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Mormon

Jankowiak, W. and M. Diderich. 2000. "Sibling Solidarity in a Polygamous Community in the USA: Unpacking Inclusive Fitness." Evolution and Human Behavior vol. 21, pp. 125-139.
Abstract: This pilot study explores the degree of solidarity felt between full and half siblings who are raised in a Mormon Fundamentalist polygamous community. The community under study is unique in that, at the level of official culture, it actively promotes full and half sibling solidarity through an ethos that strives to downplay genetic differences in favor of a harmonious family living together in one household. This community is an ideal cultural setting in which to examine the suitability of inclusive fitness theory for understanding the factors that promote family cohesion, sibling solidarity, and rivalry. Our main question becomes: is the degree of sibling solidarity a manifestation of genetic closeness or a natural byproduct of emotional closeness that arises from being raised together? We found evidence for more solidarity between full siblings than between half siblings. Our data suggest that, despite the force of religious ideals, and notwithstanding the continued close physical proximity of half siblings in the polygamous family, there is a pronounced clustering of feeling and affection in the polygamous family that is consistent with inclusive fitness theory. [Source: SC]

Gardner, Norman William. 1999. "L.D.S. Seminary Participation in the Las Vegas, Nevada Area for the Class of 1998." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Nevada Las Vegas.
Abstract: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (L.D.S. Church) attaches great importance to the religious education of its youth. The L.D.S. Church conducts a daily religious education program, called seminary, to church members ages 14 to 18. A young person's completion of four years of seminary has long been viewed as an indicator of future church activity. While seminary attendance is not compulsory, great emphasis is placed in the L.D.S. Church on the importance of participation by potential students in the program. The discontinuation of seminary enrollment by students is of great concern to the administrators of the program, to the ecclesiastical leaders of the Church, and to the parents of the students. This study examined why some L.D.S. seminary students regularly attended and graduated from the seminary program and why others discontinued their attendance. The areas of investigation identified possible influences which were analyzed to see if any were unique to either dropouts or graduates. A questionnaire was devised to measure seminary graduate and seminary dropout characteristics in the areas of personal belief and church involvement, external influences, and structural factors within the seminary system. [Source: DA]

Buehler, C., A. Krishnakumar, G. Stone, C. Anthony, S. Pemberton, J. Gerard, and B. K. Barber. 1998. "Interparental Conflict Styles and Youth Problem Behaviors: A Two-Sample Replication Study." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 60, pp. 119-132.
Abstract: We examine the association between interparental conflict and youth internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Youth perceptions of three interparental conflict variables are studied: frequency of disagreement, parents' use of an overt conflict style, and parents' use of a covert conflict style. Data are from two samples of youth from Tennessee and Utah. Interparental conflict variables account for over 20% of the variance in youth problem behaviors, and hostile conflict styles are more strongly associated with problem behavior than is the frequency of disagreement. The results are fairly consistent for sons and daughters, preadolescent and early adolescent youth, youth in nondivorced and divorced (mother- custody) families, poor and less-poor youth, and Mormon and non-Mormon youth. [Source: SC]

Marsh, David B. 1998. "The Influence of Religion and Religious Experiences on Families and Individuals." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This dissertation seeks to elevate the significance of religious experiences in research and analysis, to describe the religious experience of a sample of LDS (Mormon) youth and young adults, and to employ LISREL modeling and analysis to test interrelationships associated with religious experiences. Because of the persistence of reported divine influences in the lives of many individuals and families, their inclusion in scholarly endeavors is argued. Including the role of religious experience in research provides another avenue through which further understanding of individual and family behavior can be sought. LDS adolescents whose families read sacred literature together, pray together, and discuss religious teachings together are more likely to engage in those same behaviors in their personal lives. Those LDS adolescents who practice private religious behaviors are more likely to report religious experiences such as feeling the Spirit of the Lord, knowing what it feels like to repent and be forgiven, and feeling that the Holy Ghost is an important influence in their life. Those LDS adolescents who report experiencing sacred feelings are more likely to continue their private religious behaviors during later adolescence and young adulthood. Family religious behaviors influence the private religious behaviors of adolescents and young adults which, in turn, influence the reception of religious experiences. While attendance at church declines among the sample, the practice of private religious behaviors, and the report of religious experiences increase over time. As respondents age, private religious behaviors and sacred feelings occur at such a coincidental rate that if an individual is experiencing one he or she is likely experiencing the other. Three types of religious experiences are identified: Sacred Feelings, Sacred Experiences, and Sacred Blessings. The majority of the sample report receiving Sacred Feelings (know the feeling of repenting and being forgiven, felt the Spirit in Sacrament meeting; feel that the Holy Ghost is an important influence in their life). A significantly smaller portion of the sample receive Sacred Experiences (voices, visions, angels, or dreams). Most of the sample believe that their Sacred Blessing (Patriarchal Blessing) is a revelation from God to them personally, and experience comfort and guidance from it. [Source: DA]

