National Study of Youth and Religion
National Study of Youth and Religion National Study of Youth and Religion National Study of Youth and Religion  
Research Study
News
Publications
Resources
Events
Contact Us

Sexual Activity

Abma, J. C. and F. L. Sonenstein. 2001. "Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Practices among Teenagers in the United States, 1988 and 1995." Vital & Health Statistics - Series 23, Data From the National Survey of Family Growth pp. 1-79.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This report presents national estimates of sexual experience, contraceptive use, and selected aspects of sexual behavior among never-married males and females aged 15-19 years in the United States. Data are presented for the years 1988 and 1995 according to age, race and Hispanic origin, progress in school, and other relevant characteristics. Tables present trends over time as well as comparisons between subgroups. METHODS: Descriptive tables of numbers and percents are presented and interpreted. Data for females are from the National Survey of Family Growth, and data for males are from the National Survey of Adolescent Males. RESULTS: About half of all never-married teenagers, about 17.5 million, had had sexual intercourse at least once in 1995. For male teenagers, this represents a decline since 1988, and for females, the proportion was stable across the two time points. The proportion of teen females who had sex before age 15 years increased. In 1995, 29 percent of females and 19 percent of males had unprotected recent sexual intercourse. About one-quarter of teens used no contraceptives during their first sexual intercourse. The condom remained the most popular method of contraception. Although teenagers' use of oral contraceptives dropped between 1988 and 1995, use of injectable and implant contraceptives began. Teenagers with more highly educated mothers, mothers who delayed their first birth beyond age 19 years, those from two-parent families, and those whose schooling was on schedule, were less likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors. These teenagers, along with those who were Protestant, also experienced the largest improvements across time in sexual risk behaviors. [Source: ML]

Bearman, P. S. and H. Bruckner. 2001. "Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges and First Intercourse." American Journal of Sociology vol. 106, pp. 859-912.
Abstract: Since 1993, in response to a movement sponsored by the Southern Baptist Church, over 2.5 million adolescents have taken public "virginity" pledges, in which they promise to abstain from sex until marriage. This paper explores the effect of those pledges on the transition to first intercourse. Adolescents who pledge are much less likely to have intercourse than adolescents who do not pledge. The delay effect is substantial. On the other hand, the pledge does not work for adolescents at ail ages. Second, pledging delays intercourse only in contexts where there are some, but not too many, pledgers. The pledge works because it is embedded in an identity movement. Consequently, the pledge identity is meaningful only in contexts where it is at least partially nonnormative. Consequences of pledging are explored for those who break their promise. Promise breakers are less likely than others to use contraception at first intercourse. [Source: SC]

Langer, L. M., G. J. Warheit, and L. P. McDonald. 2001. "Correlates and Predictors of Risky Sexual Practices among a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of University Students." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 29, pp. 133-144.
Abstract: This research identifies the correlates and predictors of risky sexual behaviors among an ethnically diverse multiethnic sample of college students attending a large state university in the southeastern U.S. (N=338). Nine risk and five protective factors served as independent/predictive factors in the analyses. The dependent variable was scores on a risky sexual behaviors scale. Six of the nine risk factors and four of the five protective factors were significantly correlated with scores on the risky sexual behaviors scale. Regression analyses identified six significant predictors of risky sexual practices: number of partners in last six months; religious values; condom attitudes; age at first sex; hinging on alcohol; and residential locus. These terms explained 29.4% of the total variance in risky sexual behavior scores. Implications for prevention programs and future research are noted. [Source: SC]

Paradise, J. E., J. Cote, S. Minsky, A. Lourenco, and J. Howland. 2001. "Personal Values and Sexual Decision-Making among Virginal and Sexually Experienced Urban Adolescent Girls." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 28, pp. 404-409.
Abstract: Purpose: To guide the development of an intervention to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in urban, adolescent girls, we investigated such girls' reasons for deciding to have or not to have sexual intercourse. Methods: Consecutive girls greater than or equal to 14 years of age attending an urban adolescent clinic were invited to complete an anonymous survey about sexual decision-making. In this pilot study, girls were asked: (a) whether they agreed with a statement that they had or had not had sexual intercourse "because of my values and beliefs"; and (b) to select from a list one or more specific reasons why they had or had not had intercourse. The girls were categorized by self-report as either "virgins," "currently inactive" (no intercourse in the preceding 3 months), or "currently active" (had intercourse during the preceding 3 months). Results: Usable surveys were obtained from 197 adolescents whose age (18.2 +/- 2.6 years) and race (69% black) were comparable to those of clinic attendees in general. Forty girls (20%; age 16.1 +/- 2.1 years) were virgins, 25 girls (13%; age 17.8 +/- 2.3 years) were inactive, and 132 girls (67%; age 18.9 +/- 2.5 years) were currently active. "Values and beliefs" were cited as the reason for decisions about sexual behavior by 53% of the virgins, but only by 24% of the sexually inactive and 24% of the sexually active girls (p = .002). Virgins were more likely than inactive girls to cite three specific reasons for not having sex: "not the right thing for me now" (82% vs. 50%, p = .007), "waiting until I am older" (69% vs. 8%, p = .001), and "waiting until I am married" (67% vs. 38%, p = .02). The reason "against my religious beliefs" was cited by 23% of virgins and 13% of inactive girls (p = not significant). Personal values were implicit in the two specific reasons for having sex that active girls chose most frequently, namely, "I like/love the person" (86%) and "I like having sex" (37%), although only 24% of these girls had explicitly cited "values and beliefs" as their reason for having sex. Conclusions: Our data indicate that urban girls, both those who have had sexual intercourse and those who have not, view their sexual behavior as being based on personal (although infrequently religious) values. Many of the virginal urban, adolescent girls we surveyed hold abstinence as a personal value. The sexually active adolescents perceive the decision to have sexual intercourse as being based affirmatively on their personal values rather than on the chance occurrence of opportunities to have intercourse. These data may be useful in the development of new strategies for reducing urban adolescent girls' risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. [Source: SC]

Rosenthal, S. L., K. M. Von Ranson, S. Cotton, F. M. Biro, L. Mills, and P. A. Succop. 2001. "Sexual Initiation - Predictors and Developmental Trends." Sexually Transmitted Diseases vol. 28, pp. 527-532.
Abstract: Background: Early initiation of sexual intercourse is associated with increased risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. Goal: To examine variables related to sexual initiation and developmental changes in the reasons why adolescent girls have sexual intercourse. Study Design: A longitudinal study of girls recruited from an adolescent medicine clinic was performed. Results: Logistic regression showed that girls who described their families as being expressive, having a moral-religious emphasis, providing supervision, and having greater maternal education, and who experienced menarche at an older age were older at sexual initiation. On the basis of contingency analyses, younger girls were less likely to report attraction or love, and more likely to report peers having sex as a reason for sexual intercourse at initiation. A generalized estimating equation analysis indicated that girls at younger ages are more likely to report curiosity, a grown-up feeling, partner pressure, and friends having sexual intercourse as reasons for intercourse. Girls at older ages are more likely to report a feeling of being in love, physical attraction, too excited to stop, drunk or high partner, and feeling romantic as reasons for having sexual intercourse. Conclusions: Prevention programs should include a focus on familial characteristics and susceptibility to peer norms. They should be conducted with sensitivity to the developmental changes in intimate relationships that occur during adolescence. [Source: SC]

Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege. 2001. "Family and Peer Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors in Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males." Dr.P.H. Thesis, Loma Linda University.
Abstract: In California, pregnancy is one of the most important social problems in adolescence. Although, the teenage pregnancy rate has been decreasing since 1991, the number of babies fathered by males younger than 20 years remains high due to frequent sexual involvement, particularly in Black and Hispanic youths. A total of 178 adolescent males, 88 Blacks and 90 Hispanics, aged 13 to 19 years were selected from a database of a 1996 Youth Survey conducted as part of the local needs assessment in neighborhoods with high rates of teen pregnancy in San Bernardino County, California. The purpose of this study was to assess the sexual attitudes and behaviors, and to investigate the relationships of family and peer factors and the dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model with sexual involvement in the study population. Nearly 67% of the sample were sexually experienced. Of them, 71% were Blacks and 63% were Hispanics. Approximately, 36% of Blacks and 33% of Hispanics reported being sexually experienced by age 13 years. Almost 43% of Blacks and 40% of Hispanics reported that they had sexual intercourse during the month preceding the survey. Both Black and Hispanic adolescent males who had been sexually experienced reported a strong belief that sexual intercourse validates masculinity and increases a closeness to a girlfriend. Findings from the multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that, as exposure to the family and peer risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of sexual involvement in both Black and Hispanic respondents. Black adolescent males were more likely to be influenced by having a father who had been a teen dad (OR = 2.8), whereas Hispanics were more likely to be influenced by having a sibling who had been a teen parent (OR = 9.8). Black and Hispanic respondents who perceived peer pressure as a reason to engage in sexual behaviors were twice as likely to engage in sexual behavior themselves, when compared with those who were not influenced by their peers. Two dimensions of the expanded Health Belief Model, perceived benefits of sexual intercourse and perceived self-efficacy of refusing sexual intercourse predicted sexual involvement in both ethnic groups. Results of this study can be used to design comprehensive health education and social programs that involve parents, youths, siblings, peers, church leaders, community groups, and school teachers. These programs should be culturally appropriate in order to help Black and Hispanic teens take control over their sexual behaviors. Recommendations include a longitudinal design to explore the factors that influence some adolescent males abstain from engaging in sexual behaviors until a later age. [Source: DA]

Sharpe, T. T. 2001. "Sex-for-Crack-Cocaine Exchange, Poor Black Women, and Pregnancy." Qualitative Health Research vol. 11, pp. 612-630.
Abstract: A sample of 34 poor Black women who exchanged sex for crack was screened to discover if sex-for-crack exchanges resulted in pregnancies. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with women who became pregnant this way. Out of the 34 women, 18 reported sex-for-crack pregnancies, and more than half of that number became pregnant this way more than once. Twenty-nine pregnancies were reported. Only 2 women chose to have abortions. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analytical procedures. The following three issues shaped the women's responses to sex-for-crack pregnancies: (a) severity of crack use, (b) religious beliefs, and (c) social organization patterns within poor Black communities. The findings have implications for drug treatment and child welfare policy. [Source: SC]

Wilcox, B. L., S. S. Rostosky, B. A. Randall, and M. L. Comer Wright. 2001. Adolescent Religiosity and Sexual Behavior: A Research Review. Washington, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Bearman, Peter S. and Hannah Bruckner. 2000. "Promising the Future: Virginity Pledges as They Affect Transition to First Intercourse." Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research, Columbia University.

Figlio, David and Jens Ludwig. 2000. "Sex, Drugs, and Catholic Schools: Private Schooling and Non-Market Adolescent Behaviors." Columbia University.

Hogan, Dennis P., Rongjun Sun, and Gretchen T. Cornwell. 2000. "Sexual and Fertility Behaviors of American Females Aged 15-19 Years: 1985, 1990, and 1995." American Journal of Public Health vol. 90, pp. 1421-1425.
Abstract: Features a study which characterized changes in sexual and reproductive behaviors from 1985-1995 among females aged 15 to 19 years in the United States. Methodology of the study; Results and discussion; Conclusions. Objectives. This study characterized changes in sexual and reproductive behaviors from 1985 through 1995 among American females aged 15 to 19 years and related these changes to family factors. Methods. Nationally representative sample survey data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed with Weibull hazards models of age at first intercourse and first pregnancy and with logistic regression models of contraceptive use at first intercourse and pregnancy outcome. Results. Improvements in the family socioeconomic situations of young women have lessened the risk of teen motherhood, while changes in family structure have increased the risk. Young women whose parents have more than a high school education, who live with both parents, and who attend church delay the timing of first sexual intercourse and are more likely to use a contraceptive. Conclusions. The trend of increases in teenage motherhood has ended owing to a halt in increases in the proportion of sexually active young women and substantial improvement in contraception, with the greatest improvements among those from advantageous family situations. [Source: AS]

Holder, David W., Robert H. Durant, Treniece L. Harris, Jessica Henderson Daniel, Dawn Obeidallah, and Elizabeth Goodman. 2000. "The Association between Adolescent Spirituality and Voluntary Sexual Activity." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 26, pp. 295-302.
Abstract: Described the spectrum of adolescent spirituality and determined the association between dimensions of spirituality and voluntary sexual activity (VSA) in adolescents. Ss were 141 11-25 yr olds who completed a 153-item instrument assessing sociodemographics, psychosocial parameters, and 8 specific aspects of spirituality including: (1) religious attendance, (2) religious importance, (3) intrinsic and (4) extrinsic religious motivation, (5) belief in God, (6) belief in divine support, (7) existential aspects of spirituality, and (8) spiritual interconnectedness. Adolescents were also asked about VSA. Adolescent religious attendance was equally distributed across the categories from "none" to "weekly or greater" attendance. Over 90% felt religion was somewhat important in their lives. Over 85% reported belief in God. 56% percent of respondents reported a history of VSA. Greater importance of religion and higher spiritual interconnectedness with friends were inversely associated with VSA. A multiple logistic regression model including age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and specific denomination of religious faith, importance of religion, and spiritual interconnectedness found that spiritual interconnectedness with friends and age were independent predictors of VSA. [Source: PI]

Karnehm, Amy Lynn. 2000. "The Effects of Parental Practices on Adolescent Sexual Initiation Prior to Age 16." Ph.D. Thesis, The Ohio State University.
Abstract: In my dissertation I examine the transmission of family social capital from parent to child, as it impacts adolescent sexual initiation prior to age 16. I extend the application of James Coleman's ideas and borrow from the conclusions of Alejandro Portes to integrate social capital theory with parenting practices and theories of adolescent sexual behavior. Using the 1979-1996 mother, child, and young adult data files from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), I examine parenting factors (i.e., shared activities as indicators of the parent-child bond, parental support, and parental control) and child and family characteristics (e.g., maternal education, race/ethnicity father presence, maternal aspirations for child's education) that distinguish teens born to young mothers who have "early sex" (initiate prior to age 16), from those who delay their initiation until or past age 16. I also explore how the effects of parenting practices on early sexual initiation differ by gender and by father presence/absence. As hypothesized, children who reported at least monthly church attendance with their parents at age 10 or 11 are more likely to delay their first sex until at least age 16. However, contrary to expectations, children whose mothers took them to cultural performances were more likely to have had sex before age 16. This level of analysis suggests that early background characteristics may be more important than parental practices in predicting early sexual initiation. This dissertation concludes by suggesting a need for a more intensive examination of the relationship between family interaction processes and early sexual initiation than is possible with a large-scale data set such as the NLSY. [Source: DA]

Lammers, C., M. Ireland, M. Resnick, and R. Blum. 2000. "Influences on Adolescents' Decision to Postpone Onset of Sexual Intercourse: A Survival Analysis of Virginity among Youths Aged 13 to 18 Years." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 26, pp. 42-48.
Abstract: Background: Previous research has focused on risk factors associated with early onset of sexual intercourse among adolescents. This study hypothesizes that protective factors identified for other health compromising behaviors are also protective against early onset of sexual intercourse. The study sample included 26,023 students in grades 7-12 (87.5% white, 52.5% male) who did not report a history of sexual abuse in a statewide survey of adolescent health in 1988. Methods: Bivariate analyses were stratified into early (13-14 years), middle (15-16 years) and late (17-18 years) adolescence and by gender, Cox proportional hazards survival analysis, stratified by gender, was used to determine risk and protective factors associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Results: Variables showing a significant bivariate association with lower levels of sexual activity across all age groups and genders were: dual-parent families, higher socioeconomic status (SES), better school performance, greater religiosity, absence of suicidal thoughts, feeling adults or parents cared, and high parental expectations. High levels of body pride were associated with higher levels of sexual activity for all age and gender groups. In the multivariate survival analyses, variables significantly associated with delayed onset of sexual activity for both males and females included: dual-parent families, higher SES, residing in rural areas, higher school performance, concerns about the community, and higher religiosity. High parental expectations were a significant protective factor for males but not for females. Conclusion: While many protective factors are not subject to intervention, the present analyses indicate that teen pregnancy prevention may be enhanced by addressing family and educational factors, [Source: SC]

McClure, Regina M. 2000. "Attitudinal Correlates of Abortion among Female Adolescent Offenders." Ph.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was twofold, to examine: (a) the association between age and the percentage of pregnancies ending in abortion, and (b) the relationships between abortion attitudes, and religious participation and unwanted sexual experiences. This study is important in that it utilized a nonclinical, at-risk sample of Black and Latina female adolescents and measured a large, diverse group of demographic and risk variables. One hundred female adolescent offenders were administered a questionnaire to assess (a) number of pregnancies, (b) number of abortions, (c) abortion attitudes, and (d) frequency of religious participation. The Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire measured exposure to unwanted sexual experiences. A correlational approach produced inconclusive results; however, demographic characteristics identified for this at-risk group can inform pregnancy prevention and options counseling. [Source: DA]

Miller, K. S., R. Forehand, and B. A. Kotchick. 2000. "Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Two Ethnic Minority Groups: A Multisystem Perspective." Adolescence vol. 35, pp. 313-333.
Abstract: Adolescents are at high risk for a number of negative health consequences associated with early and unsafe sexual activity, such as infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as unintended pregnancy. In the present study, a multisystem model was applied to one adolescent sexual behavior, penile-vaginal intercourse. Nine hundred seven Black and Hispanic adolescents (aged 14 to 17 years) and their mothers were interviewed. Factors from three systems (self, family, and extrafamilial) that are influential in the lives of adolescents were evaluated using four outcome measures. Factors from most or all systems emerged as predictors of each outcome measure. A cumulative risk index suggested a linear relationship between the number of systems identified as being at risk and indicators of adolescent sexual behavior. The implications for prevention are discussed. [Source: ML]

Monson, Bruce H. 2000. "Four Levels of Sexual Involvement, and Their Association with Dating Patterns, Family Relationships, and Other Related Factors." Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University.
Abstract: This study examined four levels of sexual involvement among adolescents. Levels of sexual involvement were (1) adolescents who had experienced sexual intercourse; (2) adolescents who had been involved in petting but had never had intercourse; (3) adolescents who had made out but had never petted or had sexual intercourse; and (4) adolescents who had never made out, petted, or had sexual intercourse. The sample consisted of 308 eleventh graders from a semi-rural area of the state of Utah. Dating patterns, particularly early age at first date, were found to be significantly associated with most levels of sexual involvement. Early age at first date was associated with a high level of sexual involvement, with 90% of the adolescents who dated at age 13 or before having experienced sexual intercourse by their junior year in high school. Having a steady boyfriend or girlfriend was also associated with a higher level of sexual involvement, with 58% of those who reported having a steady dating partner reporting sexual intercourse involvement. Close relationships with family, father, and mother were more predictive of less female involvement in sexual activity than male. Relationship with mother was not significant for adolescent male sexual involvement. Having peers who approved of adolescent sexual involvement was more associated with male than female sexual activity. Higher frequency of church attendance was a strong predictor of less sexual involvement for both genders. More factors proved to be predictive of adolescent female than male sexual activity on all levels of sexual involvement. A history of sexual abuse and having high educational goals were significantly associated with female sexual involvement only. [Source: DA]

Parker, Shandowyn L. 2000. "Family Environment and Sexual Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Abstract: Many interventions have addressed risk-taking behavior as they pertain to sexual risk behaviors. Such interventions have mainly addressed the influence of peers and the environment in adolescent risk-taking behavior. Few studies have addressed the role of family environment in adolescent risk-taking behavior. The aims of the study were to develop a measure to assess family environment, to evaluate the psychometric properties of the family environment measure, and to assess associations between family environment constructs and outcome variables, such as condom use, sexually transmitted diseases history, drug use history, and parental communication. The study assessed 4 constructs of family environment: family cohesion, family conflict, family expressiveness, and family moral religious emphasis. The findings from this study showed that family cohesion was a significant predictor of healthy behaviors among African American adolescent females 14-18 years old residing in Jefferson County, Alabama. [Source: DA]

Rivers, Monica Corbitt. 2000. "Resisting Risk: The Protective Roles of Family Environment and Personal Resilience among African-American Adolescent Girls Living in Low-Income Neighborhoods." Ph.D. Thesis, Vanderbilt University.
Abstract: Personal resilience was examined as a mediator of the influence of specific family environment variables (cohesion, control, achievement-orientation, moral-religious emphasis, and conflict) on selected developmental outcomes (academic achievement, alcohol and tobacco use, sexual behavior, and delinquent behavior) in African-American early adolescent girls. The sample included 106 10 to 12 year old African-American girls living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Findings provided no evidence of a direct effect of family environment on developmental outcomes; therefore, the hypothesized mediational model could not be tested. Additional analyses, however, revealed significant direct effects of personal resilience on two developmental outcomes under investigation, alcohol and tobacco use and delinquent behavior. Possible explanations for the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. [Source: DA]

Rotheram-Borus, M. J. 2000. "Expanding the Range of Interventions to Reduce HIV among Adolescents." AIDS vol. 14, pp. S33-S40.
Abstract: Objective: Structural interventions are identified to reduce adolescents' HIV risk. Method: The goals, strategies, approaches, and delivery sites of adolescent HIV prevention programs are reviewed. Results: In addition to reducing sexual activity and substance use, HIV prevention programs may also reduce adolescents' HIV risk by: decreasing poverty; ensuring access to HIV testing, healthcare, general social skills training, and employment opportunities; and requiring community service for students. Adolescent HIV prevention programs do not currently utilize diverse modalities (computers, videotapes, television, telephone groups, computerized telephones) or sites (parents' workplaces, religious organizations, self-help networks, primary healthcare clinics) for delivering interventions. Diversifying current approaches to HIV prevention include: economic development programs; mandating delivery of programs at key developmental milestones (e.g, childbirth, marriage) and settings (school-based clinics, condom availability programs); securing changes in legislative and funding policies through ballot initiatives or lawsuits; and privatizing prevention activities. Conclusions: To implement structural HIV interventions for adolescents requires researchers to shift their community norms regarding the value of innovation, adopt designs other than randomized controlled trials, expand their theoretical models, and adopt strategies used by lawyers, private enterprise, and lobbyists. [Source: SC]

Whitaker, D. J., K. S. Miller, and L. F. Clark. 2000. "Reconceptualizing Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Beyond Did They or Didn't They?" Family Planning Perspectives vol. 32, pp. 111-117.
Abstract: Context: Adolescent sexual behavior is typically studied as a dichotomy: Adolescents have had sex or they have not. Broadening this view would lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Methods: Interview data from 907 high school students in Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico were used to examine the relationships between sexual experience and a variety of social, psychological and behavioral variables. Four groups of teenagers are compared: those who did not anticipate initiating sex in the next year (delayers), those who anticipated initiating sex in the next year (anticipators), those who had had one sexual partner (singles) and those who had had two or more partners (multiples). Results: Compared with delayers, anticipators reported more alcohol use and marijuana use; poorer psychological health; riskier peer behaviors; and looser ties to family, school and church. Similarly, multiples reported more alcohol and marijuana use, riskier peer behaviors and looser ties to family and school than singles. Risk behaviors, peer behaviors, family variables, and school and church involvement showed a linear trend across the four categories of sexual behavior. Conclusions: The traditional sex-no sex dichotomy obscures differences among sexually inexperienced teenagers and among adolescents who have had sex. Prevention efforts must be tailored to the specific needs of teenagers with differing sexual experiences and expectations, and must address the social and psychological context in which sexual experiences occur. [Source: SC]

Zaleski, E. H. and K. M. Schiaffino. 2000. "Religiosity and Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior During the Transition to College." Journal of Adolescence vol. 23, pp. 223-227.
Abstract: The degree to which religious identity acts as a protective buffer against sexual risk-taking in late adolescence was investigated in 230 first-year college students. Allport and Ross' Religious Orientation Scale was used to examine the relationship between religiosity, and sexual activity and condom use. Results indicate that greater intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity were associated with less sexual activity and condom use. Therefore religious identification may protect against initiating sexual activity among late adolescents, but may fail to protect against practicing unsafe sex among students who are already sexually active. [Source: SC]

Ali, Heidi Karamat and Anthony Naidoo. 1999. "Sex Education Sources and Attitudes About Premarital Sex of Seventh Day Adventist Youth." Psychological Reports vol. 84, p. 312.
Abstract: 37 Seventh Day Adventist youth were surveyed about their sex education and attitudes towards premarital sex. Analysis indicated differences between their attitudes and actual sexual behaviour. While 70%. endorsed the church's prohibition on premarital sex, 54% had engaged in premarital sex. [Source: PI]

Bearman, P. S. and H. Bruckner. 1999. Power in Numbers: Peer Effects on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Debut and Pregnancy. Washinton, DC: The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Belicose, Raymond Michael. 1999. "The Influences of Cognitive Development and Reference Groups on Teen Contraceptive Use." Thesis, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Abstract: A considerable number of unmarried adolescents are sexually active and not using birth control consistently. This study explored the influences of cognitive development and reference groups on adolescent birth control use and tested two theories through a field study. Changing individual, familial, and societal elements were reviewed, with a focus on the factors attendant upon adolescent sexual activity concomitant with inconsistent contraceptive use. Cognitive Development and Reference Group theories were utilized as frameworks to guide the study. A field study was conducted at an urban high school in order to test the above theories. The sample consisted of 100 never-married, high school students (ages 15 to 18) who voluntarily completed two anonymous questionnaires that revealed information regarding their cognitive levels, religiosity, family communication levels and peer influences as well as their sexual and contraceptive patterns. The data were analyzed in descriptive and qualitative format. Although the sample size was limited, several findings were areas for further exploration and supported in the literature. Female students were significantly more effective users (p $<$ 0.05) of birth control at first intercourse than the males. Independent T-tests showed a significant relationship between students who were inconsistent birth control users and students who reported low levels of family communication (p $<$ 0.001) when compared with effective birth control users. Compatibility, a measure of how well students felt they got along with parents, was significantly higher (p $<$ 0.01) for consistent birth control users than inconsistent users. Where students agreed they could talk with parents about birth control, the highest level of reported communication (73%) was among the consistent birth control users with the lowest among non-consistent users (49%). This category was significantly different (p $<$ 0.05) for consistent and inconsistent birth control users. A relationship between adolescent birth control use and cognitive development was not demonstrated in this study, however, qualitative responses helped to uncover other thought processes affecting birth control use. This study supports the need for future research to focus on the relationship between family communication, adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. [Source: PI]

Benda, Brent B. and Robert Flynn Corwyn. 1999. "Abstinence and Birth Control among Rural Adolescents in Impoverished Families: A Test of Theoretical Discriminators." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 16, pp. 191-214.
Abstract: Studied 357 adolescents (aged 13-17 yrs) who resided with AFDC families in rural Arkansas. Predictors of birth control from sociodemographic variables, control, strain, and differential association theories were examined. Results indicate that all of the study factors, with the marginal exception of attachment to father, showed significant variance between the 3 groups of Ss who had not had sexual intercourse, those who always used birth control, and those who did not always use birth control. The 1st function of the analysis discriminated between Ss who had not had sexual intercourse and those who were sexually active, and indicated that the former (in order of discrimination) were younger, had fewer sexually active friends or family members, were more religious, had more fear of giving birth if sexually active, and had stronger beliefs in the moral validity of societal laws and norms. The 2nd function discriminated between Ss who always used birth control and Ss who did not always use birth control. The significant discriminators (in order of discrimination) showed that Ss who always used birth control attended church more often, were more likely to be persons of color than Caucasian, had closer attachments to their mothers, and presently did not desire a baby to love. [Source: PI]

