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Loundon, Sumi D. 2001. Blue Jean Buddha: Voices of Young Buddhists. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications.

Meisenbach Boylan, Kristi. 2001. The Seven Sacred Rites of Menarche: The Spiritual Journey of the Adolescent Girl. Santa Monica, CA: Santa Monica Press LCC.

Parker, Evelyn L. 2001. "Hungry for Honor." Interpretation: A Journal of Bible & Theology vol. 55-67, p. 148.
Abstract: Explores honor language in violent youth gang culture. Reasons of youths for joining gangs; Historical survey of youth gangs in the United States; Categories of gangs; Role of the church in the moral and spiritual direction of the youth. [Source: AS]

Granqvist, P. and B. Hagekull. 2000. "Attachment Representations and Religiosity in Adolescents: Report from a Longitudinal Project." International Journal of Psychology vol. 35, pp. 71-71.

Klaczynski, P. A. 2000. "Motivated Scientific Reasoning Biases, Epistemological Beliefs, and Theory Polarization: A Two-Process Approach to Adolescent Cognition." Child Development vol. 71, pp. 1347-1366.
Abstract: Theory-motivated reasoning biases arise when different reasoning skills are invoked to evaluate evidence that is congruent or incongruent with individuals' belief systems. To explore this phenomenon, 66 early and 73 middle adolescents evaluated evidence relevant to their theories of social class or religion. In both conditions, reasoning biases were found, but in-group biases were evident only in the religion condition. In both conditions, higher order scientific reasoning was used to reject theory-incongruent evidence and judgmental heuristics (i.e., cognitive rules of thumb) were used to evaluate theory-congruent evidence. In both conditions, subsequent to the evidence presentation, adolescents' theories became more extreme (i.e., polarized) than at the outset of the experiment. Beliefs regarding the origin, acquisition, and certainty of knowledge, however, appeared to moderate reasoning biases and theory polarization. Age differences emerged on only one index of bias: In the religion condition, middle adolescents were more likely to treat theory-incongruent evidence as implausible. These findings are pertinent to theories of cognitive development, decision making, rationality, and in-group favoritism. [Source: SC]

Mabry, Steven Craig. 2000. "Adolescent Perspective Transformation: The Transforming Experience of the International Work Camp." Ph.D. Thesis, The Fielding Institute.
Abstract: This study probes the educational setting, process, and perspective-altering impact of an international work camp (iwc) while giving voice to the transformative learning of American teenagers who volunteered for brief mission service with the economically underprivileged of Mexico. It centers on the narratives of young adults as they describe the significant changes in their thinking, feeling, and worldviews attributed to their high school experience of a mission camp in a "third world" environment. The camps located their work and living within the poor neighborhoods of the border towns of Mexico, building homes, clinics, churches, and schools. Traveling to Mexico and camping on site places the iwc firmly in the literature of experiential learning, outdoor education, and adventure education. The iwc experience also locates itself in the literature of community, the human circumstance that holds an individual, which manifests itself in three parts: a sending community (a town, school, religious faith community, or all of these), a traveling community (composed of the participants in the iwc), and a receiving community (the neighborhood which hosts the iwc). In the work camp learning environment pedagogy connects strongly to location and community and, in fact, moves more closely to andragogy as portrayed by adult educator Malcolm Knowles. A third area of literature critical to understanding the changes in these adolescents employs the perspective transformation work of Jack Mezirow which has been used to clarify adult change. For the purpose of this study, the term transformation describes a qualitative change or new consciousness brought on by a heightened awareness of self and context as stimulated by a new paradigm which challenges existing formulations, making old frames obsolete and providing a new point of reference for constructing reality and interacting with the world. Genuine transformation results in perspective change and can be confirmed by voluntary modifications to individual behavior. The researcher conducted qualitative interviewees with 16 young adults who identified themselves as having experienced significant change or transformation as a result of their adolescent iwc participation between 1980 and 1994. Some participants recalled experiences as recent as 4 years past, while others shared memories from 18 years ago. While the changes varied (views of consumerism, racial stereotypes, vocations, faith, etc.), each individual claimed transformed perspectives. Their voices describe a new way of looking at the world and illuminate the path to adolescent transformation. This study suggests that, given a qualitative life experience, adolescents will engage in critical reflections on their basic cultural values, and that educators can provide learning environments that support adolescent perspective transformation. Further, it suggests the basic components that create the conditions essential for adolescents to feel empowered not only to transform themselves but also to effectively impact their world. [Source: DA]

