Nature and Development of Religious Concepts in Children. Tempe, Ariz: Aircraft Print Shop.
Abstract: This dissertation presents a more detailed report of the study printed in Rel. Educ. 1930, 24, 831-837 (see IV: 769). An analysis of the results is assisted by extended tables. [Source: PI]

Wilson, D. F. 1928. Child Psychology and Religious Education. NY: Doubleday Doran.
Abstract: An outline of religious education during childhood (first twelve years). During infancy all religious training should be carried on through suggestion, imitation, stories and rhymes. Memory is a good tool to use only when conditions favor interesting, understanding and appreciative repetition of the material learned. In early childhood, opportunity should be given for self expression by means of dramatization, drawing, handwork, compositions, etc. In middle childhood, when interest in others begins to be more marked than interest in self, the stories of the Bible may be made realistic by encouraging the experiencing through the imagination some of the events described. At this time, also, appear questions on origin, Nature, etc.; these should all be answered. In later childhood, when there is need for physical expression, the project method proves valuable. This is the age of hero-worship; there should, therefore, be much use of biographies. Bibliography of 3 pages. [Source: PI]

Coe, George Albert. 1909. "Psychological Aspects of Religious Education." Psychological Bulletin vol. 6, pp. 185-187.
Abstract: Reviews literature on religious education based upon the psychology of childhood and adolescence. Starbuck gave a scientific treatment to the: characteristics of the child-consciousness; methods of religious growth; nature of the religious impulse; and analysis of the stages of growth. The Religious Education Society was of the opinion that the religious function of the public school could be fulfilled by fostering a general moral idealism, with specific attention to its practical social expressions. Muirhead argued that the unity of spiritual purpose must be restored to education. However, Dewey asserted that though religion is immanent in all functions of consciousness, it has no obvious specific function of its own. [Source: PI]

Andrews, William Eusebius. 1800. The Catholic School Book: Containing Easy and Familiar Lessons, for the Instruction of Youth, or Both Sexes, in the English Language, and the Paths of True Religion and Virtue. Philadelphia: E. Cummiskey.

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.