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Mental and Emotional Health

Anderson, Neil T. and David Park. 2001. Stomping out Depression. Ventura, Calif.: Regal Books.

Dai, Yong, Rebecca F. Nolan, and Qing Zeng. 2001. "Self-Esteem of Early Adolescents: A National Survey of 8th Graders." Paper presented at American Psychological Association (APA).
Abstract: With a nationally representative sample of 8th graders this study used multivariate analytical techniques to examine their self-esteem in relation to their gender, race, and religious involvement. Results indicated that the self-esteem of early adolescents was significantly related to religious involvement and race. Furthermore, the effect of religious involvement on self-esteem was most evident compared with race and gender. Implications for the finding were also discussed. [Source: NS]

Dixon, F. A., T. L. Cross, and C. M. Adams. 2001. "Psychological Characteristics of Academically Gifted Students in a Residential Setting: A Cluster Analysis." Psychology in the Schools vol. 38, pp. 433-445.
Abstract: Students in one entering class at a Midwestern residential school for gifted and talented adolescents (N = 156) took three instruments: the Self-Description Questionnaire III (SDQIII; Marsh, 1988), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents (MMPI-A; Butcher, Williams, Graham, Archer, Tellegen, Ben-Porath, & Kaemmer, 1992), and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA; Harter, 1988) in order to determine the psychological makeup of academically gifted students who are admitted to and leave home to attend a residential school. Scores from the SDQIII were cluster analyzed using Ward's hierarchical method. Clusters were validated using data from the MMPI-A and the SPPA. Results indicated six different cluster groups that were described as follows: a mathematics focus (21%); a social focus (18%); a nonathletic group (21%); a low overall self-concept group (16%); a verbal group (9%); and a nonspiritual/religious group (14%). Characteristics of the clusters and implications for residential schools are discussed. [Source: SC]

Harker, K. 2001. "Immigrant Generation, Assimilation, and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being." Social Forces vol. 79, pp. 969-1004.
Abstract: Utilizing data on adolescents in secondary school from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this article examines the link between immigrant generation and adolescent psychological well-being. I find that first- generation immigrants experience less depression and greater positive well-being than their native born agemates of similar demographic and family backgrounds. Second-generation immigrants, however, do not differ significantly from native- born youth in terms of psychological well-being. A number of family influences serve as "protective" factors that enable first-generation immigrants to maintain their higher levels of well-being. These factors include parental supervision, lack of parent-child conflict, religious practices, and social support. Assimilation among first-generation immigrants, as measured by age at arrival in the U.S., does not significantly affect their positive well-being. [Source: SC]

Adams, T. B., J. R. Bezner, M. E. Drabbs, R. J. Zambarano, and M. A. Steinhardt. 2000. "Conceptualization and Measurement of the Spiritual and Psychological Dimensions of Wellness in a College Population." Journal of American College Health vol. 48, pp. 165-173.
Abstract: Wellness is commonly conceptualized as having many dimensions, but little effort has been made to evaluate how spiritual and psychological dimensions are related to overall wellness. To explore the relationship between measures of spiritual and psychological wellness and perceived wellness in a college student population, the authors administered a series of survey instruments to 112 undergraduate students under quiet classroom conditions. They used the Life Attitude Profile to measure spiritual wellness, the Life Orientation Test and the Sense of Coherence Scale to measure psychological wellness, and the Perceived Wellness Survey to measure overall wellness. Path analysis performed with a proposed theoretical model revealed that the effect of life purpose on perceived wellness was mediated by optimism and sense of coherence, which had independent effects on perceived wellness beyond that of life purpose. The findings suggested that an optimistic outlook and sense of coherence must be present for life purpose to enhance a sense of overall well-being. [Source: CI]

Chapman, Paula L. and Ronald L. Mullis. 2000. "Racial Differences in Adolescent Coping and Self-Esteem." Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 161, pp. 152-160.
Abstract: Racial differences in coping strategies and self-esteem were examined for 361 male and female adolescents in Grades 7-12. Coping strategies were assessed with the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (J. M. Patterson & H. I. McCubbin, 1986). Self-esteem was assessed by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (S. Coopersmith, 1987). Multivariate analysis revealed racial differences in adolescent coping strategies of ventilating feelings, seeking diversions, developing self-reliance, avoiding problems, seeking spiritual support, investing in close friends, engaging in demanding activities, solving family problems, and relaxing. In particular, African American adolescents reported using diversions, self-reliance, spiritual support, close friends, demanding activities, family problems, and relaxation more frequently than Caucasian adolescents did. Implications for professionals and recommendations for future research are discussed. [Source: AS]

Cook, K. V. 2000. ""You Have to Have Somebody Watching Your Back, and If That's God, Then That's Mighty Big": The Church's Role in the Resilience of Inner-City Youth." Adolescence vol. 35, pp. 717-730.
Abstract: This study was designed to explore Freeman's (1986) finding that the institution that made the greatest contribution to male African-American youths' socioeconomic success was the church. Thirty-two African-American, Haitian-American, and Latino male and female teenagers - 16 drawn from inner-city Protestant churches and 16 comparison teenagers from the same communities - were interviewed. The interviews revealed that churched teenagers were less stressed and less likely to have psychological problems than were teenagers in the comparison group. They also appeared more likely to be living with both biological parents, less likely to have a family member on welfare, and more likely to have a job when compared with the other teenagers. They described the church as being central to their lives and as having multiple functions, many of which have been identified in the resilience literature as contributing to positive developmental outcomes. Results are interpreted in light of the transactional model, and recommendations are made, such as expanding the role of the church within these ethnic communities. [Source: SC]

Fickova, E. 2000. "Preference of Coping Strategies in Relation to Hassles." Studia Psychologica vol. 42, pp. 203-208.
Abstract: The subject of this study is the analysis of the preference of coping strategies in relation to various categories of hassles and to their total hassles score in adolescents. Girls with high total score in hassles prefer significantly more often strategies of planning, religion, focus on and venting of emotions, denial, behavioral and mental disengagement. Boys with high number of hassles more often prefer emotional social support and drug/alcohol use and also, identically to girls, planning and focus on and venting of emotions. Compared to boys, of the daily hassles, girls experience significantly more often loneliness and dissatisfaction with oneself (Factor 1), need for increased effort and lack of time (Factor 4). [Source: SC]