Darroch, J. E., D. J. Landry, and S. Oslak. 1999. "Age Differences between Sexual Partners in the United States." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 31, pp. 160-167.
Abstract: CONTEXT: Researchers have examined the age of partners of young women at first intercourse and of young women who have given birth, but little is known about the age of partners of young women in current sexual relationships or young women who have had an abortion. METHODS: Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine age differences between women and their current partner and women's use of contraceptives at last intercourse, by marital status and by the age difference between women and their partner. Data from the NSFG and the 1994-1995 Alan Guttmacher Institute Abortion Patient Survey, with supplemental information from other sources, were used to estimate 1994 pregnancy rates for women by their age and marital status, according to the age difference between the women and their partner. RESULTS: Among all sexually active women aged 15-44, 10% had a partner who was three or more years younger, 52% a partner who was within two years of their age, 20% a partner who was 3-5 years older, and 18% a partner who was six or more years older. In contrast, 64% of sexually active women aged 15-17 had a partner within two years of their age, 29% a partner who was 3-5 years older, and 7% a partner who was six or more years older. Among women younger than 18, the pregnancy rate among those with a partner who was six or more years older was 3.7 times as high as the rate among those whose partner was no more than two years older. Among women younger than 18 who became pregnant, those with a partner who was six or more years older were less likely to have an unintended pregnancy (70%) or to terminate an unintended pregnancy (21%) than were those whose partner was no more than two years older (82% and 49%, respectively). Among women younger than 18 who were at risk of unintended pregnancy, 66% of those who had a partner who was six or more years older had practiced contraception at last sex, compared with 78% of those with a partner within two years of their own age. Young women who were Catholic and those who had first had sex with their partner within a relatively committed relationship were less likely to be involved with a man who was six or more years older than were young women who were Protestants and those who first had sex with their partner when they were dating, friends or had just met. Young women who had ever been forced to have sex were twice as likely as those who had not to have a partner who was 3-5 years older. CONCLUSION: Although the proportion of 15-17-year-old women who have a much older partner is small, these adolescents are of concern because of their low rate of contraceptive use and their relatively high rates of pregnancy and birth. Research is needed to determine why some young women have relationships with an older man, and how their partner's characteristics affect their reproductive behavior. [Source: CI]

Doebler, Melanie Kay. 1999. "Successful Outcomes for Rural Young Women: A Longitudinal Investigation of Social Capital and Adolescent Development." Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: The concept of social capital, and the theory of social structure and interpersonal relations that undergirds it, has emerged as an increasingly popular explanation for the successful transition from adolescence to young adulthood. It provides a unique theoretical approach for examining successful youth development because it attempts to integrate seemingly disparate disciplinary explanations into a unified theory. According to Coleman (1988), the capital that is generated through family and community social relations is an essential factor in the successful transition to adulthood. Using longitudinal data collected over 11 years from a sample of rural, white, socially and economically disadvantaged adolescent girls from a single community in Pennsylvania's Appalachian mountains (N = 244), this study investigated the relationship between family-based and community-based social capital in adolescence and positive outcomes in young adulthood. Social capital was assessed by examining data collected during the adolescent phase of the study. Indicators of family-based social capital included family structure, mother working outside the home, number of siblings, and family relations. Community-based social capital measures included family mobility, church attendance, and participation in extra-curricular school activities, vocational activities, and volunteer activities. Outcome data were collected as part of a followup survey administered to the same sample of girls when they reached young adulthood. Indicators of positive outcomes included delaying parenthood beyond age 18, educational attainment which included participation in post-secondary education and graduating from high school, and workforce participation. Logistic regression analyses, which controlled for parental human capital and behavioral trajectory at ninth grade, revealed that family-based and community-based indicators of social capital had no effect on delaying pregnancy or parenthood beyond the age of 18. However, indicators of family-based and community-based social capital were found to be significantly related to post-secondary educational participation, high school graduation, and workforce participation. In other words, those who possessed higher degrees of social capital in adolescence were more likely to further their educations in post-secondary settings, graduate high school, and participate in the workforce as young adults. Participation in extra-curricular school activities, a measure of community-based social capital, had the strongest effect in each of the statistically significant models. [Source: PI]

Donnelly, Joseph, David F. Duncan, Eva Goldfarb, and Carolyn Eadie. 1999. "Sexuality Attitudes and Behaviors of Self-Described Very Religious Urban Students in Middle School." Psychological Reports vol. 85, pp. 607-610.
Abstract: Data from a survey of 869 students aged 11-15 yrs and attending 6 urban middle schools were analyzed to identify differences in sex attitudes and behaviors between self-reported very religious students and their less religious peers. The two groups were demographically similar. They differed on only two attitude items, one suggesting that intercourse was a normal part of teenage dating and the other suggesting intercourse was alright if the two people were in love. The groups did not differ in their estimation of their peers' sexual activity or attitude or in terms of their own intercourse behavior or future intentions. Results do not support the view that the problem of excess teenage pregnancies is the result of loss of religious faith, or that religious instruction is a means to promote sexual abstinence and prevent teen pregnancies. [Source: PI]

D'Onofrio, B. M., L. J. Eaves, L. Murrelle, H. H. Maes, and B. Spilka. 1999. "Understanding Biological and Social Influences on Religious Affiliation, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Behavior Genetic Perspective." Journal of Personality vol. 67, pp. 953-984.
Abstract: Although the transmission of religiousness has been assumed to be purely cultural, behavior genetic studies have demonstrated that genetic factors play a role in the individual differences in some religious traits. This article reviews the extant behavior genetic literature and presents new analyses from the "Virginia 30,000" on the causes of Variation in religious affiliation, attitudes, and practices, and relates these to personality as construed by Eysenck. Results indicate that religious affiliation is primarily a culturally transmitted phenomenon, whereas religious attitudes and practices are moderately influenced by genetic factors. Further, Eysenck's personality traits do not mediate genetic influences on religiousness, but significant negative genetic correlations are found between church attendance and liberal sexual attitudes. Implications and possibilities for future studies are discussed. [Source: SC]

Kew, Richard. 1999. "Whatever Happened to Sleeping Around?" Touchstone: A Journal of Ecumenical Orthodoxy vol. 12, pp. 15-17.

Leader, Ermine Theodora Browne. 1999. "Teenage Pregnancy in St. Kitts-Nevis: Psychosocial and Familial Factors." Thesis, Andrews University, Berrien Springs.
Abstract: Problem. This study was conducted to examine some of the factors that are related to teenage pregnancy in St. Kitts-Nevis. It focused on the relationship between teenage pregnancy and father absence/presence, intergenerational teenage pregnancy, childhood sexual abuse, and domestic violence. A young girl's view of her relationship with both parents, the self-esteem of respondents, and their level of attendance and participation in church-related activities were also studied. Method. Two instruments were incorporated into the questionnaire administered to females in St. Kitts and Nevis between the ages of 12 and 21, some of whom had experienced a pregnancy, and others who had not. These groups were called pregnant and nonpregnant groups. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The Factors Related to Teenage Pregnancy Questionnaire gathered data pertinent to the research questions and other demographic information. Of the 319 respondents, approximately 71% came from St. Kitts and 29% from Nevis. Results. Significant differences were found between both groups on four of the eight variables in the Attitude to Father cluster, and on three of the eight on the Attitude to Mother cluster, with the nonpregnant group giving more positive evaluations of their relationships with parents than the other group. No significant relationship was established between father presence/absence and teenage pregnancy and none was found between teenage pregnancy and intergenerational teenage pregnancy. Significant differences between groups were found on two of the six variables in the Domestic Violence cluster, and a significant relationship was found between childhood sexual abuse and early pregnancy. All five variables in the Attitude to Church factor produced significant differences, but no significant difference was found between the self-esteem scores of both groups. Conclusions. Nonpregnant respondents evaluated their relationships with father and mother more positively than their counterparts. Both groups' experience of father absence/presence was comparable. The data suggest that intragenerational influences on teenage pregnancy are stronger than intergenerational patterns. Domestic violence occurs more frequently in the experience of the pregnant group, as did childhood sexual abuse in which case grandfathers and fathers were the least likely perpetrators and uncles and brothers were the main perpetrators. The nonpregnant group placed higher value on their religious experience, but levels of self-esteem were comparable for both groups. [Source: PI]

Liebowitz, Stephen W., Dolores Calderon Castellano, and Israel Cuellar. 1999. "Factors That Predict Sexual Behaviors among Young Mexican-American Adolescents: An Exploratory Study." Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences vol. 21, pp. 470-479.
Abstract: Investigated the association between teenage sexual activity and the independent variables of child's religiosity, educational goals, educational grades, perception of parent-child communication, self esteem, and perception of parent-child congruity about sexual values. The sample consisted of 413 Mexican American students (aged 11-14 yrs) who were in either the 6th, 7th, or 8th grades. The best predictors of absence of sexual activity were child's religiosity, educational goals, and perception of the congruency of parent-child sexual values. Child's perception of the congruency of parent-child sexual values accounted for more of the variance than any of the other statistically significant predictor variables. This suggests that increasing congruity between parent-child sexual ideas and values is the best preventive measure to delay sexual activity among Mexican American teenagers. [Source: PI]

Thomas, Gary. 1999. "Where True Love Waits." Christianity Today vol. 43, pp. 40-45.

Vogt, Nancy R. 1999. "Correlates of Adolescent Sexual Activity in the Family: A Religious Group." Ph.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual activity has been the subject of considerable research. Among the variables that have been found to correlate with intercourse in this age group are age, self-esteem, closeness with parents, and affiliation with a religious organization. This study examined these variables in 100 girls, ages 12-18, living communally in a uniquely sexually open religious group known as the Family. Only age was found to correlate with sexual intercourse within the group. In addition, results from girls in the Family were compared with data from the Search Institute survey of same-age girls raised noncommunally. Girls in the Family were more involved in religious activity but did not experience intercourse at a greater rate, even though they are permitted to do so from age 16. Though age and intercourse were positively correlated in both groups, parental closeness and religious affiliation decreased with age in the Search group and not for girls in the Family. Also, girls in the Family did not choose intercourse more often than girls raised in more traditional contexts. Further study is recommended to focus on whether adolescent girls believe they must choose between sexual activity and church involvement or closeness with their parents. [Source: PI]

Wynn, Theresa Ann. 1999. "The Sociodemographic, Personal, and Problematic Factors Associated with Sexual Intercourse among a Sample of Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alabama At Birmingham.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between selected sociodemographic, personal, and problematic factors and the onset of coitus among a sample of adolescent females. This study analyzed Black and White adolescent females aged 15 to 19 years that participated in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) Cycle 5. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to perform descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analyses. Alpha levels of.05 and.01 were used for all statistical tests and practical significance was determined by examining the effect sizes of each independent variable. Chi-square analyses revealed that there were associations between the onset of coitus and respondents' age, race, education level of parents, school dropout, and cigarette smoking. Mann-Whitney U analyses found the valuing of one's religion and church attendance to be inversely associated with sexual intercourse. There was no association between an adolescent's educational aspirations and the onset of coitus. Chi-square analyses also found parent-child birth control and pregnancy communication to be significantly associated with engagement in sexual intercourse; however, there was no association between parent-child sexually transmitted disease (STD) communication and engagement in coitus. Similarly, chi-square analyses revealed that having received formal sex education on safe sex practices, abstinence, STD, and birth control did not increase or decrease adolescents' onset of coitus. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the overall percentage predicted correctly by the variables used in this equation for ever engaging in sexual intercourse was 70.26%. The strongest predictors in their order of strength were age, church attendance, having talked with parents about birth control, having dropped out of school, and race. This investigation provided implications for health educators and recommendations for the field of health education promotion. [Source: PI]

Zacharioudakis, Manos Antonis. 1999. "Problem Behaviors of Greek-American Adolescents: The Relationship of Ethnic Identification to Risks and Protective Factors." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John's University (New York).
Abstract:In a cross-sectional study of 257 Greek-American (GA) adolescents from across the US (ages 16-19, 72% female, 93% USA born) the incidence and psychosocial corrlates of problem behaviors (PB) (i.e. smoking, drinking, marijuana, heavy drugs, sexual intercourse, deviant behaviors) were explored. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory's (PBT) generalizability in this population were examined. Differences in PB incidence, risks, and predictors, explored through correlational and multiple regression analyses, across GA ethnic identification, gender, and school status (i.e. high school-college) were found. The findings generally supported PBT. Strong positive intercorrelations among all PB, all (but one) positive intercorrelations among prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behaviors were documented, as hypothesized. The "one latent factor of general deviance" hypothesis found support for males, but not for females or the total sample. Higher Greek-identified youth showed higher drinking, smoking, and deviance, and lower marijuana/drug use and sexual experience scores, compared to lower Greek-identified youth, but these differences were due to SES differences and disappeared when SES factors were partialled out. Family cohesiveness showed protective main effects for most PB but no interaction with ethnicity effects. Family adaptability failed to show any significant effects. Significant gender differences were found: males showed higher marijuana, alcohol use, deviance scores, and sexual promiscuity and less diet/laxative pill use that females (no smoking or heavier drug use gender differences were found). Females showe higher levels of religiosity, stressful events and psychopathology (i.e. anxiety and general symptomatology, but not depression). College students showed higher scores for most PB (except heavy drugs or deviance). Youth from non-intact parental marriages showed significantly higher levels of all PB while intact family incidence showed a positive correlation to Greek ethnic identity. In predicting the total sample's PBindex, in decreasing order, friends' regular engagement In smoking/drinking/marjuana use/sex, time going to bed on weekends, stressful life events, relative parent-friend influence, non-acceptance of premarital sex by youth, intolerance of deviance, parental approval of PB, and age, were the significant predictors. Significant differences in predictors were found among ethnic, gender, and college-status subgroups (e.g. a high contribution of PBT "personality" variables only for high Greek identifiers, of family cohesion for females, and of "perceived environment" factors--i.e. friends models and parental controls--for males). [Source: DA]

Brewster, Karin L., Elizabeth C. Cooksey, David K. Guilkey, and Ronald R. Rindfuss. 1998. "The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 60, pp. 493-504.
Abstract: Studied the impact of religious affiliation on intercourse risk and contraceptive use among adolescent women during the 1980s when church-based groups were increasingly involved in debates over reproductive and family issues. However, adolescent nonmarital intercourse and birth rates were rising, suggesting that religious organizations, even as their visibility increased, became less effective at transmitting their values. The authors pooled data from 2 national surveys conducted in 1982 and 1988 and found that affiliation had modest, but stable, effects among Black teens. Among Whites, the impact of a fundamentalist Protestant affiliation increased. White fundamentalists were less likely to be sexually active in 1988 than in 1982. [Source: PI]

Conley, O. Stephen. 1998. "Early Sexual Onset: A Study of the Relationship between Social and Psychological Factors in the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health." Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to utilize the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Wave I) to develop models to predict the onset of sexual intercourse before the age of 16, the experience of forced sexual intercourse for females and the choice to have multiple sexual partners with both genders. One cross-sectional wave of the public use dataset from this large nationally representative study (Add Health) was analyzed. Social and psychological variables were tested through logistic regressions and descriptive statistics. Findings demonstrated that 41.5% of male adolescents and 37.3% of female adolescents in the sample had experienced sexual intercourse. More than half of the nonvirgin subjects (53.1%) reported beginning sexual intercourse by the age of 16. Initial predictive models found that black males who report having trouble with teachers ($p < .01$), early dating onset ($p < .05$) and use cigarettes ($p < .05$) are more likely to experience sexual intercourse prior to the age of 16 (N = 563). A second model found black males more likely to experience intercourse prior to age 16 if they report having trouble with teachers ($p < .01$), early dating onset ($p < .05$), use cigarettes ($p < .05$), see religion as very important in their lives ($p < .05$), have a mother who has received welfare payments ($p < .05$), and began early use of marijuana ($p < .05$).When all races and genders were assessed in model predicting sexual intercourse before age 16, ($N = 5,702$) several factors showed significance at the $p < .01$ level. These included early dating onset, failure of one or more of four core subjects, being African American, using cigarettes, having a mother who has received welfare, having been expelled from school, females experiencing forced sexual intercourse, father's attitude that is accepting of adolescents having sex with a steady girlfriend or boyfriend, use of alcohol outside of the family, early marijuana use, trouble with teachers and not feeling loved and wanted. African American youth were more than three times as likely as other races to experience sexual intercourse under age 16. Young women who had been forced to have sexual intercourse were more than three times as likely as those who had not been forced to experience sexual intercourse under age 16. A model (N = 3,080) predicting females who are forced to have sexual intercourse found significance at the $p < .01$ level for the following factors: early dating onset, African American, no residential father in the home, cigarette use, being expelled from school, use of alcohol outside of the family, and not feeling loved and wanted. Conversely, a model predicting males who force females to have intercourse found highest significance if there was no father in the home, the mother had received welfare, and parents were accepting of adolescent sexual intercourse with a steady girlfriend. Multiple partners were predicted in the final logistic regression model (N = 1,400) if the subject was male, had friends who used cigarettes, used alcohol outside of the family, had been dishonest with parents about whereabouts and for females, if they had experienced forced sexual intercourse. Implications of the findings for program and policy development are discussed, and recommendations are made for additional research with the Add Health public use dataset. [Source: DA]

Fehring, Richard J., Kerry H. Cheever, Karyn German, and Connie Philpot. 1998. "Religiosity and Sexual Activity among Older Adolescents." Journal of Religion and Health vol. 37, pp. 229-247.

Hughes, Jean Susan. 1998. "The Relationship of Leisure Lifestyle to Selected Risk Behaviors of Adolescents." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Arkansas.
Abstract: Currently, there is a need to develop holistic models that address the multidimensional, psychosocial determinants of adolescent risk behavior. Approximately 40% of an adolescent's waking hours are unstructured, unsupervised discretionary time. This study surveyed 114 students in an alternative high school program. A risk behavior index was developed that was a composite measure of the incidence and severity of adolescent pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, substance use, undereducation, and stress. Using simultaneous regression, the risk index was examined in relation to (1) selected leisure variables of intrinsic leisure motivation, leisure constraints, leisure satisfaction and leisure interests; (2) selected social variables of gender, age, employment status of mother, income, number of adults in the household, relationship with parents, ruralness and number of siblings; (3) selected personal variables of school discipline problems, grade point average, absences, employment status of subject, and weekend curfew; and (4) selected group belonging variables of gang membership church membership, school athletics, school club, youth group, and community recreation agency. The leisure related measures used the intrinsic leisure motivation scale of Weissinger and Bandalos (1995), the leisure constraint scale of Raymore, Godbey, Crawford, and von Eye (1993), the leisure satisfaction scale of Ragheb and Beard (1980), and the leisure interest scale of Beard and Ragheb (1992). The results showed a negative relationship of the risk index to intrapersonal constraints, outdoor leisure interests and belonging to a church. There was a significant positive relationship between the risk index and belonging to a gang, working, problems at school and grade point average. None of the social variables were related to risk behavior. The significance of the study is the development of a risk index as a composite score. The study indicates a need to measure adolescent interests in order to meet their needs and create more involvement in structured settings. [Source: PI]

Hunter, Marcia. 1998. "The Experience of Mothering and Its Relationship to Adolescent Childbearing." Thesis, The Fielding Inst, Santa Barbara.
Abstract: This study investigated whether or not pregnant, maternally deprived adolescent females have lower levels of separation-individuation and ego identity formation than neverpregnant, nonmaternally deprived teens. Data were collected from 70 adolescents, most of whom were Caucasian and living in small towns in the northeast part of the United States. Data collection sites included high school parenting programs, medical offices, teen drop-in centers, and shelters for homeless teenagers. The sample was divided into 4 groups: 24 in the Neverpregnant/Nonmaternally deprived group, 15 in the Pregnant, Nonmaternally deprived group, 16 in the Neverpregnant/Maternally deprived group, and 15 in the Pregnant/Maternally deprived group. Each participant completed a Background Data Schedule, a Childhood Experience Questionnaire, and 2 self-report measures: (The Separation Individuation Test of Adolescence (SITA), The Ego Identity Scale (EIS). Two other self-report measures, The Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire and The Personality Assessment Questionnaire, were used to operationalize maternal deprivation status. Primary data analysis was by MANOVA and ANOVA. When the groups were compared for demographic differences, several significant variances were found. The groups differed in Paternal age, Maternal age, Paternal employment status, Paternal grade completed, Maternal grade completed, Number of maternal children, and Teen religion. Predictions that pregnant, maternally deprived adolescents would show lower levels of separation individuation and ego identity formation than neverpregnant, nonmaternally deprived teens were not supported. However, main effects were found when the groups were compared separately by pregnancy and maternal deprivation status. Pregnant participants had significantly lower scores than neverpregnant participants on the Nurturance and Healthy Separation subscales of the SITA. They also had significantly lower Total Ego Identity scores and significantly lower scores on 4 of the 6 subscales of the EIS (Early Childhood, Play Age, School Age, Adolescence). Maternally deprived participants had significantly lower scores on the Nurturance, Healthy Separation, and Rejection Expectancy subscales of the SITA than Nonmaternally deprived teens. Maternally deprived adolescents also had significantly lower Total Ego Identity scores than Nonmaternally deprived teens. Although results did not show an interaction between adolescent pregnancy and maternal deprivation, the findings do indicate developmental disruption related to the separate conditions of pregnancy and maternal deprivation in adolescent females. [Source: PI]

Medoff, M. H. 1998. "Estimates of the Abortion Demand of Young and Older Teenagers." Population Research and Policy Review vol. 17, pp. 539-549.
Abstract: This study estimates the demand for abortion by younger (ages 15-17) and older (ages 18-19) teenagers. The empirical results show, for both age groups, abortion demand is price inelastic and a normal good with respect to income. Teenage abortion demand is also found to be positively related to labor force participation and state Medicaid funding and negatively related to religiosity and unemployment. State family planning programs, AFDC benefits, and parental involvement laws are found not to be significant determinants of teenage abortion demand. [Source: SC]

Moore, Kristin A., Jennifer Manlove, Dana A. Glei, and Donna R. Morrison. 1998. "Nonmarital School-Age Motherhood: Family, Individual, and School Characteristics." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 13, pp. 433-457.
Abstract: Nationally representative data from the National Center for Education Statistics were analyzed to examine individual-, family-, & school-level predictors of nonmarital motherhood for adolescents in grades 8-12. All independent variables were measured in 8th grade, & the analyses were repeated separately for black & white adolescents (total N = 7,930 girls, of whom 471 had given birth). Results show that school safety was an important predictor of nonmarital motherhood. However, school context did not override family- & individual-level effects. Low individual educational performance measures, eg, lower test scores & self-reported grades, predicted a higher risk of early motherhood, as did being held back in school & repeatedly changing schools. A substantial level of involvement in school clubs & religious organization was associated with lower risk of school-age motherhood. [Source: SA]

O'Conner, M. L. 1998. "Religion Plays a Growing Role in White Teenagers Sexual Decision-Making." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 30, pp. 295- 296.

Poulson, Ronald L., Marion A. Eppler, Tammy N. Satterwhite, Karl L. Wuensch, and Lessie A. Bass. 1998. "Alcohol Consumption, Strength of Religious Beliefs, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students." Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 227-232.

Sawyer, Robin G., Paul J. Pinciaro, and Anne Anderson Sawyer. 1998. "Pregnancy Testing and Counseling-a University Health Center's 5-Year Experience." Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 221-225.