Mercier, Celine. 2000. "An Application of Theory-Driven Evaluation to a Drop-in Youth Center." Evaluation Review vol. 24, pp. 73-91.
Abstract: Reports on a theory-driven evaluation of the Young Men's Christian Association Youth Center in Montreal, Quebec. Use of methods such as literature search, concept mapping with staff and focus groups with youth; Concept of after-school and community youth programs; Features of a drop-in center that attract youth; Benefits from using theory-driven programs for drop-in centers; Program theory. This article reports on the theory-driven evaluation of a drop-in center for youth that incorporated a literature search, concept mapping with staff, and focus groups with youth. Findings revealed strong agreement among the three sources of data around specific elements identified as critical components of a program theory of global prevention in after-school-hours initiatives, such as drop-in centers. These results are used to illustrate how a theory-driven approach was relevant for the context and objectives of this evaluation, as well as how it was used to develop knowledge useful for action, social intervention theory, and further research. [Source: AS]

Bentley, Richard, Am?lie Weber, and Cheryl Hall-Russell. 1999. Religion, Youth, and Philanthropy: An Annotated Resource Guide. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Center on Philanthropy.

Mueller, Walt. 1999. Understanding Today's Youth Culture. Wheaton IL: Tyndale House Publishers.

Thorn, Catherine O'Neill. 1999. "Poetry Therapy: Drawing Adolescents out of Hiding." Christianity and the Arts vol. 6, pp. 35-37.

Veenker, Jody. 1999. "Marketing Martyrdom to Teens." Christianity Today vol. 43, pp. 1981-1999.

Wortman, Julie A. 1999. "What Is Ailing America's Adolescents? An Interview with Patricia Hersch." Witness vol. 82, pp. 16-20.

Fitzsimmons, Ellen. 1998. "Teach Me: An Ethnography of Public School Children's Learning." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois At Chicago.
Abstract: An ethnographic study of twenty-four months' duration explored some of the things young, urban adolescents (7th grade) want to know, why they want to know it, and how they go about learning what they want to know. Data were gathered in formal and informal settings both in and out of school, from school-sponsored student surveys, student-produced documents, and informal interviews with administrators, teachers, parents and students. The data show some of these adolescents' attempts to forge sense out of, learn from, and function in four settings: home and family, school, church and the streets. These data, falling under the classificatory heading of "student lore," do not yield a synchronically integrated picture of adolescent culture. Instead, the model that most closely characterizes the children's behaviors, both in and out of formal educational settings, is "Cultural Shopping." [Source: DA]

King, V. and G. H. Elder, Jr. 1998. "Perceived Self-Efficacy and Grandparenting." Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences vol. 5.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study identifies grandparents who feel efficacious in their role and the consequences of such beliefs for actual involvement with an adolescent grandchild. METHODS: The sample of 883 grandparents comes from two related studies of rural families, the Iowa Youth and Families Project and the Iowa Single Parent Project. Our research questions are answered by testing a series of bivariate and multivariate regression models. RESULTS: Results show much variability in perceptions of being able to influence one's grandchild. Church attendance, knowledge of one's own grandparents, a farm history, a strong grandparent-parent bond, proximity, and having fewer grandchildren emerged as significant predictors of grandparents' perceptions of efficacy. Grandparents with strong self-efficacious beliefs play an active role in the lives of their grandchildren. DISCUSSION: With an increasing number of grandparents taking responsibilities for their grandchildren, a greater understanding of the experiences and resources that enhance their sense of personal efficacy in this role warrants priority in generational studies. [Source: CI]