Grant, K. E., J. H. O'Koon, T. H. Davis, N. A. Roache, L. M. Poindexter, M. L. Armstrong, J. A. Minden, and J. M. McIntosh. 2000. "Protective Factors Affecting Low-Income Urban African American Youth Exposed to Stress." Journal of Early Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 388-417.
Abstract: Individual (coping strategies), family (parent/child relationships), and community-based (religious involvement) variables were examined as potential protective factors for 224 low-income urban sixth- through eighth-grade African American adolescents. Each of those variables was examined as a moderator and analyses were conducted to determine whether the association between stress and psychological symptoms was attenuated for youth endorsing positive coping strategies, strong parent/child relationships, and religious involvement. Results indicated that positive relationships with father figures buffered the effects of stress on externalizing symptoms for boys and for girls; religious involvement was protective for girls but not for boys. The sole coping strategy to demonstrate a protective effect was avoidant coping, which attenuated the relation between stress and externalizing symptoms for boys. Supplemental analyses focusing on specific subsets of stressful experiences indicated that avoidant coping and social support-seeking coping accentuated the relation between daily hassles and internalizing symptoms for girls. [Source: SC]

Harker, Kathryn. 2000. "Immigrant Generation, Assimilation and Adolescent Psychological Wellbeing: The Importance of Mediating Factors." Paper presented at Southern Sociological Society (SSS).
Abstract: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of US adolescents in grades 7-12 during 1995, are drawn on to examine the relationship between immigrant generation & adolescent psychological well-being, along with factors that mediate this relationship. After exploring intergenerational differences in well-being, the impact of intragenerational assimilation on the well-being of first-generation immigrant youth is examined. Results indicate that, overall, first- & second-generation immigrants experience similar levels of depression & lower levels of positive well-being than their native-born peers. However, mediating factors such as parental supervision, parent-child conflict, church attendance, frequency of prayer, & social support act as protective influences that allow first-generation immigrants to maintain higher levels of well-being than their native-born peers of similar demographic & family backgrounds. Intragenerational assimilation among first-generation immigrants does not significantly affect adolescents' positive well-being; however, having immigrated to the US as an adolescent is related to slightly lower levels of depression than having immigrated at earlier ages. [Source: SA]

Samaan, R. A. 2000. "The Influences of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty on the Mental Health of Children." Journal of Health Care For the Poor and Underserved vol. 11, pp. 100-110.
Abstract: Sufficient evidence demonstrates that poverty has a negative effect on the psychological well-being of children, but most research has focused only on white populations. The purpose of this literature review is to gain a better understanding of the positive and negative influences of socioeconomic factors, cultural/ethnic characteristics, and racial differences on the mental health of children. A review of the literature on the influence of race, ethnicity, and poverty on the mental health of children found that (1) children whose parents are in poverty or who have experienced severe economic losses are more likely to report or be reported to have higher rates of depression, anxiety, and antisocial behaviors; and (2) after controlling for socioeconomic status, African-Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics are less likely to report or be reported to have such mental health problems. A theoretical construct for this protective effect is related to cultural factors, such as perceived social support, deep religiosity/spirituality, extended families, and maternal coping strategies as buffers against psychological distress. [Source: SC]

Thomas, H. 2000. "History of Childhood Maltreatment Increased Risk of Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults... Commentary on Brown J, Cohen P, Johnson J.G., et al. Childhood Abuse and Neglect: Specificity of Effects on Adolescent and Young Adult Depression and Suicidality. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999 Dec;38:1490-6." Evidence Based Nursing vol. 3, p. 87.
Abstract: Questions: Does a history of childhood abuse and neglect increase risk of depressive disorders and suicidal behaviour in adolescents or young adults? Does this risk differ by type of maltreatment (ie, physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect)? Design: Population based cohort study beginning in 1975, with follow up in 1992. Setting: 2 counties in upstate New York, USA. Participants: 639 youths (52% men) who were > 18 years of age for whom information about child maltreatment was available from state records. Assessment of risk factors: Data on child maltreatment were obtained from the New York State Central Registry for Child Abuse and Neglect and from retrospective self reports during the 1992 follow up. Data were also collected on the following contextual factors: sex, ethnicity, IQ, difficult childhood temperament, low maternal education, low maternal self esteem, maternal alienation, anger, dissatisfaction, external locus of control, sociopathy, serious maternal illness, low maternal and paternal involvement, low parental warmth, low religious participation, teenage mother when youth was born, single parenthood, welfare support, low family income, large family size, and poor marital quality. Main outcome measures: Depressive disorders, assessed using the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children with algorithms for DSM-III-R diagnoses, and self reported suicide attempts. Main results: 81 cases of child abuse and neglect were identified; 24 children (30%) had > 1 type of maltreatment. After adjustment for contextual factors, participants who had a history of maltreatment had an increased risk of major depressive disorder (OR 3.00, CI 1.43 to 6.33), dysthymia (OR 4.83, CI 1.89 to 12.44), and suicide attempts (OR 3.29, CI 1.94 to 16.74) compared with participants who had no history of maltreatment Adolescents had an increased risk of repeated suicide attempts (OR 30.29, CI 1.70 to 539.80). Participants who were sexually abused had the highest risk of major depressive disorder (OR 3.17, CI 1.04 to 9.56), dysthymia (OR 9.74, CI 2.79 to 34.27), suicide attempts (OR 5.71, CI 1.94 to 16.74), and repeated suicide attempts (OR 8.40, CI 1.86 to 38.06). Participants who were physically abused had an increased risk of depression during adulthood (OR 3.83, CI 1.38 to 10.58) and repeated suicide attempts during adolescence (OR 10.74, CI 1.06 to 108.72). Childhood neglect alone was not associated with depressive disorders or suicidal behaviour. Conclusions: History of childhood maltreatment increased the risk of depressive disorders and suicidal behaviour in adolescents and young adults, independent of contextual factors associated with maltreatment. Children who were sexually abused had higher risks of depressive disorders than those who were physically abused or neglected. [Source: CI]

Weaver, A. J., J. A. Samford, V. J. Morgan, A. I. Lichton, D. B. Larson, and J. Garbarino. 2000. "Research on Religious Variables in Five Major Adolescent Research Journals: 1992 to 1996." Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease vol. 188, pp. 36-44.
Abstract: A review of quantitative research studies published between 1992 and 1996 in five major adolescent journals revealed that 11.8% included a measure of religion. This percentage (11.8%) is 3 to 10 times higher than that found in previous reviews of empirical research in psychological and psychiatric journals, suggesting that adolescent research journals are more sensitive to the role of religious factors on mental health than research in related disciplines. The results are discussed in the context and philosophy of the adolescent research and in comparison with related disciplines. [Source: ML]

Weist, M. D., K. A. Albus, N. Bickham, N. A. Tashman, and A. Perez-Febles. 2000. "A Questionnaire to Measure Factors That Protect Youth against Stressors of Inner-City Life." Psychiatric Services vol. 51, pp. 1042-1044.
Abstract: This study reports the development of the My Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a self-report measure of factors that protect inner-city youth against stressors such as poverty, crime, and violence. An initial pool of 23 items reflecting important protective factors was developed through focus groups with inner-city youth and clinicians working with them in a school-based mental health program. Item-total correlations and factor analysis resulted in a 12-item measure containing three factors: avoiding negative peer influences, focusing on the future, and religious involvement. Scores on the MLQ were negatively correlated with behavioral problems, supporting its validity. The measure holds promise for use in clinical and research efforts with disadvantaged urban youth. [Source: ML]