Scharf, Alice Anne. 1998. "Environmental Stress, Potential Protective Factors, and Adolescent Risk-Taking." Ph.D. Thesis, Fordham University, New York.
Abstract: Recent research has examined the impact of various risk and protective factors on adolescent risk-taking behaviors; however these studies have been narrowly focused and often included aggregated indices measuring involvement in several behaviors. The present study examined contributions of life event stress and daily hassles as risk factors and religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance as protective factors for five separate behaviors including: adolescent alcohol use, marijuana use, delinquent behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and the potential for dropping out of school. Participants included 201 urban and mostly minority high school students from all four grades. Results from simultaneous regression analyses demonstrated the following eight significant interactions: life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for alcohol use; life events and extrinsic religiosity and life events and intrinsic religiosity for marijuana use; life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for delinquent behaviors; and life events and extrinsic religiosity for the potential for dropping out of school. Only main effects were found to be significant for levels of risky sexual behaviors. Being male significantly predicted higher levels of delinquent behaviors and risky sexual behaviors. All other demographics inconsistently predicted levels of risk-taking behaviors. For males, significant interactions were found for alcohol use and delinquent behaviors. And for females, significant interactions included life event stress with extrinsic religiosity and life event stress with intrinsic religiosity for alcohol use. Results indicate that levels of religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance generally had moderating effects for adolescents experiencing high levels of life events or daily hassles. Contributions of both stressors to higher levels of all five risk-taking behaviors suggest that involvement in these behaviors may be maladaptive ways to cope with stress. High levels of protective factors appear to guard adolescents against involvement in substance use, delinquency, and the potential for dropping out of school. Adolescents facing high levels of stress who have low levels of protective factors are at particular risk for engagement in risk-taking behaviors in response to stress. [Source: DA]

Spear, Hila J. 1998. "Teenage Pregnancy: The Experiences of Adolescent Females Who Attend an Alternative School." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Abstract: Teenage pregnancy is considered to be a major social and community health problem. One out of ten adolescent girls in the United States experiences pregnancy (Trussel 1990; Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1994). During adolescence, pregnancy impacts the physiological, psychological, and sociological health status of females. Moreover, pregnancy can have long-term physical, psychological, educational, and occupational effects on female adolescents as they move toward adulthood (Santelli & Kirby, 1992; Trad, 1994). The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of pregnant adolescent females. More specifically, the individual adolescent's perceptions and personal perspectives related to the experience of pregnancy were studied. A naturalistic design was used. A purposive sample of participants was solicited from an alternative school program for pregnant teens. The primary data collection method was the use of in-depth interviewing. Other data included field notes and demographic information. In addition, the researcher became a participant observer at the alternative school and observed and interacted with the participants and other students. Peer auditing and debriefing were important components of the analysis process. Intense analysis of cases extracted from the narrative data revealed the following topical categories: (1) decision-making, (2) contraceptive behavior and sexual attitudes, (3) attitudes of self and others about pregnancy, (4) interpersonal relationships, (5) self-perception, (6) fears, (7) personal change, (8) responsibility, and (9) future expectations. In addition, broader themes, characteristic of the participants' experiences as a whole, were identified and developed. Themes included fantasy thinking, religion and fate, propensity for violence, fragmentation of pregnancy, parenting, and marriage, and to be nurtured and to nurture. The findings indicated that the participants viewed pregnancy as a challenging yet fairly normative event. Decisions regarding what to do about their pregnancies were made with relatively little deliberation and influenced primarily by their mothers. All participants opted to continue with their pregnancies and planned to parent. Overall, pregnancy was perceived by the participants as an event that would have little long-term impact on their lives. They expressed a sense of hopefulness and confidence in their futures related to their abilities to manage parenthood, achieve educational goals, and maintain supportive interpersonal relationships with the fathers of their babies and families. [Source: PI]

Spencer, Jennifer Michael. 1998. "Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Initiation of Coitus in Early Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington.
Abstract: Adolescents in the United States are initiating coital behavior at earlier ages and in larger percentages than ever before (Sonenstein, Pleck, & Ku, 1991; Centers for Disease Control, 1991). As a result, they are at risk at younger ages and for longer periods of time for the problems associated with sexual activity, such as unplanned pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Prior studies of early adolescent sexual behavior have targeted demographic, social and physiological variables. Race/ethnicity (Aneshensel, Becerram Fielder, & Schuler, 1990; Zelnik, Kantner & Ford, 1981), socioeconomic status, (Furstenberg, Morgan, Moore, & Peterson, 1987, Hogan & Kitagawa, 1985) family structure (Hogan & Kitagawa, 1985, Zelnik, et al, 1981), and religiosity (Thronton & Camburn, 1989) all have been found to be significantly associated with the adolescent's decision to engage in coitus (Miller, Christenson and Olson 1987; Simmons, Blyth & VanCleave, 2979; Biglan, Metzler, Wirt, Ary, Noell, Ochs, French & Hood, 1990; Halpern, Udry, Campbell & Suchindran, 1993; Chilman, 1980; Udry, 1982). Strong evidence has also been presented linking initiation of coitus with early pubertal maturation. However, the relationship of psychological factors, such as self-esteem, to initiation of intercourse has received relatively little attention in the research literature. Using a framework based on the available literature and the tenets of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977), this longitudinal study of early adolescents (age 12-14) explores gender differences in self-esteem as a predictor of subsequent initiation of coitus in early adolescents. Results confirm that gender differences in self-esteem exist, with higher levels self-esteem being predictive of sexual debut for boys, and lower levels of self-esteem being predictive of sexual debut for girls. [Source: DA]

August Prudhomme, Nellie R. 1997. "The Relationship between Family Functioning and Female Adolescent Sexual Behavior." D.N.S. Thesis, Louisiana State University Medical Ctr. in New Orleans S. of Nursing.
Abstract: A descriptive exploratory design was used to examine the relationship of sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning levels, family and community socioeconomic status, and peer relationships to adolescent sexual behavior. Four questionnaires (Demographic Profile, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale, and an Index of Peer Relations) were administered to 101 African American female adolescent volunteers. Means, standard deviations, and frequency distributions were used to describe sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects, and frequency distributions were used to describe the sexual activity of the subjects. The associations between the dependent and independent variables were examined, using the Chi-Square statistic, Fisher's Exact test, and t-tests. Results indicated an association between age, neighborhood socioeconomic status, church attendance, grade point average, educational aspirations, and family cohesion levels and sexual activity status among the subjects. Although the differences fell short of statistical significance, trends related to parent's home ownership, family types, parent-adolescent communication, and single-parent household structures were consistent with those of earlier investigations. Implications for nursing include assessing family functioning and the interrelationships of family members and the adolescent in the family setting. The results of this assessment can be used to guide clinical programs for counseling and strengthening families with adolescents. [Source: DA]

Feldman, Linda, Philippa Holowaty, Bart Harvey, Katherine Rannie, Linda Shortt, and Alykhan Jamal. 1997. "A Comparison of the Demographic, Lifestyle, and Sexual Behaviour Characteristics of Virgin and Non-Virgin Adolescents." Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality vol. 6, pp. 197-209.
Abstract: Compares the demographic, lifestyle, & sexual behavior characteristics of 605 virgin & 321 nonvirgin adolescents, drawing on 1994 self-administered questionnaire data from students, grades 9-13, living near Toronto, Ontario. A Multiple logistic regression model showed that variables significantly associated with being a virgin were being in grades 9-11, being female, doing 14+ hours a week of homework, & stating ethnicity as Asian, while those significantly associated with nonvirginity were involvement in a serious relationship in the previous 12 months, masturbation or oral sex of or by a partner, heavy drinking, drinking & driving, daily smoking, & doing 5 or fewer hours of homework per week. Parent education, birthplace, religious attendance, TV/computer/telephone use, physical activity, feelings of happiness, family functioning, & satisfaction with serious relationship were not significantly associated with virginity status. In addition, nonvirgins who had had a serious relationship in the previous 12 months were significantly less likely to state that they were very likely to use condoms than those who had not been in a serious relationship. Some 19% of virgins had engaged in either masturbation or oral sex of or by a partner. Among nonvirgins, 46% used condoms every time during the previous five times they had vaginal or anal intercourse, & 16% of nonvirgins had experienced anal intercourse. Findings are discussed in relation to the sexual health education needs of adolescents. [Source: SA]

Lewis, Averetta Elizabeth. 1997. "The Relationship of Age, Religiosity, and Depression on Risk-Related Behaviors among African-American Mothers." Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of age, religiosity, and depression on risk related behaviors among African-American mothers. An aspect of risk behaviors that has gained increased attention is sexual risk behavior. The rise of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), human immunovirus (HIV), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are rising in the African-American female population. However, missing in the literature are studies that correlate the risk related behaviors, religiosity, and depression in adolescent and adult African-American mothers. An integrated framework derived from the Health Belief Model and the Social Control Theory was used to guide the study. It is believed that adult mothers being more mature, are less likely to engage in risk related behaviors than are adolescent mothers. In a retrospective, exploratory study, using secondary analysis of data, a data set of 127, (78 adolescent African-American mothers--ages 12-17) and (49 adult African-American mothers ages 18 and older) was analyzed. This data set was obtained from the Ethnic Families Research Project (EFRP) of H. P. McAdoo, PhD conducted in 1994-1997. Three areas were examined: First, age, as it relates to risky behaviors, is explored using five risk-related indicators: (a) the inconsistent or lack of use of birth control; (b) the non use of condoms or abstinence (as compared to all of those not using birth control other than condoms and all of those who are not using birth control); (c) experienced an unwanted pregnancy and birth; (d) experienced an unwanted miscarriage or abortion; and (e) the use of illicit drugs. Second, the relationship of depression to risky sexual behaviors is examined through the use of the five risk-related indicators and responses from the Beck Depression Index. Lastly, the relationship of religiosity to risky sexual behaviors is explored using the five risk-related indicators. The independent variables for this study were: age, religiosity, and depression. Dependent variables consisted of five risk-related indicators: (a) the inconsistent or lack of use of birth control; (b) the non use of condoms or abstinence as compared to all of those not using birth control other than condoms and all of those who are not using birth control; (c) experienced an unwanted pregnancy and birth; (d) experienced an unwanted miscarriage or abortion; and (e) the use of drugs. Findings revealed that there was no significant differences in the age of the mothers, level of religion, depression, and risky sexual behaviors. The practical and policy implications of this study were also examined. [Source: DA]

Macbeth, David Michael. 1997. "Risk Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Sexual Values and Behaviors." Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are an increasing dilemma facing American society. There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine the impact of the Facts and Feelings home-based sexual abstinence program on mean scores for academic aspirations, academic achievement, sexual knowledge, the intention to have intercourse, sexual behavior, religiosity, mother approachability, father approachability, frequency of parental communication, sexual abstinence skills, friends', approval of premarital sex, value against sex prior to marriage, risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, sex being acceptable in relationships, adolescent's values match parent's values, parents approve of premarital sex, and adolescent's rating of physical maturity. The sample was randomly split into equal size experimental and control groups. The treatment materials were given to the experimental group following a baseline measurement, and the control group received the materials after the study was completed 2 years later. Data were collected at four time intervals: pretest, 3-month posttest, 1-year posttest, and 2-year posttest. Dependent variables were identified from previous research as possible antecedents to early sexual activity. The youth studied were in the sixth and seventh grades, and were generally sexually abstinent throughout the study. Hypotheses were related to gender, group membership, and the interaction of these variables over time. A majority of the significant findings came in the hypotheses regarding gender. There were limited findings in the hypothesis that dealt with group membership, group membership by gender, and the interaction effects of gender by group over time. Most of the treatment effects were time limited and not maintained for long periods of time following the treatment. There was evidence that the Facts and Feeling materials used in the study were beneficial in changing behavior, values, and attitudes regarding teenage abstinence for a short time immediately following the treatment period. [Source: PI]

McLaughlin, Caitlin S., Chuansheng Chen, Ellen Greenberger, and Cornelia Biermeier. 1997. "Family, Peer, and Individual Correlates of Sexual Experience among Caucasian and Asian-American Late Adolescents." Journal of Research on Adolescence vol. 7, pp. 33-53.
Abstract: Explores ethnic & gender differences in sexual behavior among Caucasian & Asian-American state university students in CA (total N = 350), drawing on survey data. Consistent with previous studies, Caucasians reported having more sexual partners than did Asian-Americans, & males reported having more sexual partners than females. Peer interactions & attitudinal & dispositional factors were consistently related with number of sexual partners, while family factors were not. Discriminant analysis of five variables (eg, risky behaviors, casual sex endorsement, & religiosity) yielded two functions capable of predicting levels of sexual experience for 61%-92% of participants. [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C., Maria C. Norton, Thom Curtis, E. Jeffrey Hill, Paul Schvaneveldt, and Margaret H. Young. 1997. "The Timing of Sexual Intercourse among Adolescents: Family, Peer, and Other Antecedents." Youth and Society vol. 29, pp. 54-83.
Abstract: Children's perceptions of their relationships with their parents and peers in 1976 and 1981, respectively, along with other salient antecedent variables, were related to their age at 1st sexual intercourse, as reported in 1987. Data came from the National Survey of Children, a 3-wave longitudinal study of 1,145 children aged 7-11 yrs (Wave 1), 12-16 yrs (Wave 2), and 18-22 yrs (Wave 3). Age of first date, dating frequency, number of friends perceived to have had sex at age 16, being Black, having parents undergo marital changes during the child's school years, and fighting at school were the most significant predictors of age at 1st sexual intercourse among males. All of these variables except fighting at school and dating frequency were significant predictors among females. Additional significant variables predicting age of first sex among females were menarche, parents' education, mother's coercive behavior and love withdrawal, and attitudes about attending religious services. [Source: PI]

Neumark Sztainer, Dianne, Mary Story, Simone A. French, and Michael D. Resnick. 1997. "Psychosocial Correlates of Health Compromising Behaviors among Adolescents." Health Education Research vol. 12, pp. 37-52.
Abstract: Investigated psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. Ss included 123,132 11-21 yr old males and females in 6th, 9th, and 12th grade. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity, and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Psychosocial variables included emotional well-being, self-esteem, risk-taking disposition, number of concerns, extracurricular involvement, religiosity, school connectedness and achievement, physical and sexual abuse, and family connectedness and structure. Results show that risk-taking disposition was associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. Findings suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. [Source: PI]

Russo, N. F. and A. J. Dabul. 1997. "The Relationship of Abortion to Well-Being: Do Race and Religion Make a Difference?" Professional Psychology Research and Practice vol. 28, pp. 23-31.
Abstract: Relationships of abortion and childbearing to well-being were examined for 1,189 Black and 3,147 White women. Education, income, and having a work role were positively and independently related to well-being for all women. Abortion did not have an independent relationship to well-being, regardless of race or religion, when well-being before becoming pregnant was controlled. These findings suggest professional psychologists should explore the origins of women's mental health problems in experiences predating their experience with abortion, and they can assist psychologists in working to ensure that mandated scripts from ''informed consent'' legislation do not misrepresent scientific findings. [Source: SC]

Stephenson, Andy Lee. 1997. "The Role of the Fundamentalist Church Institution in Value Clarification among Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington.
Abstract: This study randomly examined 51 senior pastors and 47 youth workers from a fundamentalist denomination to analyze leadership influence and other church factors influence on the involvement of the fundamentalist church in addressing and educating adolescents in value clarification. The study also surveyed 241 adolescents to discover the influence of church discussion, parental communication and church size on adolescent sexual behavior. The results of the study indicate senior pastor's and youth worker's previous training are significant predictor variables of church involvement in the education of adolescents in value clarification. Also senior pastor readiness to educate youth in value clarification of societal issues was a significant factor in the youth worker sample. The results revealed larger churches were more likely to address value clarification with their adolescents than small churches in the youth worker sample. The adolescent sample reported total parent-adolescent communication was inversely related to adolescent sexual behavior. When father-adolescent and mother-adolescent communication were analyzed separately, father-adolescent communication was a significant predictor variable inversely related to adolescent sexual activity. Church size was also a predictor variable with churches in the middle size category indicating a positive relationship to increased sexual activity of adolescents when compared to small churches. Age and gender were also significant predictors of adolescent sexual activity. [Source: DA]

Stratkotter, Rainer Franz. 1997. "Re-Examining Udry's (1988) Biosocial Model of Adolescent Male Sexuality." M.A. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada), Edmonton.
Abstract: Udry's (1988) biosocial model of adolescent male sexuality describes how testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), age, pubertal development, and church attendance combine to produce variability in sexual behaviors and thoughts. A re-examination of Udry's model and analytic approach, using his data and a series of LISREL structural equation models (SEMs), shows the following: (1) Models with multiple indicators of sexuality failed to fit the data, whereas models using single indicators of sexuality did fit. Udry's factor analysis implies strict proportionality constraints among the covariances for the multiple indicators; these constraints did not match the data, which suggests that sexuality's indicators have non-identical determinants; (2) Udry's model of T and SHBG effects was slightly different than a model using Free-Testosterone (Free-T); (3) Udry's specification of zero measurement error affects his coefficient estimates but not his model fit; and (4) Udry's claim that T and SHBG are crucial components of adolescent male sexuality is upheld. [Source: DA]

Brewer, Nancy Jean. 1996. "Analysis of the Timing of the Transition to Sexual Intercourse for Rural Adolescent Males." Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: The purpose of the present research was to study rural adolescent males' transition to nonvirginity from a developmental perspective and within a social context. The intent of this analysis was to determine what variables were associated with making the transition from virgin to nonvirgin and to be able to predict which of these students are at risk of making this transition earlier than their other cohort members. A total of 148 males from a rural eastern Appalachian community met the selection and longitudinal criteria for inclusion in this study. The findings were based on the subjects' responses to an 18-page, paper-and-pencil, self-report questionnaire which began in the Fall of 1985 and continued through the Fall of 1989. This study employed discrete event history analysis with a complementary log-log link. In order to achieve the purposes of this research, this method enabled the researcher to identify variables that were associated with the hazard or risk of becoming sexually active, and to analyze how these variables changed over time. Of the 21 variables analyzed, the full model identified four predictors, age, pro-misconduct, church attendance and deviant behavior as being associated with the risk of initiating sexual intercourse for rural adolescent males. The order in which the predictors were significant in the stepwise regression model were age, deviant behavior, pro-misconduct, peer relations and church attendance. The estimated median lifetime was Survey 3, when 50% of the subjects had made the transition from virgin to nonvirgin. The results of this study also indicate rural adolescent males make this transition at rates comparable to males from other populations. In this study, the largest transition was between the age of 14 to 15, with most males sexually active by age 18. These findings are consistent with the literature concerning teenagers generally. Implications for health education include the need for developing and implementing comprehensive sexuality curricula before seventh-grade, when 90% of the subjects are still not sexually active. It has also been recommended that community-based organizations and religious institutions may be utilized to significantly impact adolescent male sexual behavior. [Source: DA]

Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Ronald R. Rindfuss, and David K. Guilkey. 1996. "The Initiation of Adolescent Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior During Changing Times." Journal of Health and Social Behavior vol. 37, pp. 59-74.
Abstract: Examines changes in the initiation of adolescent sexual & contraceptive behavior in the US, 1978-1988, drawing on data for a sample of white & black women ages 10-19 from Cycles III & IV of the National Survey of Family Growth. Results indicate overall population patterns of earlier initiation of sexual intercourse & increased use of condoms at first intercourse are not found in all segments of the population. In general, the effects of race, religion, mother's education, & age changed during this time period. The long-term trend of younger age at first intercourse was halted for blacks, & reversed for white, fundamentalist Protestants, but continued for all other whites. Overall, patterns throughout the decade suggest that pressures from parents, religious groups, & others either lead to a later age at first intercourse or use of contraception, but not both. A notable exception is that increased maternal education leads to both a later age at first intercourse & a higher likelihood of using contraception at first intercourse. [Source: SA]

Corcoran, Jacqueline. 1996. "Ecological Factors Associated with Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas At Austin.
Abstract: The central purpose of this research was to discover, using Bronfenbrenner's conceptual framework (1979) of an ecological systems model, the combination of factors that successfully predicted pregnancy/parenting status in a convenience sample of 105 teens attending pregnancy prevention programs across a southwestern state. Non-pregnant/non-parenting teens were compared with pregnant and/or parenting teens along factors organized by the following three main systems of interacting categories of variables as explicated by Bronfenbrenner (1979): (1) the microsystem consisting of the psychological variables of self-esteem, depression, and stress levels experienced, and the social psychological variables of alcohol and drug abuse; (2) the mesosystem consisting of religious affiliation and family structure, family functioning, problems with friends, the neighborhood, and the school as well as enacted social support; (3) the macrosystem consisting of household income, parents' occupations, and race. Logistic regression modeling with the entire data set as well as gender and race subsets indicated support for an ecological systems model. The final model included macrolevel (income), mesolevel (communication problems within the family, Catholic religious affiliation, a positive relationship with school, fiancial support from family), and microlevel (age, high stress) factors that acted in combination to predict pregnancy status. The female-only group (N = 82) and the Hispanic group (N = 42) were the only subsamples to have enough members to support statistical modeling. The model for females includes the macrosystem variables of age and income, the mesosystem variables of religious orientation, emotional support from friends, and family communication, and the microsystem variables of depression and drug use. For Hispanics, the macrosystem variables of age and income and the microsystem variable of stress were the factors to enter the logistic regression model. Suggestions for future research and policy and service delivery recommendations are discussed. [Source: DA]

Griffin Carlson, Mary S. 1996. "Adolescent Abortion: Family Interactions as Contributors to the Perceived Quality of Parental Involvement." Thesis, University of Georgia.
Abstract: Young women from seven private abortion clinics in three different states were surveyed prior to their abortions. The clinics were chosen to include a range of socioeconomic status as well as a balance of inner city dwellers, suburbanites and small-town inhabitants. For a period of approximately 3-1/2 months, every unmarried or non-emancipated patient under the age of 18 who entered the clinics was asked to participate. Participation was strictly voluntary and anonymous. Clinic personnel estimated, however, that there was a 50-70% refusal rate. Only those subjects who were accompanied to the clinics by their parents were used in the analyses to avoid the inclusion of any fabricated data. The goal was to identify a set of variables which might be used to predict outcome for pregnant adolescents who seek consultation with their parents. Almost 60% (59.1%) of the adolescents in the sample stated they had experienced positive interactions when including parents in the decision-making process, while 40.9% reported negative experiences. A model testing approach was used in the analyses. Fourteen predictor variables which had been elicited from the literature on adolescent pregnancy and abortion were separated into three models. The Demographic Model included the variables of age, race, religious denomination, family configuration and adolescent's perception of parents' income (APPI). The Religious Model included the variables of religious denomination, mother's religiosity, father's religiosity and whether the teen considered herself to be born again, evangelical or fundamentalist. The Family Model included the variables of cohesiveness, adaptability, communication, parenting style, coping and family stress pile-up. Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither the Demographics nor the Religious Model was predictive of the adolescent's perceived quality of parental involvement. Four of the family variables, however, variance. These findings support the argument [Source: PI]

Henshaw, S. K. and K. Kost. 1996. "Abortion Patients in 1994-1995: Characteristics and Contraceptive Use." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 28, p. 140.
Abstract: Results of a 1994-1995 national survey of 9,985 abortion patients reveal that women who live with a partner outside marriage or have no religious identification are 3.5-4.0 times as likely as women in the general population to have an abortion. Nonwhites, women aged 18-24, Hispanics, separated and never-married women, and those who have an annual income of less than $15,000 or who are enrolled in Medicaid are 1.6-2.2 times as likely to do so; residents of metropolitan counties have a slightly elevated likelihood of abortion. When age is controlled, women who have had a live birth are more likely to have an abortion than are those who have never had children. Catholics are as likely as women in the general population to have an abortion, while Protestants are only 69% as likely and Evangelical or born-again Christians are only 39% as likely. Since 1987, the proportion of abortions obtained by Hispanic women and the abortion rate among Hispanics relative to that for other ethnic groups have increased. The proportion of abortion patients who had been using a contraceptive during the month they became pregnant rose from 51% in 1987 to 58%. Nonuse is most common among women with low education and income, blacks, Hispanics, unemployed women and those who want more children. The proportion of abortion patients whose pregnancy is attributable to condom failure has increased from 15% to 32%, while the proportions reporting the failure of other barrier methods and spermicides have decreased. [Source: SC]

Hopkins, Gary Lee. 1996. "An AIDS Risk Appraisal of Students Attending Seventh-Day Adventist High Schools in the United States and Canada." Ph.D. Thesis, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda.
Abstract: Since its first recognition in 1981, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become a global disease of increasing prevalence. Because there is no current cure or vaccination available to effectively prevent AIDS, health education has become an important method of reducing the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is known to cause AIDS. A substantial amount of research has been conducted in public high schools aimed at identifying determinants of students AIDS-risk behaviors. With the exception of one study conducted by Ludescher (1992), theory based AIDS- behavioral research in Christian student populations have not been reported. In the present study, 1,748 students attending 69 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) four-year high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess (1) the HIV/AIDS-related behaviors of substance use and sexual intercourse before marriage and the determinants of these two risk behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1989), and (2) HIV/AIDS related attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived control in a sample of SDA high school students based on the TPB. A substantial number of research participants reported prior sexual and drug use behaviors. The rates of both of these behaviors were lower in SDA than in non-SDA respondents. Those students who reported that their parent(s) used either tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana demonstrated higher rates of past sexual intercourse and substance use than those students who reported that their parent(s) were not users of any of the three substances. Using multiple regression analysis, the best predictor of the respondents intention to have sexual intercourse before marriage their perceived control over this behavior. Further, the cognitive underpinnings that best predicted the students perceived control regarding sexual intercourse before marriage were spiritual strength and encouragement from their teachers. Useful conclusions drawn from this research were not that a certain proportion of SDA youth engaged in sexual behaviors or substance use, but were rather that SDA youth are not immune or exempt from engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. Also, some of the cognitive underpinnings of the student's attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control as they relate to sexual intercourse have now been identified. Educators can now act by creatively designing strategies that when implemented may serve to reduce the consequences of the acts studied. The Office of Education of the North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists might consider a continuous assessment based on behavioral theory that would further clarify determinants of health risk behaviors in their student population in the future. An analysis such as this would allow for quick corrective interventions when indicated. [Source: DA]

Jones Harris, Jewel L. 1996. "African-American Adolescent Parents: Their Perceptions of Sex, Love, Intimate Relationships, Pregnancy, and Parenting." Ph.D. Thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University.
Abstract: This study examined the perceptions of twenty-two urban African American adolescent mothers and six adolescent fathers regarding their perceptions of sex, love, intimate relationships, pregnancy, and parenting. A structured interview methodology was used in combination with focus groups and academic records to determine the parents' perceptions, as well as their demographic and personal history information. An inductive data analysis using constant comparison methods was employed to identify patterns and themes evident within gender groups and between gender groups. The findings identified eight assumptions. The findings of this study indicate that: (1) The age of menses may have declined. (2) The age at first sexual intercourse does not necessarily lead to more sexual partners by first pregnancy. (3) The age of an adolescent mother's own mother when she had her first child may predict an early pregnancy for her daughter. (4) Adolescent parents did not necessarily equate love and intimate relationships with having sex. (5) Adolescent mothers did not necessarily consider their need to give or receive love as reasons for their pregnancy. (6) Adolescent parents may be deficient in their knowledge of child development. (7) Adolescent parents are not necessarily abusive parents. (8) Early parenthood may be a consequence of educational derailment. (9) Poverty may precede adolescent pregnancy. Implications of these findings include the need for intensive academic and vocational preparation programs for urban African American adolescents, more consistent, specific, and comprehensive sex education and family planning programs, and more business, community, and religion-driven mentoring programs for inner-city youth. Suggestions for future research were also addressed. [Source: DA]

Maton, Kenneth I., Douglas M. Teti, Kathleen M. Corns, Catherine C. Vieira Baker, and Jacqueline R. Lavine. 1996. "Cultural Specificity of Support Sources, Correlates and Contexts: Three Studies of African-American and Caucasian Youth." American Journal of Community Psychology vol. 24, pp. 551-587.
Abstract: Three experiments examined levels and correlates of parental support (PNS), peer support (PRS), partner support (PTS), and/or spiritual support (SPS) with additional variables (well being, self esteem, and institutional and goal commitment) among a total of 235 Black and 351 White adolescents and young adults in 3 contexts: adolescent pregnancy (Exp 1), 1st yr of college (Exp 2), and adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-29 yrs; Exp 3). Partially consistent with a cultural specificity perspective, in different contexts different support sources were higher in level and/or more strongly related to adjustment for 1 ethnic group than the other. Among pregnant adolescents, levels of SPS were higher for Black Ss; additionally, PRS was positively related to well-being only for Black Ss, whereas PTS was positively related to well-being only for White Ss. Among college freshmen, PNS was more strongly related to institutional and goal commitment for Black Ss; conversely, PRS was more strongly related to institutional and goal commitment among White Ss. Among 15-29 yr olds, levels of PNS and SPS were higher among Black Ss; additionally, SPS was positively related to self-esteem for Black Ss but not for White Ss. [Source: PI]

Mott, Frank L., Michelle M. Fondell, Paul N. Hu, Lori Kowaleski Jones, and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. 1996. "The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High- Risk Adolescent Population." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 28, pp. 13-16.
Abstract: Study indicates several factors, including mother's early sexual activity and extensive work, to determine whether person would have sex by age of 14. A study using data for mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and their children aged 14 or older indicates that, after accounting for a wide range demographic and socioeconomic antecedents, children are significantly more likely to become sexually active before age 14 if their mother had sex at an early age and if she has worked extensively. In addition, early sexual debut is eight times as likely among black boys as among-non- Hispanic white boys. Children who use controlled substances at an early age are more than twice as likely to have sex before age 14 as those who do not, although the type of substance having an effect is different for girls (cigarettes) and boys (alcohol). Church attendance is an important determinant of delayed sexual activity, but only when a child's friends attend the same church. [Source: CW]

Murry, Velma McBride. 1996. "An Ecological Analysis of Coital Timing among Middle-Class African American Adolescent Females." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 11, pp. 261-279.
Abstract: Using data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth, variables discriminating between early & late coital initiation among middle-income African American adolescent females (N = 109) were examined. Discriminant function analysis indicates that family structure, adolescents' labor force participation, & religiosity were associated with late coital initiation. Those who lived in two-parent households, had engaged in conversations with parents about sexual issues, & had greater knowledge about sexual matters were more likely to delay age at first coitus until age 18+. The discriminant function classified correctly 94% of the overall grouped cases. Classification within each group resulted in 98% of early coital initiators & 79% of late coital initiators being classified correctly. Results provide support for using a systematic framework for examining the sexual activity patterns of middle-class African American adolescent females & offer suggestions for future research. [Source: SA]

Perkins, Daniel Francis. 1996. "An Examination of the Organismic, Behavioral, and Contextual Covariates of Risk Behaviors among Diverse Groups of Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, Detroit.
Abstract: This study explored the interrelationship of risk behaviors (i.e., alcohol and drug use, antisocial behavior/delinquency, sexual activity, and school misconduct) and, in turn, their relationships with individual-organismic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity), individual-behavioral characteristics (i.e., involvement in extracurricular activities, religiosity, and view of the future), and contextual characteristics (i.e., family support, parent-adolescent communication, peer group characteristics, and school climate). A sample of 16,375 Michigan adolescents, aged 12 to 17 years, derived from the Community-Based Profile of Michigan Youth study, was administered the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (ABQ), a self report measure indexing adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. In almost all cases, correlations among risk behaviors within the entire sample and within the age, gender, and ethnic subgroups were significant. Correlations between males and females and among the racial/ethnic and age groups generally did not differ significantly. However, intercorrelations among European American adolescents were generally higher than was the case for corresponding correlations among African American adolescents. Multiple regressions were used to assess how the risk behaviors were predicted by the individual and contextual characteristics, and to determine whether this covariation differed among subgroups. All results were significant and, across equations, peer group characteristics was the most frequent significant predictor. Age, gender, and religiosity were significant predictors, particularly in the multiple regressions for sexual activity. Self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, view of the future, and family support were not significant predictors. Results were discussed in regard to this study's limitations and to directions for future research. Limitations were associated with the study's cross sect. [Source: PI]

Reynolds, Dynette Ivie. 1996. "Youth, Sex, and Coercion: The Neglect of Sexual Abuse Factors in Lds Data and Policy on Premarital Sex." Dialogue vol. 29, pp. 89-102.