Mumford, Thomas Maughan. 1997. "The Effects of a Public Secondary School Block Schedule on an Lds Church Released-Time Seminary." Ph.D. Thesis, Gonzaga University.
Abstract: The resource dependence model (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978) of open systems theory accurately describes the influence of the adjacent public school upon a released- time seminary of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints, especially as it pertains to the use of the resource "time." Restructuring the use of time is a major part of the current public school reform movement. Where released-time seminaries exist, when the adjacent public school changes its use of time by adopting new class schedules, the survival of the released-time seminary is threatened. This qualitative research describes the effects of a public secondary school block schedule on an LDS Church released-time seminary. On this block schedule, students enroll in four classes per semester and attend class for 90 minutes per day, five days per week; correspondingly, they attend seminary for only one semester each year. Five research questions guided data collection through in-depth interviews of students, their parents, local LDS Church leaders, and the seminary teachers; classroom observations; and document review regarding effects of this schedule. Findings indicate that although students preferred attending seminary for the entire year, they enjoyed longer classes, felt they had better classroom discussions, and were less rushed. Parents preferred year-long attendance and some were concerned that students seemed to have fewer LDS Church peer associations and less motivation to read their scriptures when not enrolled in seminary. Local LDS Church leaders also preferred daily attendance; however, they were unaware of any problems as a result of the schedule change. Seminary teachers found preparation for and teaching of 90-minute classes five days per week more challenging than traditional schedules. It was also more difficult to feel connected to students during the time they were not enrolled in seminary. In spite of the challenges of the block schedule, enrollment percentages and completion rates both increased during the three years of implementation of the block schedule, and no increase of problems among LDS youth, in the opinion of local LDS Church leaders seem due to the schedule change. Recommendations conclude the study. [Source: DA]

Santiago, Juan de. 1997. "Recovering the Signifier: New Jack Mormons." Dialogue vol. 30, pp. 47-50.

Bradley, Nancy Anne. 1996. "Network Associations and Missionary Service Decisions of Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." M.A. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: This study elaborates on conclusions and implications of the Marie Cornwall research (1985) entitled "Survey of Religion and Life" by attempting to further examine the study with the use of focused qualitative research techniques. Research questions considered network associates' levels of religious involvement as defined by Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint participation (membership, temple service, and missionary service) and the subjects' choice to serve a full-time mission controlling for gender. Thirteen males and fourteen females were interviewed. Findings included a relationship between missionary and non-missionary adult males in regard to their associates' LDS Church membership and temple attendance. Female teens who would serve missions tended to be more religiously active than non-missionaries. Missionaries' religious activities increased from teen to adult years and surpassed those of non-missionaries. While the number of LDS friendships were similar for mission-bound and non-mission-bound teens, such friendships increased for adult missionaries. It was concluded that network association did not play a role in missionary service decisions, but rather missionary service affected network association and religious behavior. [Source: DA]

Markstrom Adams, Carol and Melanie Smith. 1996. "Identity Formation and Religious Orientation among High School Students from the United States and Canada." Journal of Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 247-261.
Abstract: Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between Marcia's four identity statuses and Allport and Ross' four religious orientations. Study 1 was conducted among 38 Mormon and 47 non-Mormon high school students living in a predominantly Mormon Utah community. Study 2 was conducted among 102 Jewish high school students living in Ontario, Canada. It was revealed through the use of MANCOVA procedures that, in both studies, identity diffusion was associated with the extrinsic religious orientation. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on foreclosure than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups, and the extrinsic scored significantly higher on moratorium than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups in Study 1. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on identity achievement than those classified as extrinsic or nonreligious in Study 2. The indiscriminate proreligious and intrinsic religious orientations were associated with higher scores in three subscales of ethnic identity for the Jewish adolescents. Potential moderating influences of religious orthodoxy, religious attendance, grade, and gender were found to not operate between identity and religious orientation. [Source: PI]

Reynolds, Dynette Ivie. 1996. "Youth, Sex, and Coercion: The Neglect of Sexual Abuse Factors in Lds Data and Policy on Premarital Sex." Dialogue vol. 29, pp. 89-102.