Wyatt, Shelby Thomas. 2000. "Measuring the Effectiveness of an Afrocentric Male Mentoring Program with Adolescent African American Males." Ed.D. Thesis, Northern Illinois University.
Abstract: The adolescent African American male is an entity that is fertile ground for research on the social, cultural, spiritual, psychological, and personal factors that comprise their existence. These factors can have a positive or negative effect on the developmental process of this group. These effects are evident in the educational accomplishments and criminal and mortality rates of young Black males. Research on the influences of male mentoring with young Black males suggests that an Afrocentric approach works better with this population. This study explored the effectiveness of an Afrocentric male mentoring program with adolescent African American males. This quantitative research study measured the treatment effect of an Afrocentric male mentoring program on the self-concept, communal responsibility, and academic progress of adolescent African American males. Participants were upper elementary and high school students of the Chicago Public School System. The study occurred over a six-month period. Two Afrocentric Based instruments and one general measure of self-concept were used to analyze the data. Recommendations are provided for future research of this topic. The literature is limited on reporting the outcome effects of an Afrocentric male mentoring program and the effectiveness of Black psychology. One rationale for conducting this research study is to promote quantifiable data regarding the effects of male mentoring with adolescent African American males. This study sought to provide data to prove that male mentoring utilizing the principles of the Nguzo Saba will be effective in assisting adolescent African American males with their transition to adulthood. In addition to providing more data on the phenomenon of Afrocentric male mentoring programs, this research study provided an opportunity for the tenets of the Nguzo Saba to be explored. The Nguzo Saba is Kiswahili for the seven moral principles that serve as the foundation of Black psychology. It was developed by Dr. Maulana Karenga. in response to a need expressed by some Black psychologists to create psychological techniques and understandings that are supportive to the needs of people in the African diaspora. Some significance was found in the area of self-concept. This significance suggests that the intervention of adult Black male mentoring had an effect on the self-concept of adolescent African American males. The collection of data will provide an opportunity for statistical credibility to be established regarding Black psychological therapies, which are often considered controversial by mainstream therapists. [Source: DA]

Aalsma, Matthew C. and Daniel K. Lapsley. 1999. Religiosity and Adolescent Narcissism: Implications for Values Counseling, Vol. 44. Association for Spiritual Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling.
Abstract: Argues that the distinctive character of values counseling as a therapeutic intervention can be justified on empirical grounds. The fact that religiosity has been consistently associated with positive mental health outcomes is a warrant for counselors to explore the resources of one's religious tradition for therapeutic change. The authors also argue that pastoral counseling is particularly suited for addressing the ego development needs of adolescents and that the vicissitudes of adolescent narcissism can be effectively mobilized to support self-transcendence and relational autonomy, tasks that have both developmental and religious significance. [Source: PI]

Barbarin, Oscar A. 1999. "Do Parental Coping, Involvement, Religiosity, and Racial Identity Mediate Children's Psychological Adjustment to Sickle Cell Disease?" Journal of Black Psychology vol. 25, pp. 391-426.
Abstract: Many African Americans with sickle cell disease (SCD) also experience significant economic hardship. Yet, few studies of the psychosocial effects of SCD employ designs robust enough to control socioeconomic factors. This study compares the functioning of families with SCD to that of healthy controls matched for race and SES. Child Ss (aged 5-18 yrs) included 77 children with SCD, 28 siblings of children with SCD, and 74 children who had neither an illness nor siblings with an illness. A total of 71 parents of SCD children and 50 control parents also participated in the study. Results show that in general, functioning within SCD and control families did not differ. However parents granted less autonomy to, and were less involved in the schooling of children with SCD. Overall, SCD had a greater impact on children's social and academic competence than on their emotional functioning. However adolescents with SCD and their siblings were at greater risk for mental health difficulties than were controls. The more SCD interfered with living normally, the greater the risk of psychological dysfunction. Importantly, emotional well-being in parents moderated the adverse effects of SCD on children. Similarly, racial consciousness, religiosity, and emotional support enhanced parental coping. [Source: PI]

Batten, Michelle and Kevin Ann Oltjenbruns. 1999. "Adolescent Sibling Bereavement as a Catalyst for Spiritual Development: A Model for Understanding." Death Studies vol. 23, pp. 529-546.
Abstract: Contends that while the understanding of adolescent bereavement has greatly expanded in recent years, 1 area yet to be clarified is the relationship between grief following a significant loss and spirituality. The authors present a conceptual model explaining how developmental changes in cognitive capacity during the adolescent life stage make it possible to challenge one's beliefs and search for new meaning. It is argued that the crisis of experiencing the death of a sibling during this period has the potential, then, of serving as a catalyst for enhanced spirituality (defined as a quest for new meaning). Interviews with 4 adolescents following the death of a sibling add a more detailed understanding of that quest for meaning. Quotations drawn from these interviews illustrate these young persons' shifting perspective of self, others, the sibling relationship, a higher power, death, and life. [Source: PI]

Donelson, Elaine. 1999. "Psychology of Religion and Adolescents in the United States: Past to Present." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 187-204.
Abstract: Many of the early founders of America were concerned with religious issues, and some of their concerns continue in contemporary science. Psychology of religion has a long history in American psychology, but one marred by neglect and misguided claims about the nature of science. Psychology of religion offers a chance for an expansion of behavioral science into realms of importance to many people. For example, both development during adolescence and the implications of gender differences may be illuminated by a consideration of the role of religion in human life. Particular topics discussed include conversion and religious mobility, religious experience, images of God, identity, and mental health and coping. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. [Source: SS]

Harper, Diane Joan Provencher. 1999. "A Study of Adolescent Depression, Suicide, Self-Esteem and Family Strengths in Special Education Female Students Compared with Regular Education Female Students." Thesis, Walden University, Naples.
Abstract: Depression, one of the most common affective disorders, can lead to a state in which the person feels hopeless, becomes unable to function, and is overwhelmed with negative cognitions. Data for this study were gathered from a group of female students to determine if there was a relationship between depression and family strength, suicide (cognitive distortions), or self-esteem. Sources of data included the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Family Strengths Inventory, a background questionnaire, and official student records. This study was conducted in an effort to affect the efforts of the educational and counseling professionals, as well as anyone working with teens. The study was conducted with a convenience sample of 48 high school students who ranged in age from 14 to 19 years. The frequency of adolescent depression, as identified by scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, indicated that the special education group had a higher percentage of depression than the regular education subjects. Also, the special education group had lower self-esteem and family strengths, and experienced more suicide attempts than the regular education students. Based on the results obtained in this study, some recommendations were offered. Programs to train professionals to recognize signs and symptoms of depression and signs of cognitive distortions should be available. Also, research is needed regarding students who relocate or those who enter a brand new high school. The study of male depression, as well as the investigation of the variables connected with ethnic, racial, region of the country, religious backgrounds and other demographic, social, and economic factors, and investigation of insurance coverage programs for adolescents merit professional attention. [Source: PI]