Schnirer, Laurie Ann Julia. 1996. "Adolescent Sexuality in Rural Alberta." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada), Edmonton.
Abstract: The intent of this research is to examine the relationship between sexual activity and background variables such as familial factors, drug usage, alcohol usage, smoking, career aspirations, grade point average and religiosity in a rural Alberta community. Similar Canadian and American research studies are included to compare and contrast adolescent sexual trends. Of the 512 students that voluntarily participated, approximately 44% of the students were sexually active. Students that did not report being sexually active were found to be significantly higher academic achievers with post-secondary aspirations and partake in less self-destructive behavior (smoking, drugs and alcohol). Both parental marital status and parenting style were found to be statistically significant to reported sexual activity but there was no significant relationship between quality of parent and adolescent relationship and the teenagers sexual activity. As well, a relationship between open communication was statistically significant with the teenagers sexual activity. Religion and church attendance were not found to be statistically significant in relationship to reported sexual activity. [Source: DA]

Taylor, Larry C. 1996. "Adolescent Pregnancy and the Church in Huntington County, Indiana." Thesis.
Abstract: This project explores the relationship of churches to adolescent pregnancy and parenting in Huntington County, Indiana. The project demonstrates that churches have a definite role in the community's moral fabric, and they need to reinforce that role through active mentoring programs with youth and parents. Churches need to become more involved in the community through active intervention in preventing adolescent pregnancy and working with pregnant adolescents. [Source: RI]

Tubman, Jonathan G., Michael Windle, and Rebecca C. Windle. 1996. "Cumulative Sexual Intercourse Patterns among Middle Adolescents: Problem Behavior Precursors and Concurrent Health Risk Behaviors." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 18, pp. 182-191.
Abstract: A sample of 1,167 students, predominantly white & Catholic, enrolled in grades 10-11 in 3 nondenominational suburban high schools in western NY, were administered self-report questionnaires in classroom settings as part of a 4-wave longitudinal design with 6-month intervals. Data were collected on: intercourse activity & number of sexual partners; problematic antecedent behaviors before age 12; initial onset problem behaviors to age 14, including cigarette, alcohol, & substance use; & concurrent behavioral & emotional problems. Data on socioeconomic status, demographic variables, & family history of alcoholism were obtained from caregivers in mailed surveys. Findings reveal sexual intercourse activity, once initiated, was persistent for most adolescents, though boys were nearly twice as likely to be at high levels of sexual risk as girls. Repeated intercourse with multiple partners was associated with higher levels of externalizing childhood behavior problems, earlier onset of antisocial behaviors & substance use, & higher concurrent substance use. Avoidant withdrawn behavior in childhood was associated with lower rates of sexual involvement in adolescence. Implications for intervention/prevention of adolescent sexual & health risk behaviors & further research are considered. [Source: SA]

Weinbender, Miriam L. M. and Annette MacKay Rossignol. 1996. "Lifestyle and Risk of Premature Sexual Activity in a High School Population of Seventh-Day Adventists: Valuegenesis 1989." Adolescence vol. 31, pp. 265-281.
Abstract: Evaluated Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture that reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents. Ss were 8,321 SDA students from 58 high schools who responded to a questionnaire concerning specific behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes that appear to be associated with high-risk health behaviors among this population. Results are consistent with those from other populations regarding the associations between adolescent sexual activity and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. In addition, several behaviors that are discouraged within SDA culture, such as going to a movie theater, drinking caffeinated beverages, or participating in competitive sports, also were associated with early sexual activity among SDA youth. It is hypothesized that these latter behaviors may predict the emergence of other high-risk behaviors in both SDA and popular cultures. [Source: PI]

Arp, Robert K. 1995. "A Strategy for Commitment to Sexual Purity among Senior High Students." Thesis, Erskine Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The dissertation describes and evaluates biblical and cultural perspectives of human sexuality in light of adolescent development. Senior high school students were evaluated on their present sexual experience, spiritual growth and faith development and knowledge of human sexuality. The dissertation also has five sexual abstinence sessions designed to affirm students in their commitment to sexual purity before and after marriage. [Source: RI]

Beitz, Janice Marian. 1995. "Social and Educational Factors Affecting Sex Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Students." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual risk behaviors are a national health issue as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have spread in the American population. Social cognitive theory suggests that social and educational factors influence these behaviors. Previous research has found equivocal results in certain factors' relationships to and their interactive effect on sexuality. Earlier sex behavior's effect on current cognition has not been well examined. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, psychosocial, and educational variables related to sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of college students. The study addressed the following questions: What are the individual and interactive effects of number of sources and intensity of formal sex education, performance self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity on sex variables? Does gender affect these independent variables? How does gender and/or age of first coitus affect selected sex variables? Measures of the independent variables and sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered. Subjects were 200 full-time college students, aged 17 to 25 years old, enrolled in two large urban universities and a community college. For the independent variables, correlation analyses indicated that formal sex education, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity were significantly but very weakly related to sex attitudes. No other intercorrelations were significant. Simple multiple regression demonstrated that the variables taken together explained negligible variance in sex behaviors. Gender generated differences in the independent variables. Independent t-tests indicated that males scored significantly lower than females in parent-adolescent communication with mother, social self-esteem, and religiosity. For age of first coitus and gender, a one-way analysis of variance indicated that males had significantly more liberal sex attitudes than females. Subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly more liberal sex attitudes and greater STDs. No interactions were significant. Age of first coitus itself was examined. Independent t-tests demonstrated that subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly less sex knowledge, more liberal sex attitudes, and greater risk behaviors. Results suggested that first coitus age and gender affected sexuality differentially. Recommendations were made for educational and health care practice and further research. [Source: DA]

Benson, M. D. and E. J. Torpy. 1995. "Sexual Behavior in Junior-High School Students." Obstetrics and Gynecology vol. 85, pp. 279-284.
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association between 14 demographic variables and the loss of virginity in a specific sample of junior high school students in Chicago. Methods: Nine hundred seventy-six students in nine Chicago junior high schools, sixth through eighth grades, were given an anonymous behavior survey (the noncognitive assessment survey). Two separate logistic regression equations were used to determine the relative relationships of the demographic variables to self-reported virginity loss. Results: Five variables were significantly associated with virginity loss in both regression equations. In rank order, they were gender, ethnic group, pubertal status, suicidal ideation, and sibling number (adjusted odds ratio 13.3, 4.57, 3.38, 1.93, and 1.24, respectively.) Nine variables did not have a consistent relation with early sexual activity: church attendance, religious affiliation, grade average, housing status, marital status of natural parents, self-esteem, sex education knowledge, school attendance, and chronologic age. Conclusions: These results call into question two widely held assumptions that form the foundation of many teen pregnancy prevention efforts. First, although many believe that sex education courses can affect behavior, we found no link, either positive or negative, between knowledge of reproductive biology and age of first intercourse. Second, self-esteem level was not associated with age of first intercourse. The variables that did seem related to early sexual activity do not lend themselves to easy manipulation. Our findings suggest that current school-based efforts to alter teen pregnancy rates and sexual behavior are unlikely to succeed. [Source: SC]

De Gaston, Jacqueline F., Larry Jensen, and Stan Weed. 1995. "A Closer Look at Adolescent Sexual Activity." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 465-479.
Abstract: Examines adolescent sexuality, drawing on survey data from 1,228 parochial students in the eastern US. Few claimed that sex was forced or even pressured. Over 50% reported "going steady" as their relationship status when experiencing their first intercourse. Another 25% reported that they were "dating" or "knew each other well." Approximately 20% reported that drugs or alcohol were used at the time of first sex, & 75% had first sex at either their own home or a friend's home. Nearly 50% wished they had waited longer before having sex, especially the females & the more religious students. Half of the nonvirgin students reported having had only 1 sexual partner. The implications of this information for setting social policy, & designing & implementing effective sex education programs are discussed. [Source: SA]

Harris, Mark Allen, Cardell K. Jacobson, and Bruce A. Chadwick. 1995. "Pornography and Premarital Sexual Activity among Lds Teenagers." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Empirically investigates the relationship between pornography & premarital sexual activity in conjunction with a number of other independent variables, in a sample of 1,393 Mormon (LDS-Latter Day Saints) teenagers living along the East coast of the US. Logistic regression analysis indicates that exposure to pornography was strongly related to premarital sex, a relationship that persisted even when peer influence, family structure, religiosity, gender, & age were controlled. Teens who reported that they had moderate exposure to pornography (1 to 24 exposures) were 2.6 times more likely to have engaged in sex compared to those reporting no exposure, while teens who reported that they had been exposed to a higher amount of pornography were 5.7 times more likely to have engaged in sex as those with no exposure. Gender, peer influence, private religiosity, & relationship with mother were also significantly related to teenage sex. [Source: SA]

Heinrichs, Glenn Allen. 1995. "Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: The Effects of Intrinsic-Extrinsic Religiosity." Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Psychology.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship of intrinsic/extrinsic (I/E) religiosity in adolescents as related to sexual behaviors and attitudes. Specifically, the Intrinsic/Extrinsic Measure of Religious Beliefs-revised (Gorsuch & McPherson, 1989) was used in conjunction with a self-report measure of adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors (McCabe & Collins, 1983). Additionally, several other variables, gender, sexual-self, significant religious experiences, and age were investigated to determine their impact on the relationship of I/E and church attendance with sexual behavior and attitudes. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed a significant negative relationship between both the Intrinsic and Extrinsic religious orientations and the sexual attitudes and behaviors of the adolescent population studied. Furthermore, these findings were significant even when attendance at religious services was partialled out. A secondary hypothesis was confirmed regarding gender differences as an additional variable describing adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. There were no significant relationships found for other demographic variables. The results suggest that Intrinsic religiosity is a significant negatively correlated variable when looking at adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior regardless of gender or other variables. Implications for further research are discussed. [Source: PI]

Lock, Sharon E. and Murray L. Vincent. 1995. "Sexual Decision-Making among Rural Adolescent Females." Health Values: The Journal of Health Behavior, Education and Promotion vol. 19, pp. 47-58.
Abstract: Analyzed data from the South Carolina School/Community Program for Sexual Risk Reduction Among Teens to determine direct and indirect effects of demographic and psychosocial factors on female adolescents' decisions to engage or not engage in premarital sexual intercourse. 564 predominantly Black adolescent girls (aged 12-29 yrs) completed the Adolescent Curriculum Evaluation Questionnaire. The Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior provided a framework to explain the interrelationships among the variables. Age, family structure, peer influence, commitment to partner, and sexual attitudes had direct effects on premarital sexual intercourse. Race, religiosity, sex role attitude, reproductive knowledge, and parent-adolescent communication had indirect effects on premarital sexual intercourse. [Source: PI]

Morgan, C., G. N. Chapar, and M. Fisher. 1995. "Psychosocial Variables Associated with Teenage Pregnancy." Adolescence vol. 30, pp. 277-289.
Abstract: This study investigated whether psychosocial factors differentiate sexually active teenagers who become pregnant from those who do not. Data were collected from 64 unmarried adolescents who attended a suburban health clinic for a pregnancy test or for contraceptive care. Thirty-nine percent of the sample had been or were now pregnant, and 61% had never been pregnant. Each teenager completed a questionnaire and three self-report measures (Life Events Checklist, Self-Worth, Health Locus of Control) prior to her medical visit. Information about family, medical, and psychosocial history was obtained from chart review. When girls who had positive pregnancy tests, and sexually active girls who had never been pregnant were compared, no significant differences emerged on socioeconomic status, race, religion, age or psychological variables. However, when adolescents with a previous or current history of pregnancy (N=25) were compared with girls who had never been pregnant (N=39), using the Mann Whitney test, two significant differences were found: adolescents with a history of pregnancy had first intercourse at the mean age of 15 rather than 16 (p < .02) and scored higher than never- pregnant teenagers on the ''Powerful Other'' Health Locus of Control subscale, a measure of strong belief in external control by others (p < .01). No significant differences were detected between the groups for self-worth or life events perceived as stressful during the past year. These data indicate that in a middle-class suburban population of sexually active teenagers, earlier age at first intercourse and the influence of powerful others are important variables associated with pregnancy. [Source: SC]

Murry, Velma McBride. 1995. "An Ecological Analysis of Pregnancy Resolution Decisions among African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females." Youth and Society vol. 26, pp. 325-350.
Abstract: Examined the effect of individual, family, sociocultural, and social structural factors on decisions to terminate or to not terminate 1st pregnancies of 347 African-American and 108 Hispanic unmarried, sexually active 15-21 yr old females. Interview data regarding sexual and reproductive activities and socioeconomic and familial characteristics were from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth (D. Judkins et al, 1991). Termination of the pregnancy was associated with ineffective contraceptive use, self-disclosure of the pregnancy to the S's mother, family sexuality communication, family income, and church attendance. In contrast to African-American Ss, Hispanic Ss who terminated the pregnancy tended to be younger at time of 1st sexual intercourse and pregnancy than those who did not terminate the pregnancy. Regardless of race/ethnicity, Ss deciding not to terminate the pregnancy reported family incomes at or below poverty status. [Source: PI]

Neal, Cynthia J. and Michael W. Mangis. 1995. "Unwanted Sexual Experiences among Christian College Women: Saying No on the Inside." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 23, pp. 171-179.

Sivewright, Gary Michael. 1995. "Influencing Factors on the Sexual Mores of Nazarene Teenagers in the United States." Ed.D. Thesis, Peabody College For Teachers of Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
Abstract: Evangelical churches care about the future of their youth. In February of 1987, Seventeen magazine surveyed teens by randomly selecting 1,100 girls and 1,400 boys ages 13 to 19. More than 900 responded. Of the respondents, 37% of the girls and 46% of the boys claimed to have had sexual intercourse. Church leaders seek to discover where teenagers obtain their information about sexuality, what or whom influences them, and whether teens under the influence of Nazarene churches respond any differently than teens basically unchurched. In 1987, the Barna Research Group of Glendale, California, conducted a survey of evangelical churches, asking for the influences that determine the sexual mores of their teenagers. My study replicates the Barna survey for the Church of the Nazarene only and tried to determine the influencing factors on sexual mores of teens surveyed, in order to ascertain if some influences effect teens more than others and how Nazarene Church leaders should respond. I asked a random sampling of Nazarene youth groups to respond to a survey similar to the Barna (1987) survey, except that I sought more details concerning why teens feel the way they do. through their answers, I determined the following: (1) What is the frequency of infLuential activities by Nazarene teens? (2) What sexual behaviors do Nazarene teens participate in and to what extent? (3) What comparisons can be made between the sexual behavior for youth of the Church of the Nazarene and their sexual influences? [Source: PI]

Smith, Peggy B. and Maxine L. Weinman. 1995. "Cultural Implications for Public Health Policy for Pregnant Hispanic Adolescents." Health Values vol. 19, pp. 3-9.
Abstract: Birthrates of both first- & second-generation Hispanic teens are high, although second-generation teens have rates of nonmarital births similar to other teens in the US. Regardless of generational status, Hispanic youth have religious, language, & cultural values that reflect the norms of large families & the value of family ties. The public health system could be used more effectively if there were sensitivity to the importance of cultural norms of Hispanic families, specifically family decision making. Suggestions are provided for accessible family planning & maternal health services for this population. [Source: SA]

Sorenson, Ann Marie, Carl F. Grindstaff, and R. Jay Turner. 1995. "Religious Involvement among Unmarried Adolescent Mothers: A Source of Emotional Support?" Sociology of Religion vol. 56, p. 71.
Abstract: Examines the role of religious factors and their relationship to measures of social support in affecting the emotional well-being of adolescent mothers. Prenatal and post-birth data in a longitudinal prospective study; Pattern of religious influence and distress in the first weeks after delivery; Variables of denomination; Involvement with organized religion. [Source: AS]

Udry, J. Richard, Judith Kovenock, Naomi M. Morris, and Bea van-den-Berg. 1995. "Childhood Precursors of Age at First Intercourse for Females." Archives of Sexual Behavior vol. 24, pp. 329-337.
Abstract: Conducted a longitudinal study of childhood precursors of age of 1st intercourse based on data from the Child Health and Development Study (B. J. van den Berg, 1987, 1988) and follow-up interviews with 299 adult White women. Data were collected when Ss were born, aged 5 yrs, aged 9-21 yrs, and aged 15-27 yrs. Age of 1st intercourse ranged from 11 to 30 yrs; median age was 17.5 yrs. Earlier intercourse was associated with nightmares, bedwetting, and advanced motor skills at age 5; with smoking mothers; and with being domineering, mature, and not shy. Later intercourse was associated with having more educated mothers, family attending church together, and having more siblings at age 5. [Source: PI]

Wright, Randal Allen. 1995. "Family, Religious, Peer and Media Influence on Adolescence Willingness to Have Premarital Sex." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: A model was constructed which tested the influence of parents, peers, religion and media on adolescent willingness to have premarital sexual relations. Four latent variables were simultaneously included in the LISREL model. Data were collected from a sample of 448 high school students living in urban, suburban and rural areas of the Southwest United States. Results indicated that parental sexual values, adolescent religiosity, peer sexual values and exposure to explicit media sex were all associated with the likelihood of adolescents' willingness to have sex. Overall the four latent variables accounted for 50 percent of the variance in the respondents' willingness. These findings have important implications for those wanting to better understand adolescent sexual values. [Source: DA]

Billy, J. O., K. L. Brewster, and W. R. Grady. 1994. "Contextual Effects on the Sexual-Behavior of Adolescent Women." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 56, pp. 387-404.
Abstract: The present study contributes to the literature that explores the implications of contextual factors for adolescent fertility by examining the effects of community context on the likelihood of experiencing sexual intercourse and on two aspects of sexual behavior subsequent to first intercourse: intercourse consistency and frequency. We use a multilevel strategy incorporating aggregate- and individual-level data for nationally representative samples of 566 black and 1,286 non- black adolescent women to test hypotheses about a wide range of community characteristics. Our results suggest that the likelihood of first intercourse and subsequent sexual behavior among teens of both races are shaped by a number of community characteristics, including social disorganization, socioeconomic status, religiosity, female labor force participation, population composition, and family planning service availability. [Source: SC]

Halpern, Carolyn Tucker, J. Richard Udry, Benjamin Campbell, Chirayath Suchindran, and George Mason. 1994. "Testosterone and Religiosity as Predictors of Sexual Attitudes and Activity among Adolescent Males: A Biosocial Model." Journal of Biosocial Science vol. 26, pp. 217-234.
Abstract: Examined a biosocial model of the effects of early adolescent testosterone levels and religiosity on adolescent males' sexual attitudes and activity over a 3-yr period. Using panel data for 100 boys (aged 12.5-23 yrs old at study entry), significant effects of free testosterone and frequency of attendance at religious services were demonstrated on the transition to 1st intercourse and other aspects of sexual behavior and attitudes. Ss with higher testosterone levels at study entry who never or infrequently attended religious services were the most sexually active and had the most permissive attitudes. Ss with lower free testosterone who attended services once a week or more were the least active and reported the least permissive attitudes. For attitude, ideation, and motivation measures, group differences became less distinct as the boys aged. [Source: PI]

Klitsch, Michael. 1994. "Hormones Vs. Religion." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 26, p. 146.
Abstract: Highlights the article `Testosterone and Religiosity as Predictors of Sexual Attitudes and Activity Among Adolescent Males: A Biosocial Model,' by C.T. Halpern and others from the `Journal of Biosocial Science'. Three-year study of males aged 12 to 13; Levels of free testosterone and religiosity as predictors for first sexual intercourse among males. [Source: AS]

Lottes, I. L. and P. J. Kuriloff. 1994. "Sexual Socialization Differences by Gender, Greek Membership, Ethnicity, and Religious Background." Psychology of Women Quarterly vol. 18, pp. 203-219.
Abstract: Socialization theories have included parents and peers as important determinants of the initial sexual standards and sexual behavior of teenagers and young adults. The purpose of the research reported here was to examine how parental and peer sexual socialization influences are related to gender, ethnicity, religious background, and college membership in a fraternity or sorority. A sample that included a majority of Caucasian university students and about 13% Asian and 7% Black students completed questionnaires both as entering first-year students and as seniors. Results indicated that compared to women, men continue to experience a more permissive sexual socialization from both parents and peers. Greek membership was associated with a more permissive socialization from peers but not parents. Asian students reported a more restrictive socialization than Blacks or Caucasians. Findings are discussed with respect to concerns of social scientists regarding the influence of fraternities and differential gender socialization. [Source: SC]

Nash, Susan G. 1994. "The Role of Perceived Behavioral Control in Health Compromising Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Comparison of Two Models." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Houston.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the role of perceived behavioral control over health compromising sexual behavior within the context of a model of planned behavior as contrasted with a model of reasoned action. A secondary objective was to investigate the psychosocial factors associated with perceived behavioral control and to determine whether they differ on the basis of gender and/or ethnicity. Data were obtained from adolescent high school students (n = 1400) participating in a cross-sectional survey conducted in the pilot phase of a longitudinal intervention project. Results of multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the reasoned action variables, attitudes and subjective norms, made significant contributions to the variance in health compromising sexual behavior. The test of the planned behavior model which includes the measure of perceived behavioral control yielded anomalous results. Examination of the beta weights revealed that the perceived behavioral control variable was functioning in the opposite direction from that predicted by previous research and the hypotheses of the study. The hypothesized interaction between age and perceived behavioral control was not observed. However, the test of the reasoned action/planned behavior variables controlled for the effects of age and ethnicity demonstrated that these variables remain good predictors of adolescent sexual behavior in a heterogenous population. Post hoc analysis to examine the validity of the composite risk variable based on frequency of sexual intercourse and frequency of unprotected sexual intercourse showed that the power of the model was increased when applied to specific behaviors. Discriminant function analysis on groups defined by level of perceived behavioral control showed that those adolescents who were higher in general self-efficacy, self-esteem, body image, and dispositional optimism were also higher in perceived behavioral control. Discriminant function analysis on groups defined by behavioral risk classification provided additional empirical support for the role of attitudes and subjective norms in decision making regarding the initiation of adolescent sexual activity. These two variables, along with importance of religion, discriminated those who had not had intercourse from all other groups. Limitations of the study including validity of the perceived behavioral control scale and other measurement concerns were reviewed. Implications for theory and practice were discussed and suggestions for future research were provided. [Source: DA]

Bryan, Janice W. and Florence W. Freed. 1993. "Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 1-22.
Abstract: 80 female and 70 male undergraduates (aged 18-49 yrs) completed surveys regarding their attitudes toward abortion, their sexual behavior, and their past and current problems. Although 70% of Ss were raised Catholic, 82% supported abortion choice. 86% of Ss had engaged in premarital sex, 70% of Ss used contraception, and 26% of the women had had premarital pregnancies. Compared with pro-abortion Ss, anti-abortion Ss had more religiosity, believed that abortion was murder, were more punitive toward the woman and medical personnel involved, were less sexually active, and were less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many Ss had a history of and were currently experiencing serious problems, especially the women. [Source: PI]

Davis, W. L., K. W. Olson, and L. Warner. 1993. "An Economic-Analysis of Teenage Fertility - Some Evidence from Oklahoma." American Journal of Economics and Sociology vol. 52, pp. 85-99.
Abstract: The relationship between the probability of a teenage birth and various independent variables representing fecundity, attitudes, resources, and the economic opportunities for a sample of teenage females drawn from the 1980 census is examined. A theoretical framework, based on Becker's model, is employed to describe the birth-decision process and tested using a logit technique. The findings suggest that receipt of public assistance income and perceived economic opportunities are more important in explaining fertility probabilities among older (18-19 years old) teenagers. Among younger teens, accessibility to family planning and abortion services, and religious attitudes toward family planning are more important predictors of fertility. [Source: SC]

Guerra, Lawrence Joseph. 1993. "A Cognitive-Emotional Developmental Model for Predicting Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior among Male Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John's University.
Abstract: Recent research has revealed that adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behaviors which may expose them to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of a cognitive-emotional developmental model in predicting sexual risk taking behavior in male adolescents. One hundred fifty-three male adolescent community college students, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, anonymously completed packets of seven pencil and paper questionnaires. The instruments, including the "Test of Logical Thinking" (TOLT), the "Adolescent Egocentrism-Sociocentrism Scale" (AES), the "Sensation Seeking Scale" (SSS), the "Dyadic Sexual Regulation Scale" (DSR), the "Sexual Opinion Survey" (SOS), and a "Demographics Survey," were used to assess formal operational thinking, egocentrism, sensation seeking, locus of control, sexual guilt ("erotophobia"), age, ethnicity, religiosity, and socioeconomic status, as potential predictor variables. The dependent variable, sexual risk taking behavior, was assessed with the "Sexual Behavior Questionnaire" (SBQ) developed for this study. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that only some of the variables were significant predictors of sexual risk taking behavior at p $<$.05 when the dependent variable was defined according to number and type of sexual partners, partners' other sexual history, and consistency of abstinence and condom use, during the previous one year. Older, less religious adolescent males prone toward sensation seeking were more likely to engage in behaviors which put them at risk of HIV infection. In a secondary analysis, in which number of sexual partners with other sexual history was examined as the dependent variable, male adolescents who were less egocentric, defined in terms of Elkind's (1967) "personal fable," who tended to be disinhibited sensation seekers, and who had relatively weak proportional (formal operational) reasoning ability tended to be at higher risk of HIV infection. The results suggest that specific cognitive-developmental and cognitive-emotional variables, in addition to demographic factors, need to be considered when examining adolescent sexual risk taking behavior and preventive interventions in the AIDS era. [Source: DA]