Hardy, C. Brian. 1995. "Education and Mormon Enculturation: The Ogden Public Schools, 1849-1896." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Utah.
Abstract: Ogden's early public schools (1849-1867) were very informal institutions. City schools were ungraded, facilities were primitive, terms were of short duration, and teachers lacked adequate training. Public funding was insufficient and limited primarily to school construction and maintenance. A system of tuition was employed to cover instructional costs. Historical sources suggest that early Ogden schools were not consciously used as vehicles of Mormon indoctrination. Under the condition of Mormon homogeneity, there is no hint that more was expected of these rather primitive institutions by church leaders or parents than equipping students with basic literacy and simple computational skills. The completion of the transcontinental railroad brought changes, including the influx of non-Mormons. Unhappy with the public schools, these new residents supported private denominational schools that had been established by church organizations. From 1869 to 1885, the public schools of Ogden underwent considerable institutional strengthening. The resulting changes reflected general community development but were also tied to the importation of educational ideas and policies from the larger society. Stronger institutions and educational rhetoric brought greater awareness of the potential of the school as an agent of enculturation, but Mormon leaders soon realized that a curriculum including religious studies would jeopardize any petition for statehood. In Mormon hands the public schools served as covert carriers of Mormon culture, even in the absence of overt religious instruction. Fearing this was not sufficient church leaders established youth organizations. The decade from 1886 to 1896 was a decade of transition. Mormon school men in Ogden were influenced by educational dialogue in the larger society, especially in light of federal pressure being exerted in their community. They accepted and advocated elements of the common school reform in vogue nationally. Non-Mormons gained political ascendancy and wrested the school from Mormon control. Anticipating this development, the Mormon leadership established a private system of academies (including the Weber Stake Academy in Ogden) and inaugurated a program of religious classes for those attending public schools. [Source: DA]

Harris, Mark Allen, Cardell K. Jacobson, and Bruce A. Chadwick. 1995. "Pornography and Premarital Sexual Activity among Lds Teenagers." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Empirically investigates the relationship between pornography & premarital sexual activity in conjunction with a number of other independent variables, in a sample of 1,393 Mormon (LDS-Latter Day Saints) teenagers living along the East coast of the US. Logistic regression analysis indicates that exposure to pornography was strongly related to premarital sex, a relationship that persisted even when peer influence, family structure, religiosity, gender, & age were controlled. Teens who reported that they had moderate exposure to pornography (1 to 24 exposures) were 2.6 times more likely to have engaged in sex compared to those reporting no exposure, while teens who reported that they had been exposed to a higher amount of pornography were 5.7 times more likely to have engaged in sex as those with no exposure. Gender, peer influence, private religiosity, & relationship with mother were also significantly related to teenage sex. [Source: SA]

Hay, Steven D. 1995. "Maternal Employment, Parent-Adolescent Closeness and Adolescent Competence." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This study examined the relationships between maternal employment, adolescent employment, extracurricular activities, and closeness between parents and adolescents among a sample of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. A related focus was the relationship between parent-adolescent closeness and adolescent competency as represented by educational aspirations, self-esteem, and juvenile delinquency. It was found that maternal employment was not significantly related to parent-adolescent closeness. The strongest variable predicting LDS adolescents' closeness to their parents was the adolescents' perception of their parents marital quality. Parent-adolescent closeness was significantly related to girls' self-esteem, and negatively related to adolescent juvenile delinquency for both boys and girls. Maternal employment was positively related to victimless delinquency for both boys and girls. Close parent-adolescent relationships promote adolescent social competence. [Source: DA]