Markstrom, Carol A. 1999. "Religious Involvement and Adolescent Psychosocial Development." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 205-221.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if religious involvement was associated with psychosocial maturity of adolescents as understood in Erikson's (1965) psychosocial theory. Three forms of religious involvement (attendance at religious services, participation in a Bible study group, and youth group involvement) were examined in relation to ego strengths, ideological and ethnic forms of identity, general self-esteem, and school self-esteem. Questionnaires were completed by 62 African-American and 63 European-American students in the 11th grade. All participants were from rural areas in West Virginia and of lower income status. Ego strengths of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, love, and care were associated with various forms of religious involvement. These associations were most apparent for European-Americans. Although ideological identity was not related to religious involvement, higher ethnic identity was associated with being African-American, especially for those more religiously involved. General self-esteem was not significant in the analyses, but school self-esteem was higher for each form of religious involvement. [Source: PI]

Plunkett, Scott W., Carolyn S. Henry, and Patricia K. Knaub. 1999. "Family Stressor Events, Family Coping, and Adolescent Adaptation in Farm and Ranch Families." Adolescence vol. 34, pp. 147-168.
Abstract: Data from 77 adolescents in farm and ranch families were used to examine the relationship of demographic variables, family stressor events, and family coping strategies to adolescent adaptation. Results indicated that adolescent age and family transitions were positively related to individual stress. Males reported less family stress than did females. Seeking spiritual support was negatively related to family stress, while the perceived impact of the farm crisis was positively related to family stress. Family support was positively related, and family substance use issues were negatively related, to adolescent satisfaction with family life. The implications of these findings are discussed. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. [Source: EA]

Price, Jerome A. 1999. "Power and Compassion: Working with Difficult Adolescents and Abused Parents." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 18, pp. 183-185.

Ribner, D. S. and J. B. Wolowelsky. 1999. "A Note on Mourning an Adoptive Parent in an Orthodox Jewish Family." Journal of Family Social Work vol. 3, pp. 79-85.
Abstract: A sensitive and potentially problematic manifestation of family bereavement situations may occur when one of the mourners is an adopted child. Using an ecosystems perspective, this paper examines the nature of mourning in Orthodox Jewish adopted families and the therapeutic use of religious ritual and dicta to assist with the maintenance of family homeostasis during the potentially destabilizing period following the death of a relative. A case example is presented, illustrating the value of cooperation between therapists and clergy to determine appropriate interventions. Suggestions are made for the use of analogous rituals to assist a broader range of families. [Source: CI]

Roman, R. E. and D. Lester. 1999. "Religiosity and Mental Health." Psychological Reports vol. 85, p. 1088.
Abstract: In a sample of 99 undergraduates, religiosity and psychoticism scores were negatively associated (r = -.34). [Source: ML]

Samuels, Susan K. and Susana Sikorsky. 1999. "Clinical Evaluations of School-Aged Children: A Structured Approach to the Diagnosis of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 18, pp. 391-392.

Saunders, Gary Paul. 1999. "The Relationship of Spirituality to Adolescents' Responses to Loss." Thesis, Wisconsin School of Professional Psychology, Milwaukee.
Abstract: The relationship of spirituality to styles of reacting to major life events was explored. A total of 183 volunteer subjects ranging in age from 16 to 21 years old completed the Spiritual Orientation Inventory (SOI) and indicated their manner of reacting to major life losses as represented in achievement and affiliation scenarios on the Responses to Loss Questionnaire (RLQ). Factor analysis was used as a means of data reduction on the RLQ. A coefficient of correlation was calculated for composite scores for the Spiritual Orientation Inventory and each RLQ factor and unfactored items. Data were also analyzed by gender and the scenario themes of achievement and affiliation. Results suggested that adolescents who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to be more likely to report healthy ways of coping with crisis situations by being proactive, hopeful, introspective, and undertaking mental, physical, and religious activity while not engaging in self-destructive behavior. Females who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to report being proactive in their coping with crisis situations, particularly in achievement situations. Males who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to report coping with affiliation crises through mental activity. [Source: PI]

Varon, Stuart R. and Anne W. Riley. 1999. "Relationship between Maternal Church Attendance and Adolescent Mental Health and Social Functioning." Psychiatric Services vol. 50, pp. 799-805.
Abstract: Compared maternal attendance at religious services with standard demographic characteristics such as race, type of religion, and mother's education in terms of their relative association with the behavioral and social functioning of young adolescents. 143 youths in which approximately two-thirds were at risk of having a psychiatric disorder and the remaining third were unlikely to have a psychiatric disorder. The Ss and their mothers were interviewed at home to determine the mothers' frequency of participation in religious services and the youths' self-reported health and mental health status and social role functioning. Youths whose mothers attended religious services at least once a week had greater overall satisfaction with their lives, more involvement with their families, and better skills in solving health-related problems and felt greater support from friends compared with youths whose mothers had lower levels of participation in religious services. Maternal attendance at religious services had a strong association with the youths' outcome in overall satisfaction with health and perceived social support from friends, although family income was the strongest predictor of 5 other aspects of functioning, including academic performance. [Source: PI]

Barlow, A. and J. T. Walkup. 1998. "Developing Mental Health Services for Native American Children." Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America vol. 7, p. 555.
Abstract: Important cultural, linguistic, traditional, and spiritual differences among Native American reservations are likely to go unrecognized to the detriment of children in need of mental health intervention. The authors discuss the impact of these factors on the expressions of psychiatric distress of Native American children, their care-seeking behaviors, and the acceptability of the forms taken by mental health systems that serve them. They suggest new innovative models of care that can be developed within the context of contemporary Native American culture. Although the roles envisioned for child psychiatrists include the provision of direct clinical service, the authors posit that a model in which child psychiatrists provide consultation and supervision to native outreach and other mental health workers is a more acceptable and potentially more effective use of scarce resources. [Source: SC]

Brown, Lee R. 1998. "Formulating Self-Esteem through God in African-American Male Youth." Thesis, United Theological Seminary, Dayton.
Abstract: This project was designed to address the need of establishing self motivation in African-American Male Youth in Springdale Baptist Church and the surrounding area in Memphis, Tennessee. Six sessions of learning experiences were developed and implemented with a group of men and boys to enable the men to lead discussions on spiritual formation, family responsibility, conflict resolution, and leadership development. The total training model included discussion groups, lectures, and field trips. Results of the model were evaluated by pre- and post test questionnaires which showed positive development in youth images of themselves. [Source: PI]