Nakkula, Michael James. 1993. "Toward Methodological Dialogue in Adolescent Risk Research." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: This study examined whether the clustering, prediction and self-reported meaning of various forms of high-risk behavior differed within two divergent high school cultures. 406 students were sampled, 242 from an urban high school in a low-income, working-class community, and 164 from a suburban high school in a middle-income, working-class and professional community. The urban subsample was largely African-American (35%) and Hispanic (30%), with smaller numbers of Haitian (15%) and Caucasian (7.5%) students. The suburban subsample was almost exclusively Caucasian (86%). Females comprised 55% of the sample within each school; males 45%. Sampling was largely random. Nine forms of high-risk behavior were included in the assessment of clustering differences: Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, harder drug use, multiple substance use, crime, depressive behavior, school-related problems, and sexual behavior. Involvement in each of these behaviors was assessed by the Risk and Prevention Questionnaire and Interview (RAP QI) (Nakkula, Way, Stauber, & London, 1989), a lickert-type survey, developed in consultation with high school students representing a broad range of reading levels. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis uncovered three clusters of behaviors within each school. The cluster of depressive behavior and school-related problems was found within both schools, while the two unique urban school clusters were sexual behavior with crime and the substance use cluster of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use and multiple substance use. The two unique suburban school clusters were cigarette smoking, alcohol use and sexual behavior; and marijuana use, multiple substance use, harder drug use and crime. Within each school, cluster scores were best predicted, via multiple regression, by different combinations of risk and resiliency factors, including family functioning, quality of relationships with parents and friends, hopefulness/hopelessness, religiosity, and friends' and family substance use, each of which was assessed by the RAP QI. Qualitative analyses of indepth research interviews were conducted to interpret the meaning of selected regression findings for each school. The particular strategy for using quantitative and qualitative methods interactively, designed and exemplified here, represents movement toward a methodological dialogue that can deepen our understanding of adolescent high-risk behavior. [Source: DA]

Sheeran, Paschal, Dominic Abrams, Charles Abraham, and Russell Spears. 1993. "Religiosity and Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Attitudes and Behaviour: An Empirical Study of Conceptual Issues." European Journal of Social Psychology vol. 23, pp. 39-52.
Abstract: Surveyed 527 adolescents (aged 15-20 yrs) concerning the associations between 6 models of religiosity (religious upbringing, denominational affiliation, ritual/behavioral, self-attitude/self-schema, and salience of religious identity) and personal sexual standards, attitudes toward sexually active others, virginal status, anticipation of sexual intercourse, and frequency of both coitus and noncoital sexual experiences over the previous year. A negative relationship between religiosity and a number of sexual attitudes and behaviors was observed, though nonsignificant relationships in the case of sexual experiences without intercourse suggested the maintenance of a technical virginity to accord with religious precepts. Results support models that implicate self-conception either in terms of self-attitudes/self-schemas or the salience of religious identity. [Source: PI]

Stevens, Joyce West. 1993. "The Negotiation of Adulthood Status among a Group of African-American Lower Class Pregnant and Nonpregnant Female Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago.
Abstract: This research study utilized quantitative and qualitative procedures to compare and contrast a random sample of pregnant and nonpregnant late age low income African-American adolescent females' perceptions about negotiating an adulthood status. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic and qualitative data. The semi-structured schedule was a culturally sensitive protocol that elicited in depth narrative accounts about respondents common sense ways of knowing; and of understanding themselves, others, and the world around them. The study sought to explore how the two subsamples viewed pregnancy and motherhood as a means of achieving an adult identity. Overall, findings of the study generated knowledge about female adolescent development and the trajectory path toward adulthood. Study findings suggest that pregnancy, for a group of late age adolescent African American lower class females, served as a primary way of confirming existence and providing a sense of identity rather than the result of sexual acting out behavior. The personal-social identities of the research sample were negotiated, validated and affirmed within their proximal and distal environments. The study furnished evidence for the idea of the adolescent female's genuine connectedness and responsive engagement to others as providing a context for self development. Findings tended to support the view that the adolescent does not have to disconnect or separate from familial relationships for the development of self. The sample population demonstrated continuity in relational connectedness with their mothers and relational primacy in identification with them. They also showed continuity in relational connection with peers as well as loyalty and care toward them. Findings supported the hypothesis that nonpregnant girls were more likely to establish linkages beyond the immediacy of family and peers which were reflected in their engagement in church, community, work, and educational environments. Nonpregnant girls were more frequently invested in behaviors that reflected social mobility aspirations. Moreover, findings tended to suggest that the perception and development of opportunity mobility goals, for Black adolescent females, are likely to be enhanced by institutional community support systems while connective relationships, for self development, with family and peers are sustained. [Source: DA]

Chase, Dana C. 1992. "Role of Cognitive Development, Religiosity, Sexual Attitude, Sexual Self-Acceptance, and Social Assertiveness in the Use of Contraceptives: A Path Analysis." Thesis, University of Southern California.

Fehlauer, Elsie E. 1992. "Attitudes, Influences and Expectations of Adolescent Dating Behaviors: A Survey of High School Students." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada).
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between adolescents' peer expected dating behaviors and their actual dating behaviours. Noteworthy among the data gathered, was the strong support given to the "permissiveness with affection" code and existence of the "double standard" for acceptable sexual behavior. Reported dating behaviours reflected the respondents' perceptions that they were more experienced than their peers. Gender differences appeared to exist for the two, less committed levels of dating, but when going steady, the female respondents reflected similar behaviours and expectations to those forwarded by their male counterparts. Roughly half of the surveyed students indicated they had been sexually active, most by the time they were fifteen years of age. Religiosity, academic success, level of alcohol consumption, drug and tobacco use, as well as parents' marital status were strongly associated with sexual activity of the adolescent sin this survey. Results further indicated that although the peer group influences adolescent behaviours, the parents are of equal importance in influencing adolescent decisions. [Source: DA]

Ketterlinus, Robert D., Michael E. Lamb, Katherine Nitz, and Arthur B. Elster. 1992. "Adolescent Nonsexual and Sex-Related Problem Behaviors." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 7, pp. 431-456.
Abstract: Data from a subsample (N = 1,197 males [Ms] & 1,834 females [Fs], 75% white & 25% black) of the 1980 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are drawn on to compare the involvement in problem behaviors of those who were: (1) virgins, (2) sexually experienced but never pregnant, & (3) pregnant or parents. Logistic regression analyses reveal that, after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic status, age, school status, & frequency of attendance at religious services, sexually experienced, never pregnant adolescents are more likely than virgins to have been involved in four types of nonsexual problem behaviors. However, pregnant/parenting adolescents are no more likely to engage in such behaviors than are their experienced but never pregnant peers. For Ms, but not for Fs, early age at first intercourse is associated with increased involvement in problem behaviors. Implications for policy & interventions for adolescents at risk are discussed. [Source: SA]

King, Randall H., Steven C. Myers, and Dennis M. Byrne. 1992. "The Demand for Abortion by Unmarried Teenagers: Economic Factors, Age, Ethnicity and Religiosity Matter." American Journal of Economics and Sociology vol. 51, pp. 223-235.
Abstract: Economic determinants of abortion are investigated by developing a demand model & applying it to a nationally representative sample of unmarried, pregnant teenagers (N not specified) drawn from the 1979-1984 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth. Analysis indicates that measures of the opportunity costs of pregnancy play a major role in an individual's decision to give birth or to abort. Significant economic variables included predicted wages, local area unemployment rates, other family income, poverty status, & school enrollment status. Other significant factors were age, ethnicity, & religiosity. In general, young women in favorable economic circumstances were substantially more likely than others to abort a pregnancy. [Source: SA]

Langer, L. M., R. S. Zimmerman, and R. McNeal. 1992. "Explaining the Association of Race and Ethnicity with the HIV Aids-Related Attitudes, Behaviors and Skills of High-School Students." Population Research and Policy Review vol. 11, pp. 233-247.
Abstract: This study deals with intervening factors such as family composition, religiosity, and HIV/AIDS knowledge in understanding the association of race and ethnicity with HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and behaviors. Data represent Wave 1 of a five-month panel design involving 10th grade students in eight public high schools in Dade County (greater Miami) Florida. Significant differences in attitudes and behaviors were found among racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, Hispanics had more negative attitudes about condom use than blacks or whites. Whites had the most permissive, and blacks the least permissive. sexual attitudes. Hispanics felt least confident and blacks felt most confident about interpersonal sexual skills. Blacks were most likely to have had sexual intercourse, and whites least likely. Religiosity was found to be a significant intervening variable in the less permissive sexual attitudes of both blacks and Hispanics. The most significant implication of this study is that racial/ethnic differences in sexual behavior can be explained more fully by socio- environmental factors such as family structure or religiosity than by knowledge or attitudes. Thus, interventions directed toward minority populations should focus on the development of alternative social environments that would support more positive behaviors. More specifically, extended family. religious youth groups, and other community organizations should be brought into the HIV/AIDS risk reduction arena. [Source: SC]

Ludescher, Gerd. 1992. "AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Adolescents Attending Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in California." Dr.P.H. Thesis, Loma Linda University.
Abstract: Since it was first recognized in 1981, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become a pandemic disease. Because public education has being recognized as the most effective means to fight the spread of AIDS, there has been an increasing assessment of AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in adolescents at the local, state, and national level. These studies, however, have been conducted almost exclusively in public schools. Data from private Christian high schools have been rarely gathered or analyzed separately. Such studies are (except for drug use) largely non-existent for Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) schools. In the present study, 488 adolescents grades 9 through 12, attending SDA-academies throughout California participated and returned a mailed self-administered questionnaire anonymously. The students belonged to a random cluster sample of 225 SDA churches. The questionnaire assessed AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors; some of their family-, church- , and school-related determinants; and social desirability response tendency (SDRT) of the study participants. AIDS-related findings were compared with the 1990/1991 data of the statewide Youth Risk Behavior Survey in public schools. A significant number of participants reported involvement in drug use and/or sexual intercourse. Occurrence, however, was consistently and markedly lower than in students from public schools. AIDS knowledge and attitude scores were substantially higher in students from SDA-schools. Family-related determinants showed a statistically significant protective effect against drug use and sexual intercourse in contrast to church and school-related factors. As opposed to sexual activities, drug use was reported more frequently by students with low SDRT. Findings indicate that youth in SDA-schools are not immune to drug use and premarital sex. The study suggests a broad approach of early, continuous, and mandated AIDS education in school as well as significant family life programs. Regular and comprehensive youth risk behavior surveys to monitor changes, take corrective actions if necessary, and allow comparison with public schools are also recommended. Finally, further research about the impact of "safe sex" and "abstinence only" curricula on student behavior is encouraged. [Source: DA]

Pemberton, Larry Donald. 1992. "Religiosity and Adolescent Male Sexual Behavior." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Abstract: Within the body of research on adolescent sexuality, there has been relatively little attention given to adolescent males and minimal consideration given to the influence of adolescent religiosity. In the present study, religiosity is investigated as a mitigating factor in postponing or preventing adolescent male intimate sexual behavior. In addition, the adolescent male's age, his attitudes of sexual permissiveness, and his perception of closeness to his father and of his father as a committed Christian are considered with religiosity as additive socialization influences. Data for this study were provided by a Pentecostal denomination and were collected by confidentially administered questionnaires from a sample of youth participating in church youth group meetings. A subsample of 13-18 year old males was used in the present analysis. In an elaboration model, contingency tables, zero order and partial correlations, and multiple regression analysis were used to determine and elaborate relationships in the data. For the subsample as a whole, religiosity was demonstrated to have a significant negative relationship with sexually intimate behavior. Religiosity was demonstrated to be a multi-dimensional construct with the personal beliefs component showing the most direct influence. Of the test variables in the elaboration, age demonstrated the most significant influence. Overall, the socialization structure most certainly leading to higher levels of sexual intimacy consisted of low religiosity, closeness to the father, the perception that the father was not a committed Christian, and liberal sexual permissiveness. The socialization structure leading most certainly to low sexual intimacy consisted of high religiosity, closeness to the father, the perception that the father was a committed Christian, and conservative sexual permissiveness. A major conclusion of this study was that religiosity is a multi-dimensional construct which influences male adolescent sexual behavior to the extent to which its values have been internalized. Additionally, this study concluded that several significant socialization influences, including father variables, age, and attitudes of sexual permissiveness, acted conjointly and additively with religiosity in relation to the adolescent's level of sexual intimacy. [Source: DA]

Plotnick, Robert D. 1992. "The Effects of Attitudes on Teenage Premarital Pregnancy and Its Resolution." American Sociological Review vol. 57, pp. 800-811.
Abstract: Drawing on problem behavior theory and complementary models of behavior, the influence of attitudes and related personality variables on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy, abortion, having an out-of-wedlock birth, or marrying before the birth were examined. 1,142 non-Hispanic White adolescents, drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, were analyzed using the nested logit method. The estimates show that self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward women's family roles, attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and religiosity were associated with premarital pregnancy and its resolution in directions predicted by theory. The effects of self-esteem, attitudes toward school, attitudes toward women's family roles, and educational expectations were substantively important. [Source: PI]

Stevans, Lonnie K., Charles A. Register, and David N. Sessions. 1992. "The Abortion Decision: A Qualitative Choice Approach." Social Indicators Research vol. 27, pp. 327-344.
Abstract: Used data from the National Longitudinal Survey, Youth Cohort to show the impact of various sociodemographic and economic factors on the abortion decision for 1,867 pregnancies occurring between 1983 and 1985 in 12,868 female adolescents (aged 14-21 yrs). The results suggest a profile of an adolescent choosing the abortion decision as being White, unmarried, residing in the Northeast or West, relatively well-educated, and either in school or working. Additionally, the woman is likely to have a relatively high personal income, and, if present, a relatively low spousal income. Being Baptist or Catholic appears to have no significant influence on the abortion decision, and the same is true for Baptists and Catholics who are religious (attend church more than 2 times per month). For low income women, access to Medicaid funding does significantly increase the probability of choosing abortion. [Source: PI]

White, Sharon D. and Richard R. DeBlassie. 1992. "Adolescent Sexual Behavior." Adolescence vol. 27, pp. 183-191.
Abstract: A brief overview of the past five years of professional literature on adolescent sexuality is presented to identify factors that influence this social phenomenon, as well as effective interventions. The importance of the family & religion on sexual attitudes & behaviors, how sexual activity is related to other age-related behaviors & delinquency, the relationship between early coital behaviors & the risk of pregnancy & sexually transmitted idseases, & attitudes toward contraception & abstinence are discussed. Possible psychological effects of sexual activity on adolescent development are also considered. [Source: SA]

Beck, Scott- H., Bettie- S. Cole, and Judith- A. Hammond. 1991. "Religious Heritage and Premarital Sex: Evidence from a National Sample of Young Adults." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 30, pp. 173-180.
Abstract: Data from the 1979 and 1983 interviews of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth were used and logistic regression was employed to model the effects of religious affiliation contrasts along with control variables on the dichotomous dependent variable premarital sex. For both White females and males, a heritage of Institutionalized Sect membership (primarily Pentecostals, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses) produced the lowest likelihoods of premarital sex. In certain models for the female and male samples, Fundamentalists and Baptists also displayed lower probabilities of premarital sex, compared with the contrast group of mainline Protestants. These differences generally held up, especially the lower probabilities for the Institutionalized Sect category, even with controls for church attendance and a number of other control variables. [Source: PI]

Berger, D. K., W. Kyman, G. Perez, M. Menendez, J. F. Bistritz, and J. M. Goon. 1991. "Hispanic Adolescent Pregnancy Testers - a Comparative-Analysis of Negative Testers, Childbearers and Aborters." Adolescence vol. 26, pp. 951-962.
Abstract: Fifty-six Hispanic adolescents who requested a pregnancy determination at a municipal outpatient adolescent clinic participated in a comparative study of negative testers, childbearers, and aborters. The study's purposes were to assess differences between negative and positive pregnancy testers and to evaluate the pregnancy resolution decision-making process of positive testers. Data were collected using a two-part structured interview administered prior to and following knowledge of pregnancy test results. Results indicated that negative and positive pregnancy testers were similar in all areas evaluated. However, positive testers were slightly older and had higher self-esteem than negative testers. Of the 36 positive testers, 29 chose to deliver and keep the baby. None of the adolescents chose adoption. Adolescents were consistent in their pregnancy resolution decision before and after knowledge of pregnancy test results. The pregnant adolescents considered themselves to be the most influential person in the decision-making process. There were no significant differences between the childbearers and the aborters, although the former demonstrated higher self-esteem and greater religiosity. Most of the teenagers were at risk for unintended pregnancy; therefore, subsequent family planning counseling efforts should be directed at this population. [Source: SC]

Farber, Naomi B. 1991. "The Process of Pregnancy Resolution among Adolescent Mothers." Adolescence vol. 26, pp. 697-716.
Abstract: Data collected in Chicago, Ill, during in-depth interviews with black & white unmarrried adolescent mothers (N = 28) from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds are drawn on to explore their pregnancy resolution. Results reveal the importance of family members & other significant adults in the decision process. Personal, familial, & religious values were primary considerations in deciding to bear & keep their children. [Source: SA]

Lamanna, Mary Ann. 1991. "Teenagers' Decision-Making About Sexuality and Reproduction: Policy Implications." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Data from 225 focus group participants & semistructured interviews with 64 teenage women (white/black; ever-pregnant vs never-pregnant) provide information on teen women's sexual & reproductive decision making in a midwestern US city. Typical decision sequences are identifiable. Young women in the pair bonding model make an early commitment to family-building, in an often fictive "ritual marriage." In the development model, teens are highly committed to educational & career goals, more attentive to the need for contraception, & more open to abortion or adoption as possible solutions to problem pregnancies; goals & aspirations regarding future relationships & marriage are vague, & paradoxically, their rational & detached approach to gaining sexual experiences leads to activity that seems emotionally undesired, yet entails the risk of pregnancy. Results are compared to the premises of contemporary teen pregnancy policy in such areas as: religious proscriptions, family relationships, & sexual activity; life goals & self-esteem; peer culture; sex education; mentoring programs; school retention programs; role playing; contraceptive programs; adoption, or abortion as solutions to problem pregnancies; & job training & career development. [Source: SA]

Scott, Stacy Leigh. 1991. "The Influence of Parents and Religion on Adolescent Problem Behavior." Ed.D. Thesis, School of Education, Harvard University.
Abstract: This study attempts to clarify the relative influence of parents, family and religiousness on two areas of adolescent problem behavior: precocious sexual activity and substance use. Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between adolesent problems and sources of emotional support such as religion, parents and family, without determining the relative strength of each. From an urban and a suburban high school, 433 students from grades nine through 12 completed questionnaires on problem behaviors, religion and family relationships. Religiousness was consistently inversely related to problem behaviors to a modest but dependable degree. The extent of problems with parents and lack of family cohesiveness were positively related to problem behavior. The relationship between religiousness and problem behaviors was stronger than the relationship between the influence of parents or family and problem behaviors. This was true except in the cases of cigarette and hard drug use where religiousness was not as closely related. While hard drug use (such as cocaine use) was not related to religiousness, lack of family cohesiveness was related to such drug use. Religiousness, positive relationships with parents and close family ties were also found to be inversely related to dating and sexual activity. [Source: DA]

Charry, Ellen T. and Annette Brownlee, (eds.). 1990. "Theology in a Pluralistic Setting: Report on Adolescent Pregnancy." Journal of Ecumenical Studies vol. 27, pp. 1-100.
Abstract: Section I: framing the questions and methodology: Children bearing children: the crisis of premature pregnancy, by Bruce Chilton; Religious communities and youth, by Ellen T Charry; Experiential findings, by John T Ford. Section II: tradition position papers: Protestant, by John Jefferson Davis; Roman Catholic, by John T Ford; Jewish, by Gordon Tucker; Orthodox, by George C Papademetriou. Section III: tradition-group deliberations: Protestant deliberations, by Bruce Chilton; Addendum to Protestant report, by Thomas Mikelson; Roman Catholic deliberations, by Jerome Bracken; A Roman Catholic case study, by Jerome Bracken; Jewish deliberations, by Michael A Signer; An Orthodox case study, by George C Papademetriou. Section IV: responses to tradition-group reports: Protestant responses, by Bruce Chilton and James A Carpenter; Roman Catholic responses, by William Werpehowski and Lucien Richard; A Jewish response, by Michael A Signer; An Orthodox response, by George C Papademetriou. Section V: epilogue, by Bruce Chilton and Ellen T Charry. [Source: RI]

Cullari, Salvatore and Robert Mikus. 1990. "Correlates of Adolescent Sexual Behavior." Psychological Reports vol. 66, pp. 1179-1184.
Abstract: 50 9th and 66 12th graders in a Catholic school and 52 9th and 40 12th graders in public school completed questionnaires concerning sexual knowledge and information about sexual activity. Analysis showed that 33% of Catholic and 73% of public 12th graders had previous sexual experience. Catholic school 12th graders had significantly higher scores on sex knowledge than did public school Ss. Factors Ss said encouraged sexual experimentation included curiosity, need for love, and peer pressure; factors discouraging experimentation were said to be fear of pregnancy and sexually transmissible diseases. [Source: PI]

DiBlasio, Frederick A. and Brent B. Benda. 1990. "Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Multivariate Analysis of a Social Learning Model." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 5, pp. 449-466.
Abstract: To test a social-learning model for its ability to explain adolescent sexual intercourse from a multivariate approach, data were gathered via an anonymously administered sexual frequency scale from 1,610 private school students in grades 7-12. Findings indicated that all 8 theoretical variables considered were significantly correlated with sexual frequency in the bivariate analysis, & 5 of the 8 variables explained 40% of the variance in the multivariate analysis. Peer differential association was found to be the best predictor of adolescent sexual frequency. The other variables, in order of importance, were reinforcement balance, overall reinforcement, positive/negative definitions, law-abiding/law-violating behavior, modeling, parents' reaction, & techniques of neutralization. The following control variables also were significantly associated: drug use, religiosity, closeness to father, closeness to mother, academic performance, & gender. [Source: SA]

DuRant, Robert H., Carolyn Seymore, Robert Pendergrast, and Rebecca Beckman. 1990. "Contraceptive Behavior among Sexually Active Hispanic Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 11, pp. 490-496.
Abstract: Factors associated with the contraceptive behavior of a national representative sample of 85 US Hispanic female adolescents ages 15-19 who were unmarried & sexually active are investigated drawing on data from a 1982 national survey. Among the findings, those from Mexican & Central/South American backgrounds were more likely to use effective birth control than were Puerto Rican, Cuban, & other Hispanic background Ss. Poorer contraceptive behavior was associated with: noncompliance with the initial birth control method used, lower coital frequency, older menarchal age, failure to use birth control at first coitus, fewer years dating, lower frequency of church attendance, & never having experienced a pregnancy scare. Findings suggest that the contraceptive behavior of Hispanic female adolescents is a dynamic process that can be understood in the context of previous sexual & contraceptive behavior. [Source: SA]

Hill, Jean Louise. 1990. "Toward an Understanding of Teenage Sexual Behavior: An Analysis of Two Theoretical Models." Ph.D. Thesis, Depaul University.
Abstract: The study evaluated the effectiveness of two theoretical models of adolescent sexual behavior. Model One focuses on the effect of perceived responsibility for birth control use on birth control use and the variables which contribute to perceived responsibility. The outcome variables are age of first intercourse and birth control use. The independent variables are locus of control and knowledge of birth control. Three variables, perceived responsibility for birth control use, perceived probability of pregnancy, and level of communication with partner, play mediating roles in the model. Model One was hypothesized to be more applicable to male adolescents than to females. Model Two examines the direct and indirect influence of variables related to a teen's willingness to have a baby. The outcome variables are age of first intercourse and birth control use. The independent variables are locus of control, perceived costs of a teen pregnancy, perceived family support for a teen pregnancy, the number of role models who were teen parents, educational goals, and level of religiosity. Hopelessness and willingness to consider having a child as a teenager play mediating roles in the model. Model Two was hypothesized to be more applicable to females than to males. The study involved 149 male and 107 female, predominantly African American, students at an inner city high school. Approximately half of the female participants and the majority of the males reported being sexually active. Path analyses were performed. The results indicate significant differences between male and female participants. Model One was shown to be an adequate description of the sexual behavior of male participants, but was only marginally descriptive of females. Model Two was not applicable to males and only marginally applicable to females. Possible methods of improving the fit of the models include improving the measures used, dropping some variables from the models or adding others, and treating some variables as latent or unobserved. The results point out the importance of treating male and female sexual behavior as separate phenomena, and designing appropriate prevention programs for each. In addition, the results indicate the usefulness of developing and testing theoretical, predictive models. [Source: DA]

Jackson, Alice Elaine. 1990. "The Relationships among Knowledge, Perceived Accessibility and Practice of Contraception of Mexican-American Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: A descriptive survey was used to determine what relationships existed among contraceptive knowledge, perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods and contraceptive use within a randomly selected sample of 250 adolescent Mexican-American females. In their home environment, all subjects completed the investigator-adapted Contraceptive Knowledge Index (r =.88) and the investigator-designed Contraceptive Methods Access Index (r =.93) and Demographic Data Record. Analysis of data revealed significant relationships between contraceptive knowledge and perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods (r =.45; p =.0001) and between the combined influences of contraceptive knowledge and perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods and contraceptive use ($chisp2$ = 81.31, df = 6; p = $le$.05). Associations were significant between sexual experience (p =.0001), age (p =.002), education (p =.008), and religion (p =.004). Sexual experience had the highest predictive capacity for contraceptive use followed by perceived accessibility to contraceptive methods, age, religion, contraceptive knowledge, education and socioeconomic status. [Source: DA]

Lock, Sharon Estelle. 1990. "Factors Affecting Premarital Sexual Intercourse and Contraceptive Use among Rural Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Carolina.
Abstract: Many factors associated with female adolescent sexual decision-making are of interest to nursing and could be positively influenced by nursing strategies. Secondary analysis using structural equation modeling was used to determine the direct and indirect effects of selected demographic and psychosocial factors on female adolescents' decisions to: (1) engage or not engage in premarital sexual intercourse, and (2) use effective or ineffective contraception at most recent intercourse. Data were derived from responses to selected items from a questionnaire designed to evaluate the South Carolina School/Community Program for Sexual Risk Reduction Among Teens. In this program, one school district in a rural South Carolina county received an educational intervention and another school district in the same county served as the comparison group. Respondents consisted of 564 predominantly black females ages 12 to 19 years old who participated in the program in 1987. Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior provided a nursing framework to guide the study. Demographic and psychosocial factors included: town, age, race, religious affiliation, family structure, socioeconomic status, affordability and accessibility of contraception, religiosity, parent-adolescent communication, peer influence, commitment to partner, educational goals, reproductive and contraceptive knowledge, sex-role attitudes, sexual and contraceptive attitudes, decision-making ability, self-esteem, health locus of control, and personal responsibility. Multiple regression, logistic regression and LISREL VII were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that town, age, family structure, peer influence, commitment to partner, and sexual attitudes had significant direct effects on premarital sexual intercourse. Birth control attitudes and parent-adolescent communication had significant direct effects on contraceptive use. LISREL analysis indicated that Cox's model fit the premarital sexual intercourse data poorly, whereas, the model fit the contraceptive use data reasonably well. Findings suggest that nursing strategies should focus on the development of peer counseling groups, promotion of positive attitudes toward sexuality and contraception, and development of parent support groups. [Source: DA]

Pleck, Joseph H., Freya L. Sonenstein, and Leighton C. Ku. 1990. "Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males." Journal of Family Issues vol. 11, pp. 294-312.
Abstract: Analysis of data collected in the 1988 National Survey of Adolescent Males from 1,880 males aged 15-19 revealed that nearly 60% indicated an "almost certain chance" to use a condom in future intercourse. Compared to sexually inexperienced males, those who had sexual experience reported lower perceived costs for condom use in terms of embarassment, but high costs in terms of reduction of pleasure. The perceived benefits of using condoms in terms of preventing pregnancy & gaining appreciation from the partner, & attitudinal endorsement of male responsibility for contraception were similar for the two groups. Attitudes discounting the risk of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) reduced intended condom use in both groups. For the sexually experienced, metropolian residence, high educational aspirations, & self-esteem were associated with intended condom use. For the sexually inexperienced, being Hispanic, holding religion to be important, liberal attitudes about the male sex role, worry about AIDS, & condom use at last intercourse were associated with intended condom use. [Source: SA]