Ringger, Mark David. 1995. "The Relationship between Private Religious Behavior, Religious Identity, and Self-Esteem among Latter-Day Saint Adolescents in the Context of Familial and Religious Socialization." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo.
Abstract: Longitudinal data gathered in 1989 and 1993 studied the connection between religion and self-esteem by investigating the relationship between private religious behavior, religious identity, and self-esteem among LDS female and male adolescents in the context of familial and religious socialization. A LISREL model was developed and tested which showed that in both early and later adolescence, private religious behavior and commitment to a religious identity are important intervening variables in explaining the relationship between family religious socialization, institutional religious socialization, and self-esteem. Private religious behavior has no direct effects on self-esteem but it is a very strong predictor of self-esteem through adolescent commitment to a religious identity. Commitment emerges as an important factor in explaining the positive effects of religion on self-esteem. The findings have implications for those wanting to understand the influence of religion in predicting self-esteem. There are also important implications for those interested in the study of religious identity and the role of commitment in identity formation. [Source: PI]

Bahr, Stephen J. 1994. "Religion and Adolescent Drug Use: A Comparison of Mormons and Other Religions." Pp. 118-137 in Contemporary Mormonism: Social Science Perspectives, edited by Marie Cornwall, Tim B. Heaton, and Lawrence A. Young. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Markstrom Adams, Carol, Greta Hofstra, and Kirk Dougher. 1994. "The Ego-Virtue of Fidelity: A Case for the Study of Religion and Identity Formation in Adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 23, pp. 453-469.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between 2 variables of religiosity (religious minority status and church attendance), identity status, and fidelity among 36 Mormon adolescents and 47 Catholic and Protestant adolescents in Grades 9-22. Ss provided information about church attendance and completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status (EOM-EIS), which measured both interpersonal and ideological forms of identity. Among Mormon Ss, fidelity (observed through heightened commitment illustrated in foreclosure) obtained greater expression. Weekly church attenders also scored higher in interpersonal foreclosure, but scored lower in ideological diffusion. For Mormon Ss, church attendance was related to higher identity achievement, while for non-Mormons, less frequent church attendance was related to higher identity achievement. [Source: PI]

Chadwick, Bruce A. and Brent L. Top. 1993. "Religiosity and Delinquency among Lds Adolescents." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, pp. 51-67.
Abstract: Tested the religious ecology hypothesis that postulates that religion is negatively related to delinquency only in a highly religious climate. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,398 adolescent Latter-Day Saints (LDS [aged 14-29 yrs]) living on the East Coast. The link between religion and delinquency in this low-LDS religious climate was compared with the connection found in an earlier study (S. L. Albrecht et al; see record 1978-25042-001) of 3 highly moral LDS communities in California, Idaho, and Utah. The religious ecology hypothesis was not supported; religiosity had a strong negative relationship to delinquency in both the high and low religious ecologies. A multivariate model was tested that allowed peer, family, and religious factors to compete to explain delinquency. The multivariate model revealed that although peer influence made the strongest contribution in the regression equation, religiosity also made a significant contribution. [Source: PI]

Top, Brent L. and Bruce A. Chadwick. 1993. "The Power of the Word: Religion, Family, Friends, and Delinquent Behavior of Lds Youth." Brigham Young University Studies pp. 293-310.

Wilcock, Robert Orvel. 1992. "Adolescent Influences on Young Adult Religious Family Values." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: Using longitudinal design this research assessed the degree to which an adequate conceptualization and measurement of religious family values could be conducted. Questionnaire responses from 560 young adult LDS Males, originally studies in 1981, were analyzed revealing a cluster of values centering around family home evening, scripture study, family prayer, and moral behavior formed one dimension of religious family values. Three other related value dimensions were also identified, viz. birth control, divorce, working mother. A LISREL model was developed and tested which showed that the family, peer, and religious influences all contributed to explaining variation in young adult religious family values. Adolescent religiosity emerged as an important intervening variable which also influenced whether or not the young man chose to serve a mission for the church. Of the exogenous variables, home religious observance was the single most important influence on young adult religious family values. The direct effect over nine years suggests the strength of family socialization in a specific relationship to special values. These findings have important implications for those wanting to better understand how religious, familial, and peer influences combine to shape the adolescent's world, which in turn influences young adult religious family values some nine years later. [Source: DA]

Markstrom Adams, C. 1991. "Attitudes on Dating, Courtship, and Marriage: Perspectives on in-Group Versus out-Group." Family Relations vol. 40, pp. 91-97.
Abstract: Reviews a study in which 47 non-Mormon, religious minority high school students and 36 Mormon, religious majority high school students were asked to identify perceived barriers in dating between groups. Literature review; Methods; Results; Discussion; Theoretical implications; Topics for future research; Implications for youth and religious workers. [Source: AS]