Chrispin, Marie Carmel. 1998. "Resilient Adaptation of Church-Affiliated Young Haitian Immigrants: A Search for Protective Resources." Ed.D. Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.
Abstract: This exploratory study examined the phenomenon of resilience despite high levels of acculturative stress in a sample of 96 church-affiliated Haitian immigrant adolescents. Two domains of the resilience process were examined: academic resilience which was operationalized by school grades (GPA) and emotional resilience which was operationalized by measures of depression and anxiety. Variables examined for their predictive relationships with resilience were: locus of control, biculturalism, religious affiliation, parental influence, special education attendance, and bilingual education attendance. Acculturative stress was operationalized by scores on the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (SAFE) scale. Two aspects of the acculturation process were examined: (1) acculturation orientation or the degree to which young Haitian immigrants adopted a monocultural or bicultural ethnic identity during the acculturation process, and (2) biculturality or the degree to which they maintained social interactions and contact with one culture to the exclusion of the other (Haitian or American) or both cultures (Haitian and American). Various mechanisms were found to be involved in protective and vulnerability processes. Bicultural acculturation orientation emerged as a strong predictor of academic resilience, and parental influence as a strong predictor of emotional resilience. Acculturative stress and biculturality were found to be operating as vulnerability factors for emotional resilience. However, acculturative stress was a stronger and more consistent predictor of emotional resilience (anxiety) among first generation than among second generation immigrants. Gender differences were also noted. Females were noted to be more vulnerable to emotional distress than males. These findings were discussed in terms of their implications for interventions, recommendations for future research, and theoretical definitions for resilience. It was suggested that more attention be paid to the mental health of bicultural youth. [Source: DA]

Chung, Jungsook Park. 1998. "A Study of Self-Esteem in Selected Korean-American Youth in the Fort Worth-Dallas Area." Ph.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: Problem. The problem of this study was to discover certain significant predictors of self-esteem among Korean-American adolescents and to determine the difference in self-esteem scores across the variables of gender, length of residence in the United States, parents' marital structure, language preference, and significant others. Procedures. The population for this study consisted of Korean-American adolescents, ranging from the seventh to the ninth grade who attend Korean Protestant churches in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Three different statistical procedures were used for this study; Multiple Regression procedure, t-test, and a One-Way ANOVA. Findings. First, the Multiple Regression procedure revealed that there were no significant predictors of self-esteem within this group. Secondly, the results of three analyses of t-tests inferred that the self-esteem scores did not vary according to gender, length of residence in the United States, or to the parents' marital structure. Thirdly, a One-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze language preference; Korean, English, or both and the selection of significant others, parents, friends, or teachers. The result of the language preference analysis showed that there were no significant differences between mean scores. However, the analysis of significant others revealed significant differences. The use of the Fisher-Protected Least Significant Differences (FLSD) revealed significant differences in scores of all three groups. The adolescents who chose parents as the most significant others received the highest scores in self-esteem analysis. The adolescents who chose friends received the middle score, and the adolescents who chose teachers received the lowest score. [Source: DA]

Copeland, Sam. 1998. "The Impact of Family Processes on Adolescent Depression." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Houston.
Abstract: This study explores family factors and adolescent depression. Disorders present during adolescence may be related to emotional impairment within the parental subsystem. Additional study is needed to examine other caregivers as the head of household and to explore emotional distress within the family (Zahn-Waxler, 1995). This study investigates adolescent depression and five family process components, family structure, family functioning, parental depression, poverty or socioeconomic status (SES), and ethnicity. The sample included 73 Mexican American, African American, and Non-Hispanic Whites families with adolescents age 12-17. The hypotheses of this study include the following: Hypothesis 1 family structure. Adolescent depression is greater in single parent families than in families with more than one adult parent figure. Hypothesis 2a family functioning. Adolescents from families with moderate family cohesion have significantly lower levels of depression than those from families with either high or low cohesion. Hypothesis 2b family functioning. Adolescents from families with moderate family adaptability have significantly lower levels of depression than those families with either high or low adaptability. Hypothesis 2c family functioning. Adolescents from families with moderate family cohesion and moderate family adaptability have significantly lower levels of depression than those from families with either high or low cohesion and adaptability. Hypothesis 3 parental depression. The greater the level of parental depression, the greater the level of depression for adolescents in the family. Hypothesis 4 poverty. The greater the level of family poverty, the greater the level of adolescent depression. Hypothesis 5 ethnicity. Adolescent depression differs significantly among Mexican-Americans, African Americans, and Anglos. The Family Adaptation Cohesion and Evaluation Scale (FACES-III), Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and the Center for Epidemiological Study of Depression (CES-D) Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) were employed. A theoretical model including gender and race accounted for 35% of the variance in adolescent depression. An exploratory model included, gender, race, parental language preference, and parental church attendance accounted for 44% of the variance. A trimmed model includes only the significant family process variables which influence adolescent depression. Family structure, parents level of depression and family functioning are related to adolescent depression. [Source: DA]

Frison, S. L., J. L. Wallander, and D. Browne. 1998. "Cultural Factors Enhancing Resilience and Protecting against Maladjustment in African American Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation." American Journal of Mental Retardation vol. 102, pp. 613-626.
Abstract: Researchers have found elevated risk for maladjustment associated with being an African American adolescent in an urban environment as well as being an individual with mental retardation. The culturally relevant factors of ethnic identification, intergenerational support, and church support were investigated in relation to high risk exposure on maladjustment in 147 urban African American adolescents enrolled in EMR special education classes. Maladjustment was measured with both self- and parent-report. Risk exposure was measured in the personal, social, and community domains. Results indicate that presence of cultural factors were associated with better adjustment generally. Furthermore, ethnic identification appeared to protect adolescents exposed to high-risk conditions against experiencing significantly elevated maladjustment. Implications of culture on intervention and prevention were discussed. [Source: ML]