Williams, Diane B. 1990. "Pregnancy Prevention among African-American Adolescent Boys: A Case Study." Thesis, Howard University School of Divinity.
Abstract: This project examines through the case study methodology one church's efforts to determine if positive intervention in the lives of African-American boys (ages 12-14) by the African-American church will prevent boys from participating in premature and irresponsible sexual activity. For this purpose the church established Project A Better Choice (Project ABC), a male mentored program designed to assist the boys in making life choices that will lead towards their becoming spiritually, physically, and mentally mature, self-sufficient, and socially-concerned men. [Source: RI]

Allen Meares, Paula. 1989. "Adolescent Sexuality and Premature Parenthood: Role of the Black Church in Prevention." Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality vol. 8, pp. 133-142.
Abstract: Presents some of the consequences of adolescent sexual behaviors and premature parenthood, with a particular focus on Black adolescents. Historical issues unique to the Black experience in the US (e.g., fear of genocide) are identified, which operate as barriers to preventive efforts such as the use of family planning services. The present author advocates the role that the Black church can play in postponing adolescent sexual activity and parenthood. [Source: PI]

Cooksey, Elizabeth Constance. 1989a. "Adolescent First Premarital Pregnancy Resolution: The Influence of Family." Paper presented at Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP).
Abstract: Data from the National Longitudinal Survey - Youth Cohort (N = 1,946 young women whose first premarital pregnancy was conceived between Mar 1973 & Apr 1985, & who were under 24 at the time) are used to determine if aspects of family background influence whether a premaritally pregnant adolescent chooses to bear her child out-of-wedlock, to legitimate the birth, or to abort. Polytomous logit models estimate the effects of explanatory variables (family structure, parental education, religious affiliation, age at first conception, number of siblings, & whether the girl's mother worked) on the likelihood of each outcome relative to the others. Since there are marked racial/ethnic differences in how pregnancies are resolved, & because the effects of predictor variables differ among whites, blacks, & Hispanics, each group is modeled separately. For whites, all variables, with the exception of religious affiliation, emerge as significant predictors. For blacks, parental education, age at first conception, & number of siblings differentiate between resolutions. For the Hispanic sample, only parental education is statistically significant, but the effect is a strong one. Predicted probabilities for selected background variables highlighted by the regression analysis are also presented. Some policy-related conclusions are drawn concerning the formation of new nonintact families, & the special needs of unwed mothers. [Source: SA]

Cooksey, Elizabeth Constance. 1989b. "The Influence of Family Background on Resolution of Adolescent Firt Premarital Pregnancies in the United States." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: An investigation of family background factors - including family structure, parental education, religion, race/ethnicity, & number of siblings - on the resolution of a first premarital pregnancy for adolescents within the US. A simultaneous model of three potential outcomes of such pregnancies - abortion, out-of-wedlock childbearing, & legitimation of the birth through marriage - is tested, utilizing nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. How teenagers resolve their premarital pregnancies has strong implications for future familial organization, & thus for other social institutions & the roles & definitions (eg, wife & mother) that are based on them. Given that the majority of teens who carry to term choose to bear the child out-of-wedlock, it is concluded that young adolescents are moving away from traditional family building. [Source: SA]

Huth, Mary Jo. 1989. "Recent Trends and Major Predisposing Factors in America's Teenage Pregnancy/Parenthood Crisis." Paper presented at Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP).
Abstract: Each year during the 1980s, over 1 million teenage girls in the US become pregnant, more than 400,000 of them obtaining abortions & nearly 500,000 giving birth. Here, recent trends in adolescent sexual activity contraceptive use in the US are examined, & the major personal & environmental factors that influence these trends, as well as reactions to premarital pregnancy, are explored. An analysis is presented of the relationship between sexual activity, contraceptive use, & alternate responses to pregnancy - eg, having an abortion, marrying the parent, placing the child for adoption, & choosing single parenthood - & the following conditioning factors: (1) pubertal development; (2) intelligence; (3) religiousness; (4) rebelliousness; (5) race & SES; (6) family & peer group influences; (7) knowledge & application of information about reproduction, contraception, & abortion; (8) attitudes toward one's own sexuality, contraception, & abortion; (9) nature of one's M-F liaisons; (10) intendedness of a pregnancy; (11) access to abortion services; & (12) availability of financial assistance. Why knowledge of effective intervention strategies has not kept pace with understanding of the antecedents of early sexual & fertility behavior is explained, & recommendations are made for a national policy addressing these problems through the coordinated efforts of policymakers, service providers, parents, & teenagers themselves. [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C. and C. Raymond Bingham. 1989. "Family Configuration in Relation to the Sexual Behavior of Female Adolescents." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 51, pp. 499-506.
Abstract: Recent studies reporting that aspects of family configuration, including both sibling constellation & parents' marital status, are related to adolescent sexual intercourse experience have generally been based on relatively small samples, often without adequate controls. Findings are reported here from a 1979 interview survey of a national probability sample (N = 1,571 females [Fs] aged 15-19) that replicate only one of the earlier results: teenage Fs who have been raised by a single parent are more likely to have nonmarital sexual intercourse than those from intact marriages. However, this effect is diminished by controlling for age, race, social class, & religion. When all of these variables are entered first in a regression equation, the effect of parents' marital status on daughters' sexual status is greatly reduced, but remains marginally significant. Sibling constellation effects reported in some earlier studies are not evident in these data. [Source: SA]

Murstein, Bernard I., Michelle J. Chalpin, Kenneth V. Heard, and Stuart A. Vyse. 1989. "Sexual Behavior, Drugs, and Relationship Patterns on a College Campus over Thirteen Years." Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 125-139.
Abstract: 737 college students at a small liberal arts college received questionnaires regarding their sexual philosophies, behavior, relationship with most recent partner, self-perceived attractiveness, relationship with parents, use of drugs and alcohol, attitudes toward marriage and abortion, and other subjects in 1974, 1979, and 1986. Results show that sexual behavior increased dramatically from 1974 to 1979 and then decreased in 1986 to approximately where it was in 1974. It is suggested that data reflect an increase in individualism and a weakening of the influence of religion and parental relationship on sexual behavior. However, newly prominent diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), have pushed college youth toward more committed sexual relationships, although not to abstention. [Source: PI]

Schwab, Ellen Marks. 1989. "The Father-Daughter Relationship During Adolescence: Its Perceived Impact on Sex Role and Sexual Identity, Heterosexuality, Personal Adjustment and Achievement." Ed.D. Thesis, Boston University, Boston.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was: (1) to examine a group of high school sophomore and junior adolescent females' perceptions of their relationships with their fathers, retrospectively before and during adolescence; (2) to explore whether or not any changes in the relationship reportedly occurred after the daughter's adolescence began, and if so, what the changes were; (3) to explore the impact the father-daughter relationship reputedly had on female sex role identity, both before and after adolescence began; (4) and additionally, to explore its purported impact on the daughter's personal adjustment, heterosexuality and achievement. A volunteer group of 74 sophomore and junior high school girls were recruited from a suburban town approximately 25 miles outside of a major northeastern city in the United States. They were primarily white, Protestant or Catholic females from middle income families. Each subject was asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, and three paper and pencil instruments: Schaefer's (1965) Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory; Bem's (1981) Sex Role Inventory; and Gough and Heilbrun's Adjective Check List, including subscales measuring heterosexuality, personal adjustment and achievement. In addition, in order to collect some illustrative information, four girls were randomly selected to participate in individual, semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the data yielded by the scales confirmed or partially confirmed (p <.05) five out of seven hypotheses. Generally, these were that: (1) differences tended to exist between the androgynous and undifferentiated sex role rated groups in terms of the perceived relationships they had with their fathers, (2) relationships were found to exist between heterosexuality scores and some of the perceived paternal behaviors, (3) differences tended to exist between the androgynous and undifferentiated sex role rated groups in relationship to their heterosexuality scores, (4) a relationship was found between the masculine sex role rated group and high scores on the achievement scale, (5) and differences were found in the before and after age twelve paternal behavior ratings. The data analysis for each hypothesis were assessed and discussed as were the results of the demographic variables. Recommendations for future research, as well as implications for counseling practice, were made. [Source: DA]

Thornton, Arland and Donald Camburn. 1989. "Religious Participation and Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Attitudes." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 51, pp. 641-653.
Abstract: Causal interconnections between adolescent sexuality & the religious affiliation & participation of adolescents are considered, based on interviews conducted in 1962, 1963, 1966, & 1967 with mothers of a sample of children selected from birth records of the Detroit, Mich, metropolitan area in July 1961; interviews were also conducted with both mother & child in 1980 (original N = 916 families). Findings are consistent with previous research in showing religious involvement & adolescent sexual attitudes & behavior to be strongly correlated. Young people who attend church frequently & who value religion in their lives have the least permissive attitudes & are less experienced sexually. Results also support the traditional hypothesis that religious participation effects adolescent sexuality, but also indicate that sexual behavior & attitudes significantly influence religious involvement. [Source: SA]

Valentino, Lorene. 1989. "Teenage Pregnancy from the Perspective of Three Groups of Low Income Teenage Girls." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Southern California.
Abstract: Purpose. The primary purposes of the study were to determine and to analyze the perceptions of three groups of teenagers (pregnant girls, girls using birth controls, and girls never pregnant and do not use birth controls) regarding (1) sex education in the schools; (2) their locii of control; and (3) their personal and professional goals. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the three groups of teenage girls on the basis of selected personal and professional characteristics. Procedure. A 40-item questionnaire-survey was utilized to survey 548 teenage girls enrolled in a summer work program for economically disadvantaged youth in Central California. The descriptive study used a Likert-type weighted scale to analyze and compare mean responses to survey questions. Findings. Most of the girls in all three groups received at least one quarter of sex education in the schools. Girls using birth controls reported receiving information about contraceptives in education classes at an earlier grade level than the other two groups. The birth control group of girls had the highest internal locii of control and also had a significantly higher reported use of birth controls than the pregnant girls who had the highest external locii of control. The group of girls who had experienced a pregnancy were one grade level behind girls in the other two groups. Girls who abstain from sex more often come from two parent families and attend church more frequently than girls in either of the other two groups. Conclusions. Instruction and activities which teach self- esteem, decision making, and assertiveness are effective methods to increase contraceptive use among sexually active teenage girls. Family stability and participation in religious activities make positive contributions to abstinence of sexual relations for teenage girls. Recommendations. Sex education is a highly controversial issue and educators should develop a program representative of differing viewpoints but still appropriate for teenagers. Information regarding contraceptives should be taught at a lower grade level than is current practice and curriculum should include self-esteem/assertiveness training activities. [Source: DA]

Cooksey, Elizabeth Constance. 1988. "Outcome of Adolescent First Premarital Pregnancies: The Influence of Family Background." Ph.D. Thesis, Brown University.
Abstract: This research focuses upon how aspects of family background influence how adolescents in the United States resolve a first premarital pregnancy. Comparatively sparse attention has been paid to adolescent premarital pregnancy resolution, and previous studies that have addressed the issue have been flawed by a number of common problems. Often all three choices (abortion, out-of-wedlock parenthood, or marriage to legitimate the birth) have not been modelled as separate outcomes, and when this has been done, the data used have not been from a national sample precluding nationwide generalizability of results. In this research, data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are utilized which provide a sufficiently large case base, and a diversity of racial/ethnic, religious and family structure backgrounds. Most importantly, these data reflect a conscious effort to collect quality abortion reports and thus enable the three pregnancy outcome choices to be segregated from one another, but simultaneously modelled. Pregnancies occurring between February 1973 and March 1982 are included in the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression is performed to analyze these data since the dependent variable of pregnancy outcome is comprised of three categories. The independent variables utilized (age at first conception, religious affiliation, race/ethnicity, parental education, family structure, and number of siblings), measure a number of family background characteristics hypothesized to effect how the adolescent resolves her first premarital pregnancy. All of the predictor variables (excluding religious affiliation when not modelled as part of an interaction term with race/ethnicity) were found to be significant predictors of adolescent premarital pregnancy resolution. Some, for example, race/ethnicity, parental education and number of siblings, were found to be especially powerful. The findings of this study may be put to good use in helping to pinpoint areas where services such as counselling to aborters, and provision of advice, and material goods to adolescent parents may be best provided. [Source: DA]

Forste, Renata T. and Tim B. Heaton. 1988. "Initiation of Sexual Activity among Female Adolescents." Youth and Society vol. 19, pp. 250-268.
Abstract: Analysis of data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (N = 7,969 Fs aged 15-44) reveal several factors that will lower the rate of teen pregnancy by (1) reducing the chance that sex will be initiated; & (2) increasing the rate of contraception at first intercourse. These factors include: family stability, high SES, religious affiliation, church attendance, & reproductive sex education. The initiation of sexual activity has become a major transition in the lives of adolescents. In order to approach this transition in a responsible & positive way, teens need a structured, stable, moderately restrained environment. Adolescents living in an unstable world with few restraints, or a rigidly structured environment with too many restraints, are more permissive in their sexual behavior. [Source: SA]

Henegar, Abbie Gayle. 1988. "Relationships between Adolescent Premarital Sexual Activity and Involvement in the Home, School, and Church." M.S. Thesis, University of North Texas.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to find the relationship between adolescent premarital sexual activity and involvement in the family, school, and church. The sample was composed of 192 adolescents. The data were analyzed for significant relationships by using chi square test of independence. The study found that there were significant relationships between adolescent premarital sexual activity and family structure, family mobility, parental employment, grade level achievement, and parental attendance at school functions. Since the findings of a study of this nature are pertinent to society, further research needs to be done using a more heterogeneous sample and a more refined, limited instrument. The instrument should be further tested for reliability and validity. [Source: DA]

Joshi, Neela P. 1988. "An Epidemiological Perspective of Minority Teenage Males: A Preliminary Report." Urban League Review vol. 12, pp. 139-145.
Abstract: The relationship between socioeconomic status, sexual behavior, use of contraceptives, & fatherhood of teenage minority group males is examined, based on interview & observation data collected from 150 predominantly poor, minority group males aged 19 or under participating in a 2-year prospective, longitudinal study conducted in an urban clinic for adolescents. Results show that: 50+% of the teenagers live in a single-parent household, many are not active members of any church, the majority report engaging in sexual activity before they were 15, many have more than one sexual partner, & only 33% use contraceptives. A. Devic [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C. and Terrance D. Olson. 1988. "Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of High School Students in Relation to Background and Contextual Factors." Journal of Sex Research vol. 24, pp. 194-200.
Abstract: Investigated how a number of background and contextual variables relate to sexual attitudes and behavior when they are combined in a multivariate analysis, using survey data from 2,423 adolescents (95% 15-28 yrs old). Results show a strong relationship between premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. However, attitude/behavior discrepancies suggest that adolescent sexuality is complex. Religious variables were strong predictors of sexual attitudes and behavior. [Source: PI]

Ryan, Ione J. and Patricia C. Dunn. 1988. "Association of Race, Sex, Religion, Family Size, and Desired Number of Children on College Students' Preferred Methods of Dealing with Unplanned Pregnancy." Family Practice Research Journal vol. 7, pp. 153-161.
Abstract: Surveyed 238 Black and 466 White college students (43% male, 57% female) to assess their order of preference of 5 methods for dealing with an out-of-wedlock, unplanned pregnancy: (a) marriage, (b) abortion, (c) adoption, (d) raising the child as a single parent, and (e) having grandparents raise the child. Results indicate that the majority of Ss would prefer to marry, if possible. Abortion was their second preference. Of the remaining options, raising a child as a single parent was preferable to allowing a third party to raise the child, either through adoption or extended family. Race, sex, religiosity, religious preference, number of siblings, and number of desired children were significantly associated with Ss' preferences. [Source: PI]

Clark, Joyce Henrene. 1987. "An Investigation of the Relationship between Influences on Black Adolescent Sexual Decision-Making and Self-Concept, Family Structure, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity." Ed.D. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago.
Abstract: This study was designed (1) to investigate social and psychological factors identified by black adolescents as most influential in their decision-making about sexual behavior and (2) to analyze the relationship between these factors and self-concept, intactness of family structure, parental supervision of dating, ethnicity, religiosity, age, gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects of this study include 308 black high school students ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. The sample includes 142 males and 166 females from middle and lower socioeconomic levels. Instruments used in this study include the Juhasz-Schneider Sexual Decision-Making Questionnaire (1978), The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (Fitts, 1965), and the Black Power Ideology Scale II (Lessing, 1976). Data collected from subjects using the various research instruments were analyzed using a combination of principal component factor analysis. Eight major hypotheses were formulated and tested utilizing a discriminant analysis procedure where individual survey items to the JSSDMQ were used as the predictor variables and self-concept, family structure, ethnicity, religiosity, age, gender and socioeconomic status were used as the criterion variables. The results of the factor analysis yielded the following factors that seem to influence black adolescent sexual decision-making: (1) Adolescent Egocentrism emphasizes an attitude toward intercourse that is egocentric, impulse-oriented and manipulative; (2) Parenthood Competency focuses on desire and ability of the adolescent to assume the responsibilities of parenthood; (3) Consequences of Early Childbearing emphasizes the limitations and consequences of childbearing on education, career chances, social life and personal development of the adolescent; (4) Dyadic Interaction centers on the importance of intimacy, respect, commitment and quality in the romantic relationship; (5) Outer Directiveness, where Locus of Control is the focus, and the responsibility for sexual decisions relates to outer forces such as parents, peers and religion rather than to an inner personal responsibility; (6) Consequences of Early Marriage stresses the limitations and consequences of early marriage on educational plans, career chances, independence, social life and life style. The results of the study support the claim that a statistically significant relationship exists between factors which influence sexual decision-making and the hypothesized variables. [Source: DA]

Fahs, Ivan J. 1987. "A Sociological Context for Abortion: The Problem of Teenage Pregnancy." Pp. 219-228 in Abortion: A Christian Unerstanding and Response, edited by J. Hoffmeier. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House.

Miller, Brent C., Roger B. Christensen, and Terrance D. Olson. 1987. "Adolescent Self-Esteem in Relation to Sexual Attitudes and Behavior." Youth and Society vol. 19, pp. 93-111.
Abstract: The relationship between self-esteem & sexual intercourse experience was investigated in surveys of 2,423 high school students in 3 western US states in 1983/84. In this sample, self-esteem was related to sexual attitudes & behavior in ways that are consistent with a normative context hypothesis. That is, among those who were in conservative groups (frequent church attenders & Mormons) there was a significant negative relationship between self-esteem & permissive sexual attitudes & behavior. The relationship was also mediated by personal attitudinal permissiveness, with self-esteem being positively related to sexual intercourse among adolescents who believed that premarital sex was usually or always right, & negatively related to sexual intercourse among those who believed it was always wrong. [Source: SA]

Miller, Brent C., Robert Higginson, J. Kelly McCoy, and Terrance D. Olson. 1987. "Family Configuration and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior." Population and Environment vol. 9, pp. 111-123.
Abstract: Measures of family configuration, derived from the number, age, & sex of siblings & the number of parents, were related to adolescent sexual attitudes & behavior in an analysis of 1983 questionnaire survey data from 836 high school students in Salt Lake City, Utah, & Albuquerque, NM. Zero-order correlations showed that sexual intercourse experience was less common among adolescents who lived with both parents & also among those who had more younger siblings. However, controlling for adolescents' age, sex, race, religion, church attendance, & parents' educational attainment eliminated the relationships between family configuration variables & sexual attitudes & behavior. Only parents' marital structure, reflecting whether adolescents lived with both original parents or not, continued to be weakly related to adolescents' sexual attitudes & behavior. [Source: SA]

Ortiz, C. G. and E. V. Nuttall. 1987. "Adolescent Pregnancy - Effects of Family Support, Education, and Religion on the Decision to Carry or Terminate among Puerto-Rican Teenagers." Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 897-917.

Phillips, William Louis. 1987. "An Examination of Hypermasculinity and Contraceptive Use and Attitudes in Adolescent Males." Ed.D. Thesis, Peabody College For Teachers of Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
Abstract: A study done by Exner (1985) found that college male reported contraceptive behavior could be predicted by contraceptive attitudes and masculinity beliefs, but that contraceptive behavior could not be predicted by a measure of sex guilt. This study replicated Exner's findings using adolescent male subjects. Importance of religion and a comprehensive measure of self-concept were additional independent variables. The participants were selected from two adolescent groups: catholic high school students and residents at a child psychiatric facility. Catholic and psychiatric group scores were similar except on self-concept scales and sexual history. Consistent with predictions, the findings indicated that less effective contraception was related to negative self-concepts (viz., Moral Ethical Self), greater hypermasculinity, and negative attitudes toward contraception. Sex guilt, also as expected, was not significantly associated with male contraceptive behavior. Contrary to the expectation that religion would not be a significant independent variable, the self-report of importance of religion was related to one measure of contraceptive behavior. Ineffective contraceptors in this study have a self-concept profile that prior research had shown to be characteristic of a delinquent antisocial personality. Implications for sex education were derived from the delinquency research. Reference. Exner, T. (1985). Hypermasculinity and male contraceptive attitudes and behavior. [Source: DA]

Powell, Mary Jayne. 1987. "Psychosocial Competence in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas, Austin, Austin.
Abstract: The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to describe the phenomenon of psychosocial competence in pregnant and non-pregnant adolescent females, ages 14 to 17. In addition, demographic data and selected aspects of subject history were measured. Interrelationship between demographic and social variables and psychosocial competence were explored in an effort to identify those variables most predictive of pregnancy in the adolescent. Psychosocial competence, conceptualized by Tyler (1978) as a three-faceted personality configuration including internal-external locus of control, trust, and behavioral attributes of psychosocial competence (coping), was measured by Rotter's IE Scale, Rotter's Trust Scale and Tyler's Behavioral Attributes of Psychosocial Competence (BAPC) Scale. The demographic and social history variables were measured by an investigator designed instrument. A convenience sample of 64 unmarried, normal adolescent females were used as the study subjects. The study sample was well balanced by age, state of being pregnant and ethnicity. Frequency tabulations were recorded on the social and demographic variables. There was a difference between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups in the frequency with which they attended church, the reported age at which they began dating, the reported number of siblings, and the reported frequency with which subjects reported living with two parents. Scores were reported on the three scales. Significant correlation coefficients supported relationships between pregnancy and the following demographic variables: subjects not having any plans to attend college, a history of limited group social activities, a history of average to poor grades, living in a two parent home, and a history of never attending church. A stepwise procedure was then used to identify a set of variables which could be used in a discriminant analysis to classify groups membership in pregnant and non-pregnant groups. The model, composed of the variables, no plans for college, church attendance, the father working, a large family, and trust were the ones which most discriminated between the groups. Seventy-five per cent of the pregnant subjects were classified in the pregnant group and ninety per cent of the non-pregnant subjects were classified into the non-pregnant group. [Source: DA]

Slonim Nevo, Vered. 1987. "Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy among Mexican-American and White Non-Hispanic Adolescent Women." D.S.W. Thesis, University of California Los Angeles.
Abstract: This research focuses on the premarital sexual behavior of Mexican-American teenage women, while comparing their behavior to that of their white non-Hispanic counterparts. Three aspects of sexual behavior are examined: first intercourse, first use of contraceptives, and first conception. A data set derived from a multistage probability sampling design, with a core group of 675 unmarried Mexican-American female adolescents and a comparison group of 313 white non-Hispanics is used for the analysis. The methodology of life table and survival analysis is used in the study. Unmarried Mexican-American teenage women are less likely to experience intercourse, and sexually-active Mexican-American adolescents are less likely to use contraceptives but more likely to conceive than their white non-Hispanic counterparts. The likelihood of experiencing premarital sex is best explained, in both groups, by attitudes toward premarital sex, with greater permissiveness associated with higher likelihood. Among Mexican-Americans, a higher level of acculturation is associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing premarital sex. None of the study's independent variables including SES and sexual knowledge could predict contraceptive use among sexually-active white non-Hispanic teenagers. Among Mexican-Americans, those who are more amenable toward premarital contraceptive use, and those who use health services that provide family-planning services are more likely to contracept. Use of medical contraceptives by sexually-active teenage women can be best predicted, in both groups, by use of health services that provide family-planning services, with higher use of services being associated with higher use of medical devices. The higher probability of premarital conception among sexually-active white non-Hispanic teenagers is associated with lower education of mothers, and among Mexican-Americans, with lower level of religiosity. Ethnic differences in SES cannot solely explain ethnic differences in adolescent sexual behavior. Differences in cultural values are important to the explanation of ethnic differences in the likelihood of experiencing premarital sex, while ethnic differences in sexual knowledge, use of health services and mother's level of education are important in the explanation of ethnic differences in contraceptive use and the likelihood of experiencing premarital pregnancy. [Source: DA]

Studer, Marlena and Arland Thornton. 1987. "Adolescent Religiosity and Contraceptive Usage." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 49, pp. 117-128.
Abstract: Studied sexual attitudes and experience and contraceptive usage of 224 White 18-yr-olds who were born in the Detroit, Michigan, area in 1961. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data. Findings show that identification with a religious group appears to provide the adolescent with role models and a sanctioning system that operate to discourage sexual activity and consequently do not offer help with contraception for adolescents who become sexually active. Religious teenagers' lower likelihood of using medical methods of contraception when sexually active might thus be partially attributed to a lack of open dialog, information, and support for birth control usage from parents, peers, and others with whom they strongly identify. [Source: PI]

Sweet, Loretta Elaine. 1987. "Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior among Black Male Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship of religiosity, perceived parental strictness, family structure, and socioeconomic status to sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Black male adolescents. Two hundred inner-city Black male junior and senior high school students between the ages of 11 and 19 years anonymously completed a 45-minute questionnaire containing all the measures. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In these analyses, the relation of a particular independent variable was examined while the effects of the other independent variables were statistically controlled. In addition, the analyses statistically controlled for student's age. The results revealed that the sexual attitudes of the students who were higher in religiosity were both more moralistic and more responsible than were those of their peers. These students also used contraception more frequently when they had sexual intercourse. Students who perceived their parents as stricter were older when they first had sexual intercourse. Students who lived with both parents were less likely to have made someone pregnant and were more likely to have been in a steady relationship the first time they had sexual intercourse. Students with higher socioeconomic class were younger on their first date, when they had their first steady romantic relationship, and when they had sexual intercourse for the first time. As might be expected, there were a number of significant relations involving age, for instance, older students had more sexual knowledge and experience and used contraceptives more consistently during the past year. In general, the students in this sample engaged in sexual intercourse at an early age without using contraception. Their mean age at first intercourse was 11 years, and 78.3% of those who had intercourse did not use contraception on the first occasion. The results suggest the need for human sexuality programs which includes contraception for Black male adolescents aged 11 years and younger. Limitations of the study are discussed, and suggestions for future research on Black male adolescent sexuality are offered. [Source: DA]