Roghaar, H. Bruce. 1991. "The Influence of Primary Social Institutions and Adolescent Religiosity on Young Adult Male Religious Observance." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo.
Abstract: A model was constructed to test the influence of family religious observance and church/institutional integration on adolescent private and public religious observance, future religious intentions, and religious education on subsequent on young adult male religious observance. The study was longitudinal, utilizing a sample of 934 LDS adolescents first selected and studied in 1981. Family religious observance was found to be a reliable predictor of adolescent religiosity, and, indirectly and directly, of young adult religious observance. The private dimension of adolescent religious behavior was also found to be a strong predictor of young adult religious behavior, particularly the private dimension. For LDS young men, full time mission service was found to be an especially strong predictor of subsequent religious observance. [Source: DA]

Cornwall, Marie and Darwin L. Thomas. 1990. "Family, Religion, and Personal Communities: Examples from Mormonism." Marriage and Family Review vol. 15, pp. 229-252.
Abstract: Examines the role of personal communities in the family and religion interface, using empirical data from Mormon populations. Topics discussed include (1) religious communities and the church-sect continuum, (2) religious socialization, (3) religion and family influence on adolescent social competence, and (4) religion, family, and adult well-being. [Source: PI]

Mohan, Philip J. 1990. "The Effect of Maternal Employment on Mormon and Non-Mormon Adolescents." Adolescence vol. 25, pp. 831-837.

Betts, Margaret Ernestine. 1987. "A Comparison of Cognitive Ability and Religious Knowledge in Lds Nondelinquent and Delinquent Students." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This study investigated differences in cognitive ability, religious knowledge, and attitudes toward religion in delinquent and non-delinquent male adolescent members of the LDS Church. Two groups of randomly selected LDS non-delinquents, 26 from a junior high school Seminary and 25 from a senior high school Seminary, were compared with 23 delinquent LDS adolescents randomly selected from the Utah State Correctional System. Delinquents scored significantly lower than non-delinquents in critical thinking ability, ability to use abstract thought, and in religious knowledge. Delinquents also showed a less positive attitude toward LDS Church doctrine than non-delinquents. Findings suggest that delinquent adolescents have lower cognitive ability, less religious knowledge, and a poorer attitude toward church doctrine than non-delinquents. [Source: DA]

Hawks, Ricky D. 1987. "An Analysis of Alcohol Use Patterns among Adolescent Members of the Lds Church." Ed.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The purposes of the study were twofold. First, to analyze the alcohol use patterns among LDS adolescents in Utah during 1981-1982. Second, to determine differences between alcohol use patterns in Utah among LDS and Non-LDS adolescents. Results indicated that a higher percentage of LDS than non-LDS adolescents reported themselves as abstaining from alcohol during 1981-1982. LDS alcohol users tend to initiate the first use of alcohol at a later age than Non-LDS alcohol users. In general, when LDS adolescents do use alcohol they tend to consume less "frequently" but an equal "quantity" of alcohol as do Non-LDS adolescents. LDS adolescents are not as likely as Non-LDS adolescents to obtain their alcohol from "parents" or "brother or sister" but, LDS adolescents are more likely than Non-LDS to obtain their alcohol from "friends." LDS adolescents are not as likely as Non-LDS adolescents to consume their alcohol at "home." On the other hand, LDS adolescents are more likely than Non-LDS to consume their alcohol in nontraditional locations. [Source: DA]

Cheong, Keywon, Michael B. Toney, and William F. Stinner. 1986. "School Performance of Migrant and Native Youth in Nonmetropolitan Areas of Utah." Paper presented at Rural Sociological Society (RSS).
Abstract: An assessment of the impacts of population growth & migration status on academic performance & participation of high school seniors in nonmetropolitan areas of Utah, using data from a survey of the state's 1980 graduating seniors. Indicators of academic performance are: (1) the number of organizations in which Rs participated, & (2) self-reported grade point average (GPA). Comparisons between migrants & natives in rapidly & nonrapidly growing communities indicate lower rates of participation & lower GPAs for newcomers in rapid-growth communities only. High school seniors in rapidly growing areas were less likely to participate in extracurricular organizations but did not report lower GPAs than students in moderate or slowly growing areas. The religious preference of students, Mormon vs non-Mormon, rather than community growth or migration status, has the most significant impact on school participation. [Source: SA]