Horton, Darcy Ann. 1998. "Adolescent Daughters and the Impact and Meaning of the Loss of Their Mothers to Breast Cancer." Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto.
Abstract: This study explored the impact and meaning of the loss of one's mother to breast cancer as experienced by 8 ethnically diverse women, aged 28 to 53, who were 12- to 19- years-old when their mothers died. Multiple case study and feminist methodologies were used to investigate the impact on various areas of the participants' lives as well as any meaning they found in the experience. Findings indicated that maternal death is a profound event for adolescent daughters. Various patterns emerged in each of the areas studied. Regarding body, breasts, and sexuality, there was anxiety about developing breast cancer with either conscious awareness or latent presence. Regarding psychological development and functioning, there was premature autonomy and responsibility with either assumption of responsibility or acting out and struggle, and an underlying vulnerability or strength. Regarding spiritual and religious beliefs and practices, there was change in spiritual and religious orientation with disillusionment with God and organized religion and the development of personal spirituality. Regarding work, school, and career plans, choices in these areas were affected by mother's absence with choices as a way of identifying or pleasing mother and unfulfilled potential due to mother's absence. Regarding relationships with others, there was a lack of support for grieving within the immediate family with emotional and/or physical unavailability of the father, father's lack of communication with daughter about mother, deterioration of family as a unit, and grief support received from other females as well as heightened fear of loss of additional loved ones with fear of abandonment or intimacy and/or behavior that was overly controlling, protective or detached. Data on meaning revealed the unpredictable and transitory nature of life with awareness of the uncertainty and finiteness of life and the preciousness of each moment, plus a realignment of life's priorities with a focus on relationships and health. [Source: DA]

Neumann, Joseph K. and David S. Chi. 1998. "Physiological Stress Response and Psychological Differences as a Possible Function of Perceived Paternal Religious Value Similarity and Church Attendance." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 17, pp. 233-247.

Patton, John Douglas. 1998. "Exploring the Relative Outcomes of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Factors of Order and Entropy in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Chicago, Chicago.
Abstract: This dissertation is based on a data from a national sample of 297 adolescents who were among those participating in the five-year Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Study of Youth and Social Development. This study investigates change over time in various entropic and stabilizing factors - both interpersonal and intrapersonal - and explores their relative contribution to emotional and physical well being with reference to demographics. Data from interpersonal measures (family, school, and religious support; and school and family adversity), intrapersonal measures (the amount of time spent in four quadrants - flow, relaxation, anxiety and apathy), and outcome measures (self-esteem, affect, motivation, anger, physical pain, quality of time use, and the Hope Scale) were collected at three time points between 1992 and 1997. This study found that low social status, compared to higher social status, was associated with greater levels of psychic entropy (apathy and anxiety) and adversity, and lower levels of social support, relaxation, and self- esteem (but higher affect). This suggests that low social status has serious implications for the development of adolescents. The study also indicated that the support of certain social institutions impacts boys and girls differently. Family support was predictive of positive outcomes for both genders, but school and religious support seemed to help only boys. Flow proved beneficial for both genders. The data indicated that low challenge may have a devastating developmental impact on boys, whereas excessive challenge has the worst long-term implications for girls. [Source: DA]

Rose, Kenny Wyndell. 1998. "A Resource Guide for Developing Self-Esteem and Character in Our Children and Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, The Union Institute, Cincinnati.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence that the role of church attendance has on character education. This study is designed to offer a solution to the at-risk behaviors demonstrated by today's youth. It includes an extensive review of literature on the subjects of self esteem and character building in children and youth. The research model of Lawrence Kohlberg was used as a guide. The study, using a 25-item character education questionnaire, focused on 46 students in an elementary school in Sumter, South Carolina. Character education was used as the dependent variable, measured by examining 46 youths between the ages of 8 and 12 in 1998. During the 1997-98 school year, this elementary school enrolled 891 students who were in grades prekindergarten through five. The racial make up was 53 percent Caucasian, 46 percent African American and 1 percent other. The solution espoused in this research is the need to develop positive self esteem and character in our children and youth. Based on the results using character education as a yard stick, children who were active church goers developed stronger character education skills. Results revealed that the background variables such as age, race, gender, church attendance and parental education do have a positive impact on children's character and moral development in school, home, and community. The practical implications of this is reflected in the accompanying resource guide that should be of particular interest to teachers, administrators, parents, and students of this elementary school in Sumter, South Carolina. The resource guide is intended for use by educators, health professional, religious leaders, youths, parents, and others concerned with the moral state of our youth. Specifically, its contents are user friendly and directed toward anyone who is genuinely interested in helping America's young people to successfully survive adolescence and become productive citizens. Special sections have been included to focus on the unique problems of children and youth of color. [Source: DA]

Sorotzkin, Ben. 1998. "Understanding and Treating Perfectionism in Religious Adolescents." Psychotherapy vol. 35, pp. 87-95.
Abstract: This article discusses issues related to understanding and treating perfectionism in religious adolescents. To do so, the author discusses the distinction between the quest for perfection and the pursuit of excellence, some of the disorders associated with perfectionism and grandiosity (e.g., narcissism, obsessive-compulsive disorders), and the underlying affects (shame, guilt). The impact of parenting on perfectionistic tendencies is discussed at length as is the influence of adolescence and of religious beliefs. The unique challenges of treating religious perfectionists and the question of the advisability of a religiously similar therapist are explored. A case example drawn from the author's clinical experience with an Orthodox-Jewish population is presented. [Source: PI]

Bagley, Christopher and Kanka Mallick. 1997. "Self-Esteem and Religiosity: Comparison of 13- to 15-Year-Old Students in Catholic and Public Junior High Schools." Canadian Journal of Education vol. 22, pp. 89-92.
Abstract: Reports on a cross-cultural program comparing adolescent stress and various indicators of adjustment (including self esteem) in junior high students in Canada, Britain, Hong Kong, and the Philippines (C. Bagley and K. Mallick, 1995). Findings reported here are for the Canadian study only. Self-esteem scales were completed by 410 public school (PS) students and 494 Catholic (RC) school students (aged 13-15 yrs). Ss also completed a measure of religious participation. Regardless of the actual religion Ss were affiliated with, the religious participation index had moderate but statistically significant correlations with self esteem, indicating somewhat higher levels of self-esteem in both RC and PS students who participated actively in religion. It is concluded that self esteem levels across the 2 types of schooling are largely similar; findings of North and South American and European studies have not been confirmed with this Canadian sample. [Source: PI]

Bhadha, Bakhtawar Rayomand. 1997. "Ethnic Identity in Parsee Teenagers." M.A. Thesis, University of Southern California.
Abstract: Thirty-two Parsee teenagers and their parents were interviewed to determine how ethnic identity affects social adjustment and academic competence among first and second generation immigrants. Adolescents and parents completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), a religiosity questionnaire, and the Acculturation Rating Scale (ARSMA) adapted for Parsees. Adolescents also completed the Harter Self Perception Profile. Academic competence was found to be significantly related to teenagers' orientation toward the host culture and other ethnic groups that comprise it. Self worth was found to be significantly related to adolescent and parent self-identification, acculturation, and religiosity. [Source: DA]

Francis, Leslie J., Susan Jones, and Carolyn Wilcox. 1997. "Religiosity and Dimensions of Psychological Well-Being among 16-19 Year Olds." Journal of Christian Education vol. 40, pp. 15-20.