Collins, John K. and Lesley Robinson. 1986. "The Contraceptive Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Unmarried Adolescents." Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage and Family vol. 7, pp. 132-152.
Abstract: Studied the premarital contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 288 14-25 yr old males and females. The Contraceptive Knowledge Schedule, the Social Desirability scale of the Personality Research Form, the Contraceptive Practice Schedule, and an attitude measure were administered. Results reveal a substantial incidence of unprotected coitus among adolescents. Females had more adequate knowledge and more favorable attitudes and reported greater contraceptive efficiency and use than males. Discussion of contraception with one's partner was associated with greater efficiency and use, while greater educational attainments were associated with increased knowledge and favorability toward contraceptive practices. Less sexually experienced adolescents were inclined to be nonusers of contraception, as were those who disapproved of premarital intercourse. Other than the finding that adolescents who had never attended church used contraception at an earlier age, religiosity was not associated with either knowledge of, efficiency of, or favorability toward contraceptive use. [Source: PI]

Earle, John R. and Philip J. Perricone. 1986. "Premarital Sexuality: A Ten-Year Study of Attitudes and Behavior on a Small University Campus." Journal of Sex Research vol. 22, pp. 304-310.
Abstract: An analysis of changes in sexual attitudes & behaviors among undergraduates at a small, private, church-related southern U between 1970 & 1981, based on questionnaire responses from 3 samples (N = 243 in 1970, 182 in 1975, & 368 in 1981). Results indicate significant increases in rates of premarital intercourse & in the average number of partners, & significant decreases in the average age at first experience, for both Ms & Fs. Attitudes toward sexual activity are more strongly related to sexual behaviors for Fs than for Ms; however, Fs are more conservative than Ms in their attitudes toward the kinds of relationships in which premarital coitus is personally acceptable. Influences of religiosity, SE background, fraternity/sorority membership, age at onset of dating, & societal attitudes are examined. [Source: SA]

Forliti, John E. and Peter L. Benson. 1986. "Young Adolescents: A National Study." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 199-224.
Abstract: Surveyed 8,165 5th-9th graders and 10,467 of their parents who belonged to 13 Protestant and Catholic youth-serving organizations about such topics as family life, school, the community, developmental processes, and the church. Results show that both parents and youth desired more communication with each other, particularly on the topic of moral values. Connections to church and religion were related to prosocial action, as were certain parenting practices (e.g., nurturance, democratic control). Sexual intercourse, drug use, and antisocial behavior among youth were related to less emphasis on religion and less nurturance and support from parents. The majority of youth saw religion as important, although it was less important to boys than to girls. A restrictive religious orientation was found to be tied to antisocial behavior, alcohol use, racism, and sexism. [Source: PI]

Woodroof, J. Timothy. 1986. "Reference Groups, Religiosity, and Premarital Sexual Behavior." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 25, pp. 436-460.
Abstract: Freshmen (N = 477) attending 8 Colls affiliated with the Church of Christ responded to questionnaires about their religious & sexual behaviors, as well as those of their parents & 2 best friends, to test 4 hypotheses regarding the relative influence of parents & peers on the behaviors of adolescents. Religious behaviors of parents & peers were found to be related to both religious & sexual behaviors of the adolescents, although peer religiosity overshadowed parental religiosity. Parent & peer sexual behaviors & expectations were also significantly related to adolescents' sexual behaviors, but again, peers were the more influential reference group. So strong is peer influence in these data, it is argued that parents do not constitute an effective reference group by the time adolescents reach Coll, a finding that seems to contradict the notion that religiosity extends the influence of parents into the Coll years. [Source: SA]

Brown, Shirley Vining. 1985. "Premarital Sexual Permissiveness among Black Adolescent Females." Social Psychology Quarterly vol. 48, pp. 381-387.
Abstract: Tested the assumption of subcultural permissiveness among Blacks, using data on 702 15-29 yr old Black females from the 1976 National Survey of Young Women. Logit models were used to analyze differences in observed levels of permissiveness in relation to socioeconomic status (SES), religiosity, and close friends' sexual attitudes. The model of premarital permissiveness presented reveals that SES, as measured by family income, had no significant effect on levels of permissiveness. However, it was necessary to include frequency of church attendance and perception of close friends' permissiveness in order to explain Ss' attitudes toward premarital sex. Findings support the hypothesis that sexual standards among Blacks are not uniform and suggest that the influence of Black religious institutions on sexual permissiveness may be more important than previously assumed. [Source: PI]

Herring, Lynda L. 1985. "The Effect of Family Adaptability and Cohesion on Psychosexual Development." Ph.D. Thesis, Kansas State University.
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of college students' perceptions of their family cohesiveness and adaptability on the development of their sexual attitudes and values. Additionally, demographic factors were observed for differences. Previous research dealing with adolescent sexuality has focused on the sexual behavior of the adolescent, rather than the attitudes which precede behavior. This study attempted to supply to some degree, a first step toward building an integrated, multi-dimensional relationship theory of systemic family dynamics as it relates to the psychosexual development of young people. Responses were elicited from 820 college students at Central Missouri State University, Warrensburg, Missouri. The questionnaire was a combination of two recognized instruments, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scales (FACES II) and the Sexual Attitude and Value Inventory in addition to demographic information. Major conclusions drawn from this study showed that demographic influences had a difference upon the way college students perceived their psychosexual development. Females scored higher on the way they viewed the importance of birth control, in their opposition to the use of pressure and force in sexual activity, and in recognition of the importance of the family. Males scored higher on their attitude toward sexuality in life. Individuals who had had intercourse appeared to have a greater understanding of their personal sexual response and had a more positive attitude toward sexuality in life in addition to having higher esteem. Other demographics showing significance involved the degree of importance of religion and size of the home community. Overall, family adaptability and cohesion had some direct positive impact on all measured aspects of sexual attitudes and values and the majority of the activity was directional. That is, the closer and less structured a family became, the more positive the perceptions of sexual values and attitudes. Family cohesion appeared to be a larger factor in positive sexual attitudes and values than family adaptability. The implications of this study could have substantial effect upon the quality of life through Family Life Educators, researchers, clinicians, and others interested in a systemic perspective of family functioning and/or sexuality. [Source: DA]

Kellinger, K. G. 1985. "Factors in Adolescent Contraceptive Use." Nurse Practitioner vol. 10, pp. 55-62.
Abstract: This study examined three variables--knowledge of contraception, self-esteem and religiosity-and the relationship of each variable to the use of contraception among unmarried adolescent women. A questionnaire designed to measure contraceptive knowledge, self-esteem and religiosity was administered to 28 pregnant, unmarried adolescents and to 31 unmarried, never-pregnant, adolescent contraceptive users. A t-Test was used to measure the significance of the relationship of the three independent variables to the dependent variable, contraceptive use. Upon analysis of the data, no significant difference was found between either group in relation to their knowledge of contraception, self-esteem scores or religious attitudes; however, some additional data were gathered from the research tool that may provide areas for future investigation. [Source: ML]

McCormick, Naomi, Angela Izzo, and John Folcik. 1985. "Adolescents' Values, Sexuality, and Contraception in a Rural New York County." Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 385-395.
Abstract: Administered a questionnaire to 75 male and 88 female high school students from a rural county of New York that asked them about their personal values and sexual and contraceptive experiences. Results indicate that religiosity was unrelated to Ss' sexual behavior and use of contraceptives. Very religious Ss were not more likely to abstain from having sexual intercourse than less religious students; religiosity did not influence the effectiveness of contraceptives used by nonvirgins. Ss who had more liberal premarital sexual standards and profeminist Ss became significantly more sexually intimate with their dates than either sexually conservative or sex-role traditional Ss. However, neither premarital sexual standards nor sex-role attitudes were useful for predicting nonvirgins' coital frequency and use of effective contraceptives. The different groups of Ss exhibited remarkably homogeneous sexual and contraceptive behavior. Nonvirgins had coitus sporadically or on the average of only twice a month. In addition, regardless of their values, most nonvirgins were contraceptive risk-takers. Rejecting the most reliable methods that are available (e.g., birth control pills and the intrauterine device), the condom was the most effective contraceptive used by most Ss (57%), and 21% of the nonvirgins relied exclusively on such ineffective contraceptives as withdrawal, trusting in luck, and douching. [Source: PI]

Woodroof, J. Timothy. 1985. "Premarital Sexual Behavior and Religious Adolescents." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 24, pp. 346-366.
Abstract: Freshmen attending 8 colleges affiliated with the churches of Christ responded to questions about their religious behaviors, religious motivations, and premarital sexual behaviors. It is argued that a religious sample may be able to give us information about the relationship between religiosity and sexuality that more general samples could not. The religious and sexual characteristics of this conservative Christian sample are described, and are found to differ markedly from most samples studied in this area. In addition, a number of relationships are tested and discussed. The well-substantiated relationship between religious and sexual behavior is replicated, with some interesting points raised by the fact that this sample is more religiously active than any others reported to date. The relationship between religious orientation and premarital sexual activity is documented for the first time, and is found to be as strong a correlate as is religious behavior. Religious orientation and behavior are so highly related in this sample as to prove no more predictive of sexual activity when considered together than they do when taken separately. [Source: RI]

Yamaguchi, Kazuo and Denise B. Kandel. 1985. "Dynamic Relationships between Premarital Cohabitation and Illicit Drug Use: An Event-History Analysis of Role Selection and Role Socialization." American Sociological Review vol. 50, pp. 530-546.
Abstract: Findings from the present study, based on interviews with 619 males and 706 females (mean age 24.7 yrs) who had participated in an earlier high school survey, reveal that the use of marijuana and other illicit drugs increased probability of cohabitation for males and females (role selection), while cohabitation reduced the use of marijuana among females (role socialization). Premarital cohabitation was more likely to end in separation than in marriage to the partner, especially among users of illicit drugs other than marijuana and among Blacks and students; marriage to the partner was more likely to occur among females who were highly religious in adolescence. Premarital cohabitation did not lead to the postponement of marriage but predicted earlier marriage for males in general and for females highly religious as adolescents. Although the direct effect of marijuana use on entering cohabitation seemed to result from unobserved factors common to both states, marijuana use indirectly affected the number of premarital cohabitants by postponing marriage and thereby lengthening the risk period for premarital cohabitation. It is concluded that both illicit drug use and cohabitation reflect common lifestyle antecedents and weakened norms regarding commitment to traditional roles, with historical changes in these lifestyles reflected in parallel trends in the prevalence of these behaviors in the general population. [Source: PI]

Hendricks, Leo E., Diane P. Robinson Brown, and Lawrence E. Gary. 1984. "Religiosity and Unmarried Black Adolescent Fatherhood." Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 417-424.
Abstract: 48 unmarried Black adolescent fathers and 50 unmarried Black adolescent nonfathers under age 21 yrs were interviewed with regard to their religious behavior and attitudes; social and demographic characteristics; sexual knowledge, attitudes, and practices; and problems and coping methods to examine the relationship between religiosity and unmarried adolescent fatherhood. Results indicate that fathers did not differ from nonfathers in the degree that they were religiously oriented but in the manner that they gave expression to their religious involvement. Fathers were more likely to be responsive to nongroup modes of institutionalized religion (i.e., media forms), whereas nonfathers' religious involvement was likely to be within institutionalized groups. Findings also suggest that unmarried Black adolescent fathers are more likely to be employed, drop out of school, and not to use contraceptives. Media forms are recommended to practitioners as useful ways of reaching out to young Black fathers. [Source: PI]

Ireson, Carol J. 1984. "Adolescent Pregnancy and Sex Roles." Sex Roles vol. 11, pp. 189-201.
Abstract: An examination of the relationship between traditional sex roles & adolescent pregnancy. Sex-role orientation & related variables were measured by a multiple-choice questionnaire administered to 161 Fs aged 13-18 when they sought pregnancy tests or birth control information at one of several clinics. The hypothesis that adolescents who get pregnant are more likely than other sexually active young women to be traditional in sex-role orientation receives some support from the findings. Pregnant adolescents, in comparison with those seeking birth control, perceive themselves to be competent in more highly sex-typed activities, have lower aspirations & school grades, & have less sense of personal control over events in their lives. Pregnant teens do not seem to differ much in sex-role values from those seeking birth control, & seem less likely to aspire to traditionally F occupations. SES is the strongest discriminator between pregnant & birth control seeking teens, with the former having lower SES. Pregnant adolescents, in comparison with those experiencing negative pregnancy tests, are younger & more likely to rely on God to determine the course of their personal lives. [Source: SA]

Santos Fontova, Eduviges. 1984. "A Multivariate Predictive Model for Pregnancy Avoidance and Coital Involvement among Puerto Rican Unmarried Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John'S University.
Abstract: A multivariate model consisting of 16 variables found in the literature associated either with adolescent pregnancy or contraceptive use were studied in 60 adolescent Puerto Rican women. Pregnants (N = 20), effective contraceptive users (ECU) (N = 20), and virgins (N = 20). The variables were analyzed using a discriminant analysis. This is a variety of multiple regression analysis that correlates "predictors" (or independent variables) with a single "outcome variable" (dependent variable), and it is used when the "outcome variable" is scored in a categorical fashion. The regression equation (or discriminant function) supplies weights for the predictor variables that will optimize predictions for an individual's scores on this variable to her membership in one of the categories of the outcome variable (pregnant, ECU or virgin). Results indicated that using a combination of three of the variables, namely: IQ, Traditional Religiosity and Perception of Best Friend Permissiveness towards Females, it was possible to correctly predict membership into either of the groups, for 77% of the cases. If and when the discriminant function is rotated this feature performs like a factor analysis. Results of the rotation indicated that the three significant variables delineated two factors, one labeled "pregnancy avoidance (ECUs and virgins vs. pregnants) basically delineated by IQ and Traditional Religiosity and another factor labeled "coital involvement" (ECUs and pregnants vs. virgins) basically delineated by Perception of Best Friend Permissiveness towards Females. Findings further indicated IQ to be the best predictor for pregnancy avoidance among these samples of women. Findings also indicated the convenience of using a multivariate model for the identification of adolescents at risk for pregnancy. Results further indicated the virgins to be, like the ECUs, pregnancy avoiders, and that pregnancy avoiders (ECUs and virgins) constitute a more cohesive and, therefore, easier to discriminate group than the pregnancy non-avoiders (pregnants). Therefore efforts to identify girls at risk of pregnancy during adolescence are better served by identifying and ruling out those young women most likely to be pregnancy avoiders. Results were discussed and recommendations for further research and prevention programs advanced. [Source: DA]

Woodroof, James Timothy. 1984. "Religiosity and Reference Groups: Towards a Model of Adolescent Sexuality." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
Abstract: 471 Freshmen attending colleges affiliated with a conservative religious denomination completed a questionnaire relating to their premarital sexual behavior. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of a proposed model of adolescent sexuality, and drew heavily from questionnaires published in the literature. Not only were questions on sexual behavior asked, but information on the adolescents' religious behaviors and orientation, and the sexual and religious behaviors of parents and friends was also requested. The results indicated that: (1) This sample was more religious and less sexually active than any other college sample reported in recent literature; (2) Many variables correlated with premarital sexual behavior in the literature were replicated in the present research, although (because these variables were viewed not singly but as part of matrix) the comparative importance of certain variables had to be reassessed. What resulted was a greater respect for the influence of peer variables, a growing understanding of the impact of religious variables, and another confirmation of the weakness of parental variables in regard to the sexual behavior of adolescents; (3) New relationships were explored and established in this study. Religious orientation and peer religious behavior were correlated with adolescents' sexual behaviors, both of which constitute new and theoretically important findings. Finally, the model which was proposed constitutes the most important contribution of the study, not only summarizing many of the variables found to be most strongly related to premarital sexual behavior by the literature, but embedding them within a matrix that allows their comparative importance to be assessed. The greatest weakness in this field of inquiry (as identified by many of its most prominent researchers) is the lack of a theoretical basis that provides the student not simply with data but with understanding. This research was as much an attempt to organize as it was to collect data, to the end that a more comprehensive picture of this important social issue might emerge. [Source: DA]

Billy, John O. G. 1983. "Community-Level Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Abstract: We examine whether structural properties of communities, operationalized at the county level, affect whether a female adolescent has had premarital intercourse. The guiding hypothesis is that community characteristics affect adolescent sexual involvement via two mechanisms: (1) by giving rise to a normative structure which defines boundaries of permissable or desirable sexual behavior; and (2) by creating an opportunity structure conductive to higher or lower levels of adolescent sexual activity. Appropriate databases are constructed from four extant data sets. We specify separate models for white females and black females in which individuals are the units of analysis. We first regress an adolescent's premarital intercourse behavior on community characteristics and derive the most parsimonious, "best-fitting" model. We then adopt a causal modeling approach and introduce individual characteristics of the adolescents as intermediate variables in the "best-fitting" model. The causal modeling approach is the most innovative part of our study. It provides a better understanding of how structural properties of communities affect an adolescent's sexual involvement and captures the total effects of these macro variables. Our analytic strategy deviates from that used in previous contextual analyses in which only the direct effects of community-level variables have been assessed. We find support for our guiding hypothesis that structural properties of communities affect the probability that a female adolescent has had premarital intercourse. For white females, five macro variables are included in the final "best-fitting" model. Community size and community religiosity have negative effects, while the percent voting for McGovern, divorce rate, and percent of the civilian labor force female have positive effects. The "best-fitting" model for black females also contains five community-level variables. Community size and percent Spanish heritage have negative effects, while the age of the community population, percent voting for McGovern, and crime rate have positive effects. Our causal analysis suggests that community-level variables affect adolescent sexual behavior via both the normative and opportunity structure mechanisms. By providing a better understanding of the macro processes responsible for adolescent sexual activity, our study adds theoretical clarity to the topic of adolescent sexual behavior. [Source: DA]

Chui, Fernando Sai On. 1983. "A Study of the Variables Which Affect the Teenage Male's Involvement in Unplanned Parenthood." Dr. P.H. Thesis, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
Abstract: The rate of adolescent child-bearing in the United States is among the highest in the world. Most of the adolescent research studies were designed to study only the female half of the pregnancy. This study was designed to focus on the relationships between education, socio-economic status (SES), family support and religion to the emotional, social, and economic status induced by involvement as an unplanned teenage father. This study used the null hypothesis testing utilizing non-parametric methods and post hoc analysis to study the strength of the association of the variables. The sample consisted of the male under the age of 19 who had participated in the Moore, Oklahoma Public Schools' Technique and Education for the Adolescent Mother Program in the past six years. The findings of the study indicated that there was a strong relationship between education, social-economic status (SES) and family support to the emotional, social and economic status induced by the involvement in unplanned parenthood. This study did not indicate that religion was an important component. In order to have intervention strategies and meet the needs of the adolescent, it is recommended that such interventions must be applicable and accessible. [Source: DA]

Hendricks, Leo E. and Robert E. Fullilove. 1983. "Locus of Control and the Use of Contraception among Unmarried Black Adolescent Fathers and Their Controls: A Preliminary Report." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 225-233.
Abstract: Presents preliminary data from a study of 48 unmarried Black adolescent fathers and 50 matched controls who had never been fathers. The fathers were more likely to have an external locus of control, to be non-churchgoers, and not to believe in using birth control. Policy implications of this research indicate that unmarried Black adolescent fathers should be given birth control counseling and that if other forms of counseling are warranted, attention should be paid to issues of locus of control. [Source: PI]

Krishnamoni, D. and S. C. Jain. 1983a. "Pregnancy in Teenagers: A Comparative Study." Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa vol. 8, pp. 202-207.
Abstract: Obtained data on 416 14-26 yr old females who completed their pregnancies and 53 Ss who sought termination of pregnancy. The higher age groups tended to have a lower proportion of therapeutic abortions. Among those who completed the pregnancy, 25% were reported as married at the time of delivery. Urbanization influenced both the rate and outcome of the pregnancy. The pregnancy rate was considerably higher in some of the religious denominations, but the religion itself did not appear to influence the decision to either continue or terminate a pregnancy. [Source: PI]

Krishnamoni, D. and S. C. Jain. 1983b. "Termination of Pregnancy in Teenagers." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry vol. 28, pp. 457-461.
Abstract: Reports on epidemiological aspects of 53 unmarried girls (aged 16 yrs and under) who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy in Canada in 1976. Although the results showed that the overall abortion rate in Canada was much higher than in Newfoundland, the abortion rate in the 14-26 old age group was higher in the Province than in the rest of Canada. The abortion rate for the 15 yr old age group in this Province was higher than that for the 16 yr old girls, suggesting that more pregnancies in the older age group go to term. The rate of abortions among some religious denominations was significantly higher than in others. Urban living did not appear to produce an increase in abortion rates in these age groups. Interruption of schooling due to the occurrence of pregnancy was not a cause for concern for about half of the group. There was some evidence in support of the contention that precocious maturation is related to early pregnancy. (French abstract) [Source: PI]

Ortiz, Carmen G. 1983. "Teenage Pregnancy: Factors Affecting the Decision to Carry or Terminate Pregnancy among Puerto Rican Teenagers." Thesis, University of Massachusetts.

Shortt, Sandra Small. 1982. "Alcohol Consumption, Wantedness, and Support of Pregnant Adolescents." Ed.D. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between pregnant teens' use of alcohol before and during pregnancy and several personal and social variables, including the wantedness of the pregnancy, support of the pregnancy by significant others, pregnant teens' reasons for drinking, the context of their drinking, and the use of alcohol by significant others. This information is needed to plan and evaluate effective prenatal education and intervention programs related to the use of alcohol during pregnancy. Such programs are important in light of increasing numbers of pregnant teens, the number of female adolescent drinkers, and findings about the effects of moderate and binge drinking on fetal development. Subjects consisted of 14 to 19 year old patients of the High-Risk Ob/Gyn Clinic at Roanoke Memorial Hospitals. These patients were predominantly low income urban and suburban teens, with some referrals from areas outside Roanoke City and County. Subjects responded anonymously to a written questionnaire. One-fourth of the subjects were classified as drinkers according to their binge drinking before and during pregnancy. Higher percentages of drinkers than abstainers were white, married, had been pregnant at least once in the past, and intended to become pregnant. Proportionately fewer drinkers indicated relgious preferences or attended church services on a regular basis. Drinkers were more likely to smoke and smoked more than abstainers. Personal effects reasons for drinking, consumption in settings where adults were not present, and weekly consumption by peers and boyfriends/husbands were reported by significantly higher percentages of drinkers than nondrinkers. Wantedness and support of significant others were significantly related. Knowledge of the potential harm that all types of alcoholic beverages pose to fetal development was reported by over 70% of the sample. Key sources of knowledge about alcohol and fetal risk were subjects' mothers, pamphlets or books, school health class, the RMH Clinic and television. Boyfriends were also a key source of information for drinkers. Implications of these findings for clinical and educational practice are discussed. [Source: DA]

Ward, Marylyn Stinson. 1982. "Psychological, Value, and Precipitating Characteristics of Pregnant Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania.
Abstract: When adolescent pregnancy occurs, the need for intervention in the form of medical, educational and psychological services becomes immediate if the cycle of poor prenatal care, lack of education with accompanying low skill development and dysfunctional family pattern is to be circumvented. In order to formulate a comprehensive treatment plan, research is need into the psychological, motivational, and environmental factors that relate to adolescent pregnancy. This study focused upon personality characteristics and values as well as familial and environmental factors that differentiated pregnant adolescents from their comparable non-pregnant peers. Method. There were 19 pregnant and 19 non-pregnant volunteers between the ages of 14 1/2 and 18 matched for age, grade, parent characteristics, race, and religion. The pregnant adolescents attended an alternative program for pregnant students. They represented diverse communities from lower middle to upper middle socioeconomic levels. A clinical interview was conducted with the pregnant students to assess the factors precipitating the pregnancy. The California Psychological Inventory and the Value Orientation Scale were administered in order to determine the interpersonal adequacy, structuring of values and the value orientations of the students. The comparison group completed demographic data forms as well as the CPI and VOS. A discriminant analysis was performed on the CPI and VOS. Results. The CPI identified 79% of the students as pregnant or non-pregnant. The seven variables that best differentiated group membership were: Capacity for Status, Responsibility, Socialization, Self Control, Communality, Achievement via Conformity, and Femininity. The VOS correctly identified 54% of the students as pregnant or non-pregnant. The four variables that best differentiated the groups were: Man in Harmony with Nature, Man Superior to Nature, Respect to Authority-God, and Impulsivity. Responses on the clinical interview suggested an intensification of the conflicts that are common in middle adolescence. There was a pattern of estrangement and minimal peer interaction as well as disrupted families and strained family relations. The issue of dependency and the development of a sexual identity were significant concerns. [Source: DA]

Wintermute, Wendy Lee. 1982. "Youth Speak on Adolescent Sex: Toward a Comprehensive Theoretical Model." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: Research has confirmed a rapid increase in adolescent sex and has identified a number of related factors. This dissertation proposes a single theoretical model of adolescent sex. It first tests the reciprocal relationships between adolescent attitudes and behaviors, usually examined separately. It then tests several explanatory models of adolescent sex: opportunity, perceptions of risk, and parental and peer influence. Finally, it combines these factors to define an integrated causal model assessing the relative net impact of each factor. The direct and indirect effects of several exogenous variables--gender, race, family and school characteristics--are also assessed. The data come from a longitudinal survey of 1735 public and parochial high school students in a midwestern county. The students were surveyed in Spring, 1980 as tenth-graders and again in Spring, 1981. The analysis found moderately positive relationships between sexual behavior and attitudes, although their magnitude and direction varied across race-gender subgroups. For white males, not only did attitudes affect behavior, but behavior affected subsequent attitudes. White females' behavior tended to conform to existing attitudes, while non-white females were more likely to redefine attitudes to conform to pre-existing behavior. Access factors, particularly frequency of dating, related significantly to both permissive attitudes and more frequent sex. Reciprocal causal effects were again evident between dating and sexual behavior and attitudes, and, for girls, between going steady and sexual behavior. Social influences, including parental and peer norms and sanctions, as well as attendance at religious services and parochial schools, were more strongly related to attitudes than to behavior. Parental and peer norms were equally important in shaping both adolescent attitudes and behavior, although peer norms were perceived as considerably more permissive than were parental norms. Interestingly, male parochial school students were more sexually active, but female parochial school students were less permissive than their public school counterparts. Family characteristics (presence of a male parent for non-white females and father's education for white females), which may represent socioeconomic class, predicted more permissive attitudes but not necessarily more frequent sex. A number of implications for further research, for social policy, and for social intervention strategies were identified. [Source: DA]