Martin, Artemio Allan Ii. 1998. "The Effectiveness of Christian Adolescent Peer Counselor Training: A Controlled Study." Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Psychology, Pasadena.
Abstract: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a Christian-based adolescent peer counseling curriculum (Sturkie & Tan, 1992) used with Christian high school students. The training group of 47 subjects received training, while 37 subjects were in the no-training comparison group. All 84 subjects completed 4 self-report measures (Counselor Training Program Questionnaire, Helping Relationship Inventory, Valuegenesis Faith Maturity Measure, Spiritual Well Being Scale). Additionally, the training group was videotaped in 15-minute roleplays, pre and posttraining. Compared to the no-training group, the training group reported significantly higher knowledge and competence in Christian counseling, and expressed a significantly stronger preference for an understanding response style. Trained students were also seen as significantly more empathic, genuine, and respectful by 2 independent raters of the roleplay videotapes. [Source: PI]

McGeady, Mary Rose. 1996. Are You out There, God? New York, NY: Covenant House.

Blyth, Dale A. and Nancy Leffert. 1995. "Communities as Contexts for Adolescent Development: An Empirical Analysis." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 10, pp. 64-87.

Affleck, Marilyn and Carolyn Stout Morgan. 1987. "The Influence of Sex Role Attitudes on Work Commitment of Female Adolescents." Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology vol. 15, pp. 189-194.
Abstract: The effect of sex-role attitudes on work commitment among a 1982 nationwide survey of US F high school seniors (N = 3,539) is investigated, using multiple regression. Other predictor variables include race, parental education, paid employment of mother while R was growing up, political beliefs, religiosity, & educational plans. Four-year Coll plans proves to be the single most important predictor of commitment to work, followed by sex-role attitudes & religiosity. [Source: SA]

Seyfrit, Carole L. and Norma C. Hammer. 1986. "Social Impact of Rapid Energy Development on Rural Youth: A Statewide Comparison." Paper presented at Rural Sociological Society (RSS).
Abstract: Most recent studies on the social consequences of rapid energy development in Ru areas that have tested the social disruption hypothesis with various subgroups of the community have reported conflicting results. Few studies have focused on young people, & fewer have used statewide data. Data from 1,152 Ru Utah high school seniors are used to compare those in counties with rapid growth in energy-related employment to those in other Ru counties, in terms of: attitudes toward community, family, & home; sense of belonging; & degree of involvement in school, church, & community activities. While the differences found are in the direction expected, they are extremely small & are mediated in many instances by other variables, particularly religion & number of places lived. [Source: SA]

Yacoubian, George Khatchik. 1982. "A Study in the Meaning of Love among Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, Emory University.
Abstract: It is commonly agreed that love, the universal phenomenon coextensive with human life itself, is the vital requisite to combine and balance personal freedom with social solidarity. Literary treatments of the love phenomenon in humanistic traditions are as plentiful as empirical studies of the same are scanty. This dissertation seeks to extend the base of social- scientific research in the area of altruistic love. Our main objective is to develop a framework for a socio- theological theory and methodology which provides the basis for assessing and measuring youth's attitudes and experiences of love. The multidimensional theory of love, developed by Pitirim Sorokin, provides the main theoretical framework for this project, although being an interdisciplinary endeavor, both theologians and social scientists are allowed to contribute toward the formulation of our operational definition of love. A pragmatic consideration for a high school teacher is the applicability of such a research project to young people. Thus a situational analysis of contemporary youth culture is offered with special attention to youths' quest for and understanding of love. The threefold methodological concern governing this study was relating the theoretical to the situational, designing a project to test our hypothesis and apply a modified version of the semantic differential technique to measure one's understanding of the meaning of love. A private high school population sample was given the semantic love scale test. The data were processed and subjected to T-tests and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Technique. The results confirmed our hypothesis that there occurs, with the change of age from a high school freshman to a senior, an increase in the score on the love scale. Furthermore, intervening variables such as family, church, school, peers, etc. did make a significant difference in the way youth conceptualize, and are behaviorally influenced by love in these social settings. However, variables such as gender and siblings did not make a significant difference on the 'love-test' score. The instrument used in measuring the love score proved to have an adequate degree of objectivity, validity and reliability in measuring what it claimed to measure. Refining the instrument further is a task for future research. [Source: DA]