Mosher, Joseph P. and Paul J. Handal. 1997. "The Relationship between Religion and Psychological Distress in Adolescents." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 25, pp. 449-457.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between religion and psychological distress in 461 adolescents (aged 13-18 yrs), using a comprehensive measure of religion (the Personal Religiosity Inventory; M. E. Lipsmeyer, 1984), 3 epidemiological measures of distress, and 2 measures of positive adjustment. Results revealed a significant relationship between religion and psychological distress. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful results were found on 3 of the 9 religion inventory scales. Specifically, adolescents low on the scales scored above the reported cutoff score indicative of distress, while those scoring high on the 3 religion scales scored below the reported cutoff score for distress. [Source: PI]

Nagel, Deborah Eve. 1997. "Current Coping Styles and Psychological Adjustment among Sexually Abused and Non-Abused Adolescent Females." Ph.D. Thesis, The George Washington University.
Abstract: This study examined the role of current coping strategies in the psychological adjustment of a low socioeconomic status, ethnically diverse sample of adolescent females. Participants were part of a longitudinal research project examining the effects of childhood sexual abuse on long-term psychological and physiological development. Forty-two survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 42 non-sexually-abused participants were administered a self-report measure to assess coping strategies they employ to manage current stress. The questionnaire was derived from subscales of four existing coping measures. The coping strategies assessed were distancing, action/planning, social support, and turning to religion. Participants also assessed their current stress levels and rated their current psychological adjustment in terms of depressive and anxious symptomology and appraisals of their self-esteem. Findings indicated that the two groups did not significantly differ on measures of psychological adjustment or in their use of the four targeted coping strategies. Within the groups, there was no significant difference in the relative use of the four coping strategies. For both sexually abused and non-sexually abused adolescents, distancing was inversely related and action/planning was positively related to psychological adjustment. Reliance on social support was positively related to psychological adjustment for the abuse group and inversely related for the control group. Turning to religion was not significantly related to outcome for either group. In both groups, levels of perceived stress were inversely related to psychological adjustment regardless of the coping strategies employed. A possible explanation for the lack of differences between the abuse and non-abuse groups included high levels of non-sexual-abuse traumas experienced by the control group. Findings indicated the importance of the coping strategies of distancing, action/planning, and social support, as well as the importance of individuals' perceptions of their daily stress in psychological adjustment. These findings presented areas in which interventions can occur to reduce long-term effects associated with childhood trauma. [Source: DA]

Noell, Alice Alston. 1997. "Developing an Ecumenical Mentoring Ministry to African- American Males." D.Min. Thesis, Drew University.
Abstract: Mitchell Chapel Church is an African-American church located in Pittsboro, North Carolina. Mitchell, a divided church that had no sense of mission, became concerned about the plight of African-American males who did not have appropriate role models and decided to sponsor a mentoring project with a local middle school. Eighteen persons were given training. After the training sessions were completed, participants were each assigned one young African-American male student. At the end of the project, the youth showed improvement in areas of school attendance and school classwork, self- esteem, relationships and negative behavior. Mitchell Chapel embraced the gift of ministry, of nurturing others and acted out its servants role in the faith context of community. [Source: DA]

Baron, L., H. Eisman, M. Scuello, A. Veyzer, and M. Lieberman. 1996. "Stress Resilience, Locus of Control, and Religion in Children of Holocaust Victims." Journal of Psychology vol. 130, pp. 513-525.
Abstract: Two hundred eight children of Holocaust survivors who were born after their parents' Holocaust experience (children of survivors; COS) and 70 children of parents who left Europe after Hitler's rise to power in 1933 but managed to escape or avoid the Holocaust (children of escapees; COE) were recruited from various Jewish organizations. Research was conducted using questionnaires that were returned by mail. Measures of stress resilience (Kobasa, 1982; Kobasa & Puccetti, 1983), locus of control (Nowicki-Strickland, 1973). and religion (Jewish identity) were administered to all participants. The COS were found to have less resistance to stress and to identify less with feelings of being Jewish. The appropriateness of using COE as a control group acid the difficulty of incorporating the unique experiences of the parents into a research study about the intergenerational transmission of coping style is discussed. [Source: SC]

Garbarino, James and Claire Bedard. 1996. "Spiritual Challenges to Children Facing Violent Trauma." Childhood:A Global Journal of Child Research vol. 3, pp. 467-478.
Abstract: Reviews research and theory dealing with the intersection of the developmental psychology of trauma and spirituality. The authors assert that the experience of childhood traumatization functions as a kind of "reverse religious experience," a process combining overwhelming arousal and overwhelming cognitions that threatens core "meaningfulness" for the child. The role of religion in spiritual development is reviewed, and some general principles for better understanding the role of spirituality in the traumatization and healing of children are suggested. The discussion is based upon the authors' formal and informal fieldwork and research with children in war zones, violent youth and street children in several regions of the world over the last 10 yrs, in which trauma and spiritual development have been a major focus. [Source: PI]

Hunter, John A., Michael J. Platow, Maureen L. Howard, and Maurice Stringer. 1996. "Social Identity and Intergroup Evaluative Bias: Realistic Categories and Domain Specific Self-Esteem in a Conflict Setting." European Journal of Social Psychology vol. 26, pp. 631-647.
Abstract: Social identity theory predicts a link between self-esteem (SE) and intergroup discrimination. The present study used realistic groups and multidimensional measures of SE and tested SE before and after the manifestation of intergroup evaluative bias. When members of realistic groups (271 16-yr-olds attending state controlled [Protestants] vs maintained [Catholics] schools) engaged in evaluative intergroup bias, the esteem in which they held specific self-images was enhanced. Of 13 facets of SE delineated by the Self-Description Questionnaire--III, significant increases were found in 6: honesty, academic ability, verbal ability, physical appearance, religion, and parental relations. Global SE was unaffected by the display of bias. Findings emphasize the importance of using realistic groups and domain-specific SE when assessing the role of SE in intergroup discrimination. [Source: PI]

Martin, Arrold Nunn. 1996. "Ministry to African-American Children in the Midst of Social Crisis through the Children's Church." Thesis, United Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project demonstrates ministry to children in social crisis through six months of structured, age-appropriate activities for African-American children between the ages of 8 and 12 in First Baptist Church Capitol Hill (Nashville, Tenn). In teaching of Christian doctrine, discussion of values, and self-esteem adventure programs, the project builds a biblical foundation for these children while enhancing their self-esteem and addressing social challenges that affect their lives. These activities expand and improve the worship experience of the children. [Source: RI]