Altopp, David Paul. 1981. "A Study of Sexual Attitudes, Sexual Behaviors, and the Religiosity of High School Students in Free Methodist Church Youth Groups." Ph.D. Thesis, Southern Illinois University At Carbondale.
Abstract: The major purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the degree of religiosity and both sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors of high school students in grades ten through twelve who attend the Free Methodist Church. An attempt was also made to measure the relationship of selected socio-demographic variables with sexual attitudes and sexual behaviors. The sample for this study (67 female, 61 male) was obtained from seven Free Methodist Churches, four in Illinois and three in Indiana. All data was collected at each individual church by the researcher. The instrument contained four parts: socio-demographic information, sexual attitudes scale, sexual behaviors inventory, and a religiosity scale. The religiosity scale had been developed and tested by Faulkner and DeJong (1966). A test-retest reliability analysis was conducted on the instrument because it had never been used before in its complete form. Results indicated the instrument was adequately reliable. Six null hypotheses were tested. They are as follows: (1) Degree of religiosity will not vary with sexual attitudes (rejected); (2) Degree of religiosity will not vary with sexual behaviors (retained); (3) The socio- demographic variables under study will not be correlated with sexual attitudes (rejected); (4) The socio- demographic variables under study will not be correlated with sexual behaviors (retained); (5) The set of independent variables will not contribute significantly to the variance of sexual attitudes (rejected); and (6) The set of independent variables will not contribute significantly to the variance of sexual behaviors (retained). All statistical tests were made at the .05 alpha level. Subjects who participated in this study exhibited an overall high degree of religiosity as measured by the Faulkner-DeJong scale (1966). Analysis of the items on the sexual attitudes scale showed the subjects to be primarily conservative in their sexual attitudes. They were most uncertain on items dealing with masturbation and abortion. Whether or not two people are in love appears to be the most influencing factor in whether or not to engage in petting. A majority of the subjects believe sexual intercourse should be reserved for marriage. Males were noticeably more liberal in their sexual attitudes than females. Both male and female subjects were closest in their beliefs toward homosexuality than any other sexual activity for which information was sought on the sexual attitudes scale. Subjects in this study reported participation in sexual behaviors but not at the high percentage levels as the recent study on teenage sexuality by Hass (1979). The most often reported sexual behavior for both male and female subjects was petting. While degree of religiosity demonstrated a significant relationship to sexual attitudes, there was no relationship found between degree of religiosity and sexual behavior. For the subjects in this sample, there appears to be some discrepancy between what the subjects say they believe about the items on the sexual attitudes scale and what their actual sexual behaviors are. Further study is recommended to determine why this discrepancy exists. [Source: DA]

Benson, Twylah Claire Lundquist. 1981. "Impregnators of Teenagers and Their Part in the Pregnancy Resolution Decision." Ph.D. Thesis, Wayne State University.
Abstract: This study focused on the impregnators of pregnant teenagers and the pregnancy decision-making process. It was prompted by wide-spread concern over the increasing number of teenage pregnancies, and the social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies. Most research on the subject has studied the female partner only. However, these studies suggested that impregnators play an important part in the initiation of sexual activity, in the use or non-use of contraception and in the pregnancy resolution decision. Therefore, the major purpose of this study was to examine the pregnancy resolution decision-making process of the impregnator and the impact of his decision on that of his partner. Two subsidiary goals were: to gain an understanding of what the impregnator is like and to ascertain the impregnator's viewpoint of his relationship with his female partner. Data were gathered on impregnators of teenagers who were patients of private physicians in a single county in Michigan. The pregnant teenagers were participating in a larger study directed by R. A. Rosen. Each female was asked to facilitate contact with her impregnator. Twenty-seven percent refused permission to contact their impregnator either because he did not know about the pregnancy or the relationship had ended. Sixty-seven percent (33) of the impregnators known to have been contacted participated. Data were gathered by in-depth interviews. Impregnators who were unwilling to be interviewed were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Nineteen impregnators were interviewed and 14 filled out questionnaires. In addition, data on their female partners from the Rosen study were used to compare the male and female definitions of their relationship, definitions of the pregnancy, and perceptions of the impregnator's impact on the decision. Because of the unstructured nature of most item responses, content analysis was used as a basis for categorization of the data. Respondents were predominantly white, Protestant, middle or lower class. Median age was 19. Half were still in school. They came from larger than average families and were later born in birth order. Almost half had a sibling(s) known to have been involved in a teenage pregnancy. Impregnators were similar to their partners in terms of race, religion, social class, education, and age. Some of the variables found associated with the impregnators' decision for abortion were: middle class origin, high educational goals, definition of the pregnancy as a crisis, perception of pregnancy as a threat to immediate and/or future goals, desire to keep pregnancy secret, agreement with partner on definition of relationship, financial dependence on parents, and little involvement of siblings in teenage pregnancies. The opposite values of these variables were associated with impregnators whose choice was to keep the child. Impact of significant others was categorized as: direct pressure (threat to use resources to gain compliance with wishes), indirect pressure (subjects' anticipation that resources would be used to gain compliance), direct influence (giving advice or discussing alternatives, with subject as decision-maker), or indirect influence (a perspective within which the subject behaves, for example, family patterns of teenage pregnancy). The most frequent impact of parents on impregnator respondents was indirect pressure. Siblings tended to have indirect influence. Peers' impact was almost equally divided between direct influence and indirect influence. Impregnators perceived their partners as having direct influence on their decision. There were significant differences between the perceptions of impregnators and their partners regarding the impregnator's impact on the female partner's decision. Nearly all impregnators perceived their impact as direct influence. Almost half of the partners viewed it as either direct pressure or indirect pressure, the two most forceful types of impact. These findings clearly call for more research. [Source: DA]

DeLamater, John. 1981. "The Social Control of Sexuality." Annual Review of Sociology vol. 7, pp. 263-290.
Abstract: A review & synthesis of recent sociological analyses of heterosexual activity suggests that family & religion are the major institutions governing sexual activity in the US; these institutions provide both perspectives & norms concerning sexuality. Empirical studies have focused on the content & correlates of individuals' standards, & between group differences in standards & behaviors. These studies are reviewed within a life-cycle framework, with attention given to the literatures on childhood, adolescent, young adult/premarital, marital, & extramarital sexuality. Several contemporary issues are identified, eg, increasing premarital heterosexual activity, & a declining relationship between SC & sexual behavior. A general conceptualization of the sociological determinants of sexual expression & greater integration of the research on various types of sexual activity are needed. [Source: SA]

Dixon, Beth Darrough. 1981. "Teenage Pregnancy and Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Influence of Alienation, Feminist Ideology, Contraceptive Orientation, Socioeconomic Status, and Traditional/Fundamentalist Religion Upon the Adolescent Woman's Decision Whether to Contracept." Ph.D. Thesis, The American University.
Abstract: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the United States today is described by some as having reached epidemic proportions. Early childbearing poses serious health, social, and economic consequences for teenage mothers and their children. Of special concern to the public is the fact that pregnancy rates have increased for the younger adolescents, those girls aged ten to fourteen. Some observers blame the general liberalization of sexual mores for this increase in younger adolescent pregnancy, while others argue that because of improved nutrition and health, it is the fecundity of adolescents that has increased rather than their sexual activity. Although teenage pregnancy in the United States has traditionally been a problem associated with minority groups and low-income families, in the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in pregnancy rates among white, middle-class teenagers. This fact refutes those who would explain teenage pregnancy solely in terms of race or poverty and has led to an increased public awareness of the problem of teenage pregnancy. Our interest in the topic focused on the social-psychology of the adolescent girl before she becomes pregnant. We asked, why does the teenage girl decide to take the risk of becoming pregnant? For answers to such questions we developed a middle-range theory which was influenced by the literature, particularly the work of Kristin Luker. Our theory holds that alienation, feminist ideology, contraceptive orientation, socioeconomic status, and traditional/fundamentalist religion were contributing factors in the girl's risk-taking behavior. We constructed five ideal types to describe how these variables interrelate to predict adolescent risk-taking. To test our theory we performed a secondary statistical analysis of quantitative data collected by Melvin Zelnik and John F. Kantner of Johns Hopkins University. In replicating Zelnik and Kantner's findings on teenage sexual and contraceptive behavior, pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion, we extended their analysis by controlling for family income. This measure of socioeconomic status appeared to be an important intervening variable in the relationship between race and teenage fertility behavior. Support for our theory was provided by the data analysis, through hypothesis-testing, and the performance of a path analysis. To present an overall verification of our theory, the ideal types were again discussed in light of the data analysis. [Source: DA]

Fountain, Ossie. 1981. "Youth, Sexuality and Marriage." Point [10] vol. 1, pp. 56-72.

Griffin, Christina R. 1981. "Antecedents Affecting Contraceptive Behavior of Teenage Females." Thesis, University of Utah.

Hoge, Dean R., Cynthia L. Luna, and David K. Miller. 1981. "Trends in College Students' Values between 1952 and 1979: A Return of the Fifties?" Sociology of Education vol. 54, pp. 263-274.
Abstract: Four identical surveys carried out in 1952, 1968-69, 1974, and 1979 among men at Dartmouth College and the University of Michigan depict value shifts in several areas. Privatism decreased from 1952 to 1968-69, then increased again in the late 1970s. Traditional religious beliefs were relatively weak in the 1960s but gained in the late 1970s although church attendance did not increase. Other-direction dropped from 1952 to the 1960s and changed little thereafter. Anxieties about deviant social groups dropped sharply during the late 1950s and remained low. Belief in free enterprise ideology was strong in 1952, weak in the 1960s, and slightly stronger again in 1979. Faith in the government and the military similarly fell during the 1960s but rose again in 1979. The changes in survey findings are not traceable to changes in student selection at the two colleges; they represent broader value shifts among college-going youth. In some respects there is the beginning of a return of the fifties, but not in areas involving personal freedoms, such as sexual behavior and life-style. The demand for increased personal freedoms, begun in the 1960s, continues to rise. [Source: JS]

Khan, Mohammad Monawar. 1981. "Sequential Analysis of Fertility Orientations and Behavior of Teenage Mothers." Ph.D. Thesis, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.
Abstract: Purpose. Most previous studies of teenage motherhood relied on a cross sectional comparison between teenage and non-teenage mothers. Variations in life course development among teenage mothers subsequent to their first birth remain largely unknown. The decade of the 1960's to 1970's was a period of 'contraceptive Revolution' and continued trend towards increased female labor force participation and college education. Given the impact of this period change, the aim of the present study is: (1) to examine the temporal trends in life course development of teenage and non-teenage mothers regarding marital disruption and remarriage, educational and economic attainments, and contraceptive behavior; (2) to study subsequent fertility in relation to the effects of timing of first birth, the role-related variables such as work and education in the temporal context; (3) to explore factors differentiating patterns of life course development among teenage mothers. Data and Methodology. Currently married white mothers, aged 20-40, were selected from the 1965 National Fertility Survey and the 1973 Survey of Family Growth. Considering age and period effects on marriage, education and labor force participation, parity progression (a measure of subsequent fertility) and childbearing intentions at second parity were analyzed. Log-linear analysis was employed for analysis of fertility behavior and intentions. Factors affecting patterns of subsequent life course development were explored by examining profiles of subgroups of teenage mothers. Results. Chances of college education were not much improved for teenage mothers during the 1960's and 1970's. Teenage mothers were more likely to combine a work role and childcare but with no real gains in income and they experienced marital disruption more than non-teenage mothers. The temporal increase in contraceptive use after the first birth did not differentiate teenage and non-teenage mothers. Teenage mothers were more likely to be at higher parities than non-teenage mothers at a given age despite the fact that their fertility intentions were lower than non-teenage mothers. Parity progressions were differentiable significantly by role-related variables not only between teenage and non-teenage mothers but also within teenage mothers. College educated teenage mothers were likely to limit their susequent fertility by delaying or not having their second birth. College educated teenage mothers tended to experience remarriage, marrying college educated husbands, have a higher parental SES and fewer siblings. They tended to participate in the labor force between marriage and first birth and currently more than non-college educated teenage mothers. The former attended church more often than the latter. Some of these differences imply that college educated teenage mothers had relatively favorable support systems. The programs intended to assist teenage mothers should recognize the importance of continuation of education among teenage mothers and their support systems beyond provision of contraceptives. [Source: DA]

Dworkin, Rosalind J. and Alfred N. Poindexter. 1980. "Pregnant Low-Income Teenagers: A Social Structural Model of the Determinants of Abortion-Seeking Behavior." Youth and Society vol. 11, pp. 295-309.
Abstract: While there has been substantial sociological research on the attitudes of women seeking abortion, few studies have been concerned with teenaged abortion patients. Proposed is a theoretical model to test decisions to abort or to deliver by low-income pregnant teenage girls. A path model is hypothesized containing 7 variables: age, race, religion, education, marital status, number of children, & delivery/abortion-seeking behavior. Analysis of 1,341 abortion patients & 390 delivery patients at Houston's Jefferson Davis County Hospital was made from hospital admissions interview data. Behavior was most directly affected by the number of children, marital status, & age. The tendency to seek an abortion is evident among those under age 20 who have not yet felt social reinforcement of commitment to having one's own children. Needed are more aggressive sex-education programs within school curricula. [Source: SA]

Mahoney, E. R. 1980. "Religiosity and Sexual Behavior among Heterosexual College Students." Journal of Sex Research vol. 16, pp. 97-113.
Abstract: The relationship between religiosity & sexual behavior is examined on the basis of questionnaire responses from a sample of 290 F & 151 M Coll students. Across a wide range of sexual behaviors & dimensions of sexuality, religiosity is found to be negatively related to sexual experience. This relationship does not differ by gender. Additionally, religiosity among Ms is related to the sequence in which sexual behaviors are experienced in adolescence. Highly religious Ms have a significant tendency to reverse the sequence of sexual behaviors by having oral sexual experience before coitus. This reversal is discussed in terms of the outcome of an interaction between M sexual socialization & peer pressure, which emphasize Ms' obtaining sexual experience, & religious beliefs, which prohibit coitus outside of marriage. This sequence reversal is thus seen as maintaining technical virginity at an age & in an environment where sexual experience is emphasized. [Source: SA]

Rosen, Raye Hudson and Jack M. Stack. 1980. "Contraception at First Intercourse among a Group of Pregnant Teenagers: Preliminary Findings." Paper presented at North Central Sociological Association (NCSA).
Abstract: Examined are patterns of contraceptive use with the first sexual partner among a group of pregnant teenagers. Those who used birth control at their first intercourse are compared with those who waited until later to initiate contraception. The data are part of a larger study of pregnancy resolution decision making among adolescents. The study population consisted of all pregnant women under 20 years of age who sought pregnancy services from physicians in a rural Mich county during a 14-month period. Those who waited to contracept were a diverse group, including some who never used birth control with their first partner & others who started contracepting immediately after first intercourse. The two groups did not differ in terms of self-concept or attitudes concerning sexuality, gender roles, & authority. In the early group the male more often took the initiative in using birth control, respondents were closer to & had better communication about sex with their mothers, & found religion less important. [Source: SA]

Fischer, Kay Pamela Justman. 1979. "Precocious Pregnancies: Patterns of Sexuality among White Adolescent Women in the Rural South." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Florida.
Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has been noted as a social phenomenon capable of affecting population trends relatively recently in America. However, patterns of early birth have long been recognized as contributors to dense populations in developing countries. Sexuality among adolescents has been explained primarily as a variant of deviant behavior and pregnancy as the result of either contraceptive incompetence or psychological forces. Study populations have commonly been derived from urban settings and often are black and/or lower socio-economic class. Clinic populations are frequently utilized. Surveying techniques have been the most prevalent investigative methodology. Adolescent sexuality represents a complex behavioral issue that can significantly affect health status and has been investigated from multiple viewpoints. The theoretical context for this study was compiled from research in human sexuality, adolescence, sex roles, demography and social anthropology. Strawberry Junction, a community in north central Florida, was selected as the study site on the basis of a field trial and demographic investigation as conforming to the typical southern rural pattern: land- based economy, religious fundamentalism, racial segregation, kin-based social organization, and complementary sex roles. The town accounts for approximately one-third of the 15,000 county residents and serves as the county seat. It contains the only high school in addition to a middle and vocational school for adolescents which together enroll about 2,500 students. The study group included one hundred white woman aged 13 to 19 and drawn primarily from the schools and seventy- five adults judged as having insight into adolescent concerns, e.g. parents, young marrieds, teachers, ministers, social agency personnel, and so forth. A small number of males (fifteen) were included as corroborative informants. A natural historical approach was used for this study in order to avoid bias inherent in a clinical population of medically-assisted contraceptors. Information was elicited via structured and informal interviews and participant observation during the period of community residency from September 1974 through June 1976. The study provides contextual information about adolescent sexuality and contraceptive behavior of white rural adolescent women. The following findings of the study are significant in understanding the behavior of these teenagers. Sexual relations are important to adolescent life and begin early. Expression differs between boys and girls. Girls' sexual aggressiveness is not intrinsically sexual but is related to achievement of social goals. Adolescents are ineffective contraceptors due to the inadequacy of their knowledge base and difficulties in accessing medical services. Folk techniques are often relied upon. Intergenerational interaction is minimal with generational insularity maintained by parents as well as teenagers. Adults do not educate their young in sexual matters and covertly allow adolescent sexual activity by according teenagers a high degree of social autonomy. The failure of adults to provide sexual instruction to youth is due in part to religious sanctions and in part to their own inadequate knowledge base. Due to sex role differentiation in the rural south adolescence is a period of apprenticeship for males but a period of deviance for girls which will terminate upon marriage. This female role-deviation is described as "male-mimicking." Marriage and childbearing are ultimate female goals; alternate role models for women are rare in the community. Precocious pregnancy is not tragic but rather begins the preordained course early. Community religious tenets and social structure prescribe the options for pregnant girls. In order of preference, they are marriage, adoption, raising by the unwed mothers, or abortion. Abortion appears to be rare. Choice of sexual partners appears to be different than described for urban settings. The pattern is often young girls partnered by older men, occasionally in incestuous relationships. [Source: DA]

Wagner, Hilmar. 1978. "Sexual Behavior of Adolescents." Education vol. 99, pp. 44-47.
Abstract: The discussion of sexual behavior in this paper is confined to heterosexual activities. Peer relations are discussed as a judge of sex role potential. The adolescent search for a consistent sexual behavior code is examined. Reasons are cited for the apparent increase in promiscuity among adolescents. Other premises regarding sexual behavior developed include gaining individuality, the impressions given by media, values formed through religious identification, and the double standard. [Source: PI]

Roebuck, Julian and Marsha G. McGee. 1977. "Attitudes toward Premarital Sex and Sexual Behavior among Black High School Girls." Journal of Sex Research vol. 13, pp. 104-114.
Abstract: Examined the premarital sexual attitudes and sexual behavior of 242 Black high school females. It was hypothesized that sexual attitudes and behavior vary in relationship to family structure, social class, and religious participation. Results show that Black family structure appeared to have a significant influence on premarital sexual permissiveness of daughters, particularly in the matriarchal family. Social class appeared slightly to influence attitudes, but behavior between classes was similar. No relationship was found between religious participation and attitudes toward premarital sex and sexual behavior, although the more active religious girls were more permissive or as permissive toward premarital sex as the less active religious girls. [Source: PI]

Garris, Lorie, Allan Steckler, and John R. McIntire. 1976. "The Relationship between Oral Contraceptives and Adolescent Sexual Behavior." Journal of Sex Research vol. 12, pp. 135-146.
Abstract: Investigated how the use of oral contraceptives by 192 unmarried female adolescents between 15 and 20 yrs old influenced their sexual behavior. The expressed attitudes on family and peer relationships, religiousness, self-esteem, and sex before and after use of oral contraceptives were analyzed. The After group (96 Ss) had been using oral contraceptives for 6-8 mo; the Before group (96 Ss) had just begun to use them. Major results show a higher frequency of sexual intercourse among the After group Ss but no increase in the number of sexual partners. Ss in both groups were neutral about religion and peers but expressed positive feelings about the family. The Before group Ss felt more strongly that their parents would disapprove of their sexual behavior. [Source: PI]

King, Karl, Thomas J. Abernathy, Jr., Ira E. Robinson, and Jack O. Balswick. 1976. "Religiosity and Sexual Attitudes and Behavior among College Students." Adolescence vol. 11, pp. 535-539.
Abstract: A cross-section of students from a large southern state U (N=134 M's & 161 F's), all white, single, & Protestant, were surveyed via questionnaire to test 2 major hypotheses: "(1) Religiosity will vary inversely with premarital sexual behavior; & (2) religiosity will vary inversely with permissive premarital sexual attitudes." Goodman's Gamma is used as the probability statistic to measure for the significance of relationships. Religiosity as measured by religious beliefs & attitudes is not significantly related to premarital sexual behavior, a finding which opposes most previous research which finds these 2 variables to be obviously related when religiosity is measured by church attendance. Religiosity is "more strongly related to premarital sexual attitudes among M's than among F's." Discrepancies between these results & those of other research projects are discussed. [Source: SA]

Collins, J. K. 1974. "Dating Intimacy as a Function of Age, Sex, and Religion." Australian Journal of Social Issues vol. 9, pp. 35-44.
Abstract: The dating behavior of 237 M & 324 F students enrolled in a Behavioral Science course at Macquarie U in North Ryde was studied using data collected by an anonymous questionnaire from volunteer R's in the group. When comparing groups by age, sex, & religious affiliation it was shown that while F's remain more conservative than M's this was only with regard to the deeper forms of intimacy behavior. There was no evidence to suggest rampant teenage sexuality although petting behavior was almost universally experienced. Generally, it could be upheld that religious affiliation did not influence sexual behavior. Results were compared with other studies & both similarities & differences were found. [Source: SA]

Henze, Lura F. and John W. Hudson. 1974. "Personal and Family Characteristics of Cohabiting and Noncohabiting College Students." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 36, pp. 722-727.
Abstract: The phenomenon of cohabitation among Coll students is discussed, focusing on characteristics of students who have cohabitated in comparison with those who have not. Data were gathered in interviews with a random sample of 291 students (174 M & 117 F) at Arizona State U in 1971-72. The data indicate that 29% of the M's & 18% of the F's currently cohabit or had cohabited. Family characteristics examined failed to differentiate between cohabitators & noncohabitators. Personal characteristics which tended to distinguish the 2 groups were in the areas of religion, lifestyle, & drug use. Cohabiters, compared to noncohabiters, were less apt to attend church, were more likely to identify with a liberal lifestyle, & were more apt to be drug users. There will be an impact on traditional courtship patterns & family life, but there will be no change in the near future on the marriage rate. [Source: SA]

Miller, Patricia Y. and William Simon. 1974. "Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Context and Change." Social Problems vol. 22, pp. 58-76.
Abstract: Evaluates the proposition that there have been substantial changes in the incidence of adolescent sexual experimentation and in the normative context which facilitates this activity. The stratified, random sample was composed of 2,064 white adolescents aged 14-17 living in Illinois households. Comparing their self-reported incidences of coitus with those obtained for A. Kinsey's samples, the data supported intergender convergence, with the unanticipated finding that a substantial reduction in the incidence of male adolescent premarital coitus has occurred. A negative relationship obtained between the incidence of coitus and educational aspirations and religiosity. The incidence of coitus was positively related to alienation from parents and, for males, with involvement with peers. For females, the incidence of coitus was associated systematically with extent of dyadic involvement. For both males and females, there was a positive relationship between the incidence of coitus and participation in delinquent activities. [Source: PI]

Martin, Cynthia D. 1973. "Psychological Problems of Abortion for the Unwed Teenage Girl." Genetic Psychology Monographs vol. 88, pp. 23-110.
Abstract: Interviewed 52 14-20 yr old females who had abortions to determine background factors which affected their adjustments to their abortions. Data were obtained on S's self-perception; relationship with the male responsible for the pregnancy; relationship with her parents, siblings, and peers; religious and moral convictions; educational background; medical care; abortion decision; and preabortion mental health. 17 specific background factors were related to the Ss' abortion adjustments. Significant factors in the backgrounds of most of the Ss were also found. A review of the literature on the psychological problems resulting from abortion is included. [Source: PI]

Kantner, John F. and Melvin Zelnik. 1972. "Sexual Experience of Young Unmarried Women in the United States." Family Planning Perspectives vol. 4, pp. 9-18.
Abstract: Analyzes in detail survey data from 2,839 white and 1,401 black unmarried 15-19 yr old women concerning sexual, contraceptive, and fertility knowledge. Socioeconomic status measures included family income, education of the man and woman who raised the respondent, and a per capita measure of poverty 50% higher than the official poverty level derived from relating family income to family size. Measures of residence included whether the respondent lived on a farm or in a metropolitan area, and in which region of the country. Religion and relationship of the respondent to the head of the household were also examined. Nearly 3 in 10 Ss had had sexual intercourse. Among blacks, Ss from poverty homes were more likely to be sexually experienced than those who came from more affluent backgrounds. Among whites, the opposite was the case. Generally, blacks, whatever their socioeconomic or cultural backgrounds, were more likely to have had premarital intercourse as teenagers than comparable whites. Despite the fact that a substantial number of the Ss surveyed had had sexual intercourse, only a minority correctly understood the risk of pregnancy in mid-cycle. [Source: PI]

Simon, William, Alan S. Berger, and John H. Gagnon. 1972. "Beyond Anxiety and Fantasy: The Coital Experiences of College Youth." Journal of Youth and Adolescence pp. 203-222.
Abstract: Applied a social-bookkeeping approach to document the relatively stable rates of early and premarital coitus since the Kinsey report. Data are drawn from a 1972 study of 14-18 yr. olds and a 1967 study of college students. When appropriate controls for educational attainment and age are introduced, it is shown that, compared to the change in rates at the beginning of the century, the rates since the 1940s have increased only 1/4 as much. Coital behavior is shown to be still strongly linked to traditional patterns of restraint and facilitation, e.g., relationships with parents and religious attendance are shown to restrain early coital experience (defined as coitus before 18 yr. old), while factors linked to the courtship process facilitated this early behavior. During college both restraining and facilitating factors were operative, but levels of coital behavior in most cases stayed surprisingly low. Rates of frequent coitus rarely reached 40% among female college seniors and the proportion of college female seniors with 3 or more partners never reached 20%. It is concluded that popular discussions of the contemporary sexual revolution are out of touch with reality and possibly inducing anxiety among young people when they do not experience the sexual revolution. (17 ref.) [Source: PI]

Berman, Myron. 1970. "Sex and the Jewish Teenager." Religious Education vol. 65, pp. 415-421.
Abstract: Sex-with-affection among the middle classes, constituting the sexual revolution, is less evident among Jews than among Catholics and Protestants, but shows signs of increasing. Stability of the family has served as the common denominator of sexual behavior for Jews, coupled with the elevated status of women. Sex education should include: physiological factors, interpersonal relations, preparation for marriage, sociological considerations, and formulating a standard of values. Girls in a sex education class posed almost 3 times as many questions as boys. Girls' inquiries, in descending order, related to female physiology and the birth process, social implications of sexual behavior, petting, social-sexual behavior, male physiology, intercourse, and contraception. Boys' lesser concern over interpersonal relations suggests continued existence of a double standard with respect to sex. Avoiding puritanism and irrelevancy, future programs can construct a bridge for understanding sex within a total philosophy of life. [Source: PI]

Eisenstein, Ira. 1969. Jewish Youth and the Sexual Revolution. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

Fitch, Robert E. 1964. "The Sexplosion." Christian Century vol. 81, pp. 136-138.

Witt, Elmer N. 1964. "Youth in the Flesh: They Come No Other Way." Pastoral Psychology vol. 15, pp. 23-30.

Remmers, H and B Shimberg. 1949. "Problems of High School Youth. (Purdue Opinion Poll for Young People. Rep. No. 21.)." Purdue University.
Abstract: A 300-item Problem Checklist was administered to 15,000 high school students in all sections of the U. S. Problem areas covered were (1) school, (2) vocational, (3) personal, (4) social, (5) family, (6) sex, (7) health, (8) general. Methodology and overall results are discussed briefly. Tables are included showing what percentage of students in various sub-groups checked each item. These include breakdowns for (1) total group, (2) sex, (3) school grade, (4) region of U. S., (5) size of community, (6) religion, and (7) family income level. The analysis was based on a stratified sample of 2500 signed questionnaires. The authors compared matched samples of signed and unsigned questionnaires and found that while the unsigned questionnaires yielded slightly higher percentages on nearly all items, the results obtained from both samples were essentially the same. [Source: PI]

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.