Hall, G. Stanley. 1981. Adolescence; Its Psychology & Its Relations to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion & Education. Norwood: Telegraph Books.

Steininger, Marion and Sandra Colsher. 1978. "Correlates of Attitudes About "the Right to Die" among 1973 and 1976 High School and College Students." Omega: Journal of Death and Dying vol. 9, pp. 355-368.
Abstract: Attitudes about the right to die were studied among a total of 392 high school and 344 college students over a 3-yr period. A general item about the right to decide between life and death and a specific one about that right for the terminally ill were accepted by more than half the students; both were more accepted than an item rejecting life after death. All 3 items were related to beliefs about religion, abortion, teenage birth control, and the worth of current ideas. The right to die items were positively correlated in all groups; the more conservative the students, the likelier they were to disagree with them. Agreement was related to belief in self-determination in moral/social matters. The item rejecting life after death was generally unrelated to the right to die items and to liberalism-conservatism, but its acceptance was greater among the more dogmatic college students, and among those derogating ideas and people. Possible reasons for the combined personality and time period effects were discussed; they suggest a potential backlash after more right to die legislation such as the California law is passed. [Source: PI]

Johnson, Arthur L., Milo L. Brekke, Merton P. Strommen, and Ralph C. Underwager. 1974. "Age Differences and Dimensions of Religious Behavior." Journal of Social Issues vol. 30, pp. 43-67.
Abstract: This research explores the magnitude, sources, and consequences of differences among age strata in various dimensions of religious orientation and practice. A national sample of 4444 Lutheran church members, ages 15-65, completed a 740-item survey. From these data six age groups were empiricially formed; these exhibited significant differences on 43 of 52 major scales. Patterns of age strata differences supported a "selective gap" theory rather than a "great gap" interpretation of contrasts among age strata. The youth stratum, 19-23, was found to be most heterogeneous in their beliefs, attitudes, or lifestyles. Although some within-stratum solidarity was evident, it generally was weak and overshadowed by lineage solidarity. Implications of combined aging and cohort effects conclude the discussion. [Source: NS]

Weiss, Walter F. 1974. America's Wandering Youth: A Sociological Study of Hitchhikers in the United States. Jericho, NY: Exposition Press.
Abstract: Discusses the psychological, philosophical, and religious forces which have molded today's youth, examines the society in which they live, and considers the ongoing evolution of 3 basic American institutions-the family, the school, and the church. [Source: PI]

Benington, John. 1973. Culture, Class & Christian Beliefs: Questions Arising from the Tensions Experienced by Some Young People. London: Scripture Union.

Runde, Raymond Edward. 1968. "The Effects of Intelligence and Residence on Educably Retarded Boys' Concept of God and Their Parents, as Indicated by the Projective "Draw a Person" Technique." Ph.D Thesis, Catholic University of America.

Rodgers, Dorothy Gates. 1959. "Youths' Attitudes toward Science and Scientists Related to Religion, Family, Social Class and Other Variables." Dissertation Abstracts vol. 19, p. 2388.

Spalding, Arthur Whitefield and Belle Jessie Comstock. 1928. The Days of Youth, a Study of the Period of Adolescence. Mountain View, Ca.: Pacific Press Publishing Association.

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.