Keown, Duane. 1986. "What Utah Children Believe." Humanist vol. 46, pp. 21-26.
Abstract: An examination of the roots of particular beliefs of members of the Church of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), eg, that curses by God caused the dark skin of some races, & that Mormons need to rear large families. It is argued that the rigid adherance to these beliefs & others that stem from revelations to their prophets cause the Church & its members a great deal of social, ecological, & intellectual strife in the late twentieth century. The results of a survey of Salt Lake City, Utah, teenagers (N = 508) reveal wide acceptance of the Old Testament version of man's beginning in the Garden of Eden, original sin, & the destruction of earth life by a universal flood in Noah's time; however, only the most orthodox youth continue to believe the Mormon theological teaching that dark skin originated with curses by God of sinful men. [Source: SA]

Embry, Jessie L. and Martha S. Bradley. 1985. "Mothers and Daughters in Polygamy." Dialogue vol. 18, pp. 98-107.
Abstract: When daughters raised in second generation polygamous families saw how their mothers got along with each other, how they ran their families, and what accommodations they made to the peculiar demands of the principle in practice, they adapted this learning to their own lives. The important messages that polygamous mothers were inadvertantly teaching their daughters were the intricate patterns of relationships--how to live with others in obedience to a difficult principle, how to share both husband and children, and, finally, how to be a female member of a polygamous family. [Source: RI]

Pompa, Janiece Lynn. 1983. "Aspects of Sex Role and Self-Esteem in Mormon Adolescents Following a Wilderness Experience." Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University.
Abstract: This study described the psychological sex role characteristics of 67 Mormon adolescents prior to a five-day wilderness experience, as compared to a control group of 71 Utah high school students. In addition, the relationship of sex role and self-esteem in these two groups, as well as changes in the Mormon sample following their outdoor experience, were investigated. T-tests revealed that at pre-test, experimental and control females scored significantly higher than experimental and control males on sub-scales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) measuring moral-ethical worth and social self-esteem. Experimental group females also scored significantly higher than experimental group males on TSCS measures of behavioral satisfaction and global self-esteem. With regard to psychological sex role, subjects' scores on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) revealed that at pre-test, most Mormon adolescent males were classified as Masculine, while most Mormon adolescent females were classified as Feminine and Androgynous. In addition, the number of subjects classified as cross-sex-typed was very small. A Chi-square test of independent samples revealed that the distribution of experimental group subjects in sex role categories was significantly different than the distribution in Bem's standardization sample. Although McNemar tests showed that neither male nor female experimental group members shifted from sex-typed to androgynous from pre- to post-test to a significant degree, multiple regression analyses revealed that mid-and high-scoring experimental females' BSRI Masculinity scores increased significantly from pre- to post-test, when compared to mid- and high-scoring control females. There was no significant difference in these males' BSRI Masculinity or Femininity scores, or females' Femininity scores, from pre- to post-test. Finally, it was found that the experimental group as a whole showed significantly increased TSCS global self-esteem scores from pre to post-test. A main effect for sex role was also found, and Scheffe post-hoc analyses revealed that Masculine and Androgynous subjects' scores considered together were significantly higher than Feminine and Undifferentiated subjects' scores at both pre- and post-test. [Source: DA]

Critchfield, Arthur Barry. 1982. "Religious Achievement of Hearing Impaired Youth in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the religious achievement levels of hearing impaired youth in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in comparison with that of other youth in the same Church. A test of L.D.S. religious knowledge was developed and comparable groups of 72 deaf and 77 non-deaf subjects were evaluated as to their knowledge of basic Church doctrine. Deaf subjects' responses were evaluated to assess what factors lead to improved scores of religious knowledge. Results of the study indicated that hearing impaired youth scored significantly lower on the test of religious knowledge than similar non-hearing impaired young people. Recommendations for improved programming and service delivery were made. [Source: DA]

Apprey, Maurice. 1981. "Family, Religion and Separation: The Effort to Separate in the Analysis of a Pubertal Adolescent Boy." Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology vol. 4, pp. 137-155.
Abstract: Examines the process whereby a 13-yr-old male used analysis to take progressive and retrogressive steps to effect a relative separation from his infantile object ties. The S's background, his religious conversion to the Mormon faith, the diagnostic formulation and initial therapeutic strategy, the problem of separation, 1st- and 2nd-yr treatment, partial resolution of conflicts with his father, and the negotiation and emergence of the S's heterosexual ambitions are discussed. Analysis facilitated the S's use of the religious conversion as an adaptive transition from his earlier infantile object tie to its consequent renunciation and strengthened his certainty of himself as a young man with mature heterosexual ambitions. [Source: PI]

Wilkinson, Melvin L. and William C. Tanner. 1980. "The Influence of Family Size, Interaction, and Religiosity on Family Affection in a Mormon Sample." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 42, pp. 297-304.
Abstract: Many studies have shown an inverse relationship between family size and family affection. This relationship was tested from the perception of 223 adolescents in Mormon families. A small but significant positive relationship was found between family size, family activities, and family affection. Partial correlations indicated that religiosity, not family size, was the key causal variable. Path analysis showed that the relationship between religiosity and family affection was relatively independent of family activities. It is suggested that the degree to which the mother feels her work is important might be the key variable in coping with family size. [Source: PI]

Brinkerhoff, Merlin B. 1978. "Religion and Goal Orientations: Does Denomination Make a Difference?" Sociological Analysis vol. 39, pp. 203-218.
Abstract: The Mormon Church, considered to be characteristic of Weber's Protestant Ethic type, has been employed in a "quasi" case analysis to investigate the influence of religion on educational and occupational goals. In the initial analysis of data from 2,179 adolescents, no support was found; however, through the process of elaboration, the evidence indicated that sex roles and family size combine with religious denomination and involvement to influence goals. Multivariate analyses suggested that the Mormons' beliefs relative to women's roles increased the relationship between gender and goals, while their belief in large families decreased the effect of family size on goals. Both religious involvement and denomination influence goals, but the relationships are complex as they combine with other factors. [Source: RI]

Albrecht, Stan L., Bruce A. Chadwick, and David S. Alcorn. 1977. "Religiosity and Deviance: Application of an Attitude-Behavior Contingent Consistency Model." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 16, pp. 263-274.
Abstract: Most investigators have concluded that religion is largely irrelevant to understanding deviance, but they have tended to rely on bivariate research models. Studies dealing with the problems of predicting behavior from measures of verbal attitudes suggest that religious attitudes must be combined with other social situational constraints for a better understanding of behavioral outcomes. Using questionnaire data on (a) engagement in 10 different deviant acts, and (b) religious participation, collected from 244 Mormon teenagers, good prediction of deviance was obtained when religious indicators were combined with measures of peer and family relationships. Consistent with the expectations of S. Burkett and M. White (see record 1975-27297-001), religious variables were more strongly related to victimless than to victim deviance. Peer and family expectations were more important for victim deviance, especially for boys. [Source: PI]

Tanner, William C. 1976. "Participation in Family-Related Activities and Family Affectional Relationships as Perceived by Adolescent Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints." Thesis, Florida State University, Tallahassee.

Schvaneveldt, Jay D. 1973. "Mormon Adolescents' Likes and Dislikes Towards Parents and Home." Adolescence vol. 8, pp. 171-178.
Abstract: Administered a questionnaire to 70 male and 91 female 12-15 yr olds and 15 male and 54 female adults from rural to semirural middle-class Mormon families. Performing home chores, use of time, and attitude toward studies were the most common of 10 areas which created conflict between youth and parents. Both adults and adolescents felt that the major problems in parent-adolescent interactions involved gaps in communication, deficiencies in understanding, and "one generation grouping toward the other, each partially blinded to the other." Both groups were ambivalent in their needs for each other. [Source: PI]

Weigert, Andrew J. and Darwin L. Thomas. 1972. "Parental Support, Control and Adolescent Religiosity: An Extension of Previous Research." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 11, pp. 389-393.
Abstract: Investigated previous empirical findings that parental control and support are jointly related to religiosity among urban Catholic adolescents. A questionnaire administered to the entire population of 12-18 yr. old Mormons (N = 44) in a small, western United States university town yielded similar results. [Source: PI]

Lee, Harold B. 1970. Youth & the Church. Salt Lake City, UT: Deseret Book Co.

Christiansen, John R., John W. Payne, and Kenneth J. Brown. 1963. "Church Participation and College Desires of Rural Youth in Utah." Rural Sociology vol. 28, pp. 176-185.
Abstract: Attendance at Mormon religious organizations by rural adolescents is positively associated with their desires to attend college. [Source: PI]

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.