McCreary, Micah L., Lesley A. Slavin, and Eloise J. Berry. 1996. "Predicting Problem Behavior and Self-Esteem among African-American Adolescents." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 11, pp. 216-234.
Abstract: Investigates the utility of using stress, social support, & racial identity to predict problem behavior & self-esteem among African-American adolescents. Questionnaire data indicate that stressful life events & lack of perceived support from friends were predictive of problem behavior (eg, drug & alcohol use, delinquent acts) in a sample of 221 African-American high school students attending a Baptist church-sponsored weekend retreat in a southeastern state. Strong support from friends attenuated the effects of stress. Only one racial-identity variable - attitudes toward African-Americans - contributed to the prediction of problem behavior after other variables were entered into the regression equation. More positive attitudes predicted lower levels of problem behavior. Similar results were obtained in a regression analysis using self-esteem as the dependent variable. It is concluded that stress models are useful with African-Americans, particularly if a racial-identity variable is included. [Source: SA]

Mohler, James William. 1996. "Self-Esteem and Spiritual Well-Being in Early Adolescents Involved in the American Baptist Churches of the Pacific Southwest." Thesis, Rosemead School of Psychology, Biola University.
Abstract: Healthy self-esteem is important to developmental growth, particularly during early adolescence. In the student's quest for identity, one seeks to find acceptance. Is adolescent self-esteem related to spiritual well-being? This study investigated the relationship between self-esteem of early adolescents and their spiritual well-being by looking at correlations and differences between the two variables and several demographic variables. The sample population consisted of early adolescent students who were involved in American Baptist churches residing in the Pacific Southwest region. 135 students involved in their church youth groups responded with completed questionnaires. In order to determine the extent of the effects of self-esteem upon spiritual well-being, two tests were administered. The ten-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) was used to assess global self-esteem. The twenty-item Ellison Spiritual Well-Being Scale (ESWB) was used to determine spiritual happiness and satisfaction. The results of this study demonstrated: (1) The students involved in this study have generally higher mean scores in RSE than the general public as reported by Rosenberg (1965). This may be attributed to some manner of church involvement. (2) This study found strong correlations between self-esteem, spiritual well-being (SWB), and its subscales religious well-being (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) (p $<$.001). (3) Statistical differences between mean scores related to the length of time one has been a Christian and one's self-esteem were found, although total respondents in some categories were low. (4) The mean scores of students involved in larger churches were lower in RSE and EWB. In particular, churches reporting a membership of 351-600 reported significantly lower RSE mean scores (p $<$.001). (5) This study found significant inverse correlations between the number of siblings one has and their SWB, RWB and EWB scores. Statistical differences between mean scores of st. [Source: PI]

Morin, Suzanne M. and Lesley A. Welsh. 1996. "Adolescents' Perceptions and Experiences of Death and Grieving." Adolescence vol. 31, pp. 585-595.
Abstract: Examined adolescents' perceptions and experiences of death and grief from the perspectives of those not currently in the bereavement process. 32 adolescents (aged 13-18 yrs) were interviewed about their experiences of death and loss. 19 Ss attended suburban public high school, while 13 resided in a facility for adjudicated urban youth. Findings indicated that Ss were aware of death by age nine. In this sample, urban adolescents' perception of death involved reference to violence (25%) or religion (16.6%) in contrast to the suburban youths who referred less frequently to violence (0%) and religion (5.3%). The most distasteful aspect of death to the suburban students was suffering (31.6%), while it was loss of loved ones to the adjudicated youths (25%). Talking and listening as comforting strategies were used by both groups (66.7%). [Source: PI]

Richards, Aleta Belle. 1996. "The Loss of Self in Adolescent Girls: A Case Study." Ph.D. Thesis, The American University, Washington, D.C.
Abstract: There is a basic moral struggle in life between meeting the needs of the self and meeting the needs of others. At every age, in countless ways individuals struggle to decide whose needs will be met. There are a number of potential problems in the resolution of this conflict. If an individual focuses too much on meeting his or her own needs, then a self-centeredness develops which precludes meaningful social interaction. If an individual focuses too much on meeting the needs of others, then a selflessness occurs. When one loses sight of one's own needs in an effort to meet the needs of others, what is known as a "loss of self" occurs (Gilligan 1989, pp. 14-15, 25). This research study was designed to explore the influence of regional socialization on the loss of self in adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that girls raised in southern states (of the United States) are more likely to experience a loss of self than girls raised in non-southern states. This hypothesis was grounded in historical and contemporary studies which emphasize the patriarchal nature of southern culture. Thirty girls were interviewed at a small, Episcopal boarding school for girls in southern Virginia, Chatham Hall. The major finding of this research was the very small number of girls who experienced a loss of self at Chatham Hall. Only three of the thirty girls interviewed expressed any loss of self. Given this unexpected finding, the analysis of the influence of regional socialization was not possible. This report, therefore, centers on an explanation of the unexpected finding regarding the loss of self. Based on findings from formal interviews with students, participant observation and an analysis of the literature, this report describes how four components of life at Chatham Hall work to prevent the loss of self. They are: (1) The Role of Religion; (2) The Role of The Honor Code and The Purple and Golden Rule; (3) The Role of The Leadership Program; (4) The Role of the Chatham Hall Community. Overall, the report emphasizes the importance of establishing and maintaining interpersonal connections in preventing the loss of self. It concludes that the key to the development of a strong sense of self is the presence of mutually respectful connections with others. The sense of community which arises out of these connections enables young women to find a balance in meeting the needs of the self and meeting the needs of others. [Source: DA]

Shiley, Billy C. 1996. "A Study of Christian Religious Education and Self-Esteem." Thesis, Columbia Theological Seminary, Decatur.
Abstract: This project examines effects of Christian religious education on faith-maturity and self-esteem. The project proposes that study of faith relationships will result in better self-concepts for children and teenagers. Research in leading authors and surveys supports the thesis that Christian religious education does have a positive effect on both faith-maturity and self-esteem. The project conducted a study with a middle-school Sunday school class designed to help them enhance self-concepts as children of God. Their comments were positive, pointing to the conclusion that Christian religious education is a key to church renewal. [Source: RI]

Bush, Patricia A. 1995. "A Program for Exploring Grief Experiences: Preparing and Equipping Children for Coping with Death." Thesis, Drew University.
Abstract: Grieving children need an opportunity to explore death and grief as issues of faith. This project develops a program for children that should encourage a wholistic, Christian approach to death and grief. The project prepared a series of workshops for children focusing on death, dying, and grief as issues of faith. The project describes the theological rationale for the project, plans for the workshops, an accounting of the workshops as they were experienced, and an evaluation of the process. [Source: RI]

Butler, M. R. 1995. "Self-Esteem and Health-Promoting Lifestyle as Predictors of Health-Risk Behavior among Older Adolescents." Ph.d. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate a model of health-risk behavior among older adolescents. Specifically, relationships between self-esteem, health-promoting lifestyle, and health-risk behavior, and the importance of self-esteem and health-promoting lifestyle in predicting health-risk behavior were examined. The conceptual framework was based on the concepts identified in self and symbolic interactionism theories, as well as those in health promotion, adolescent and problem behavior theories. The interaction among the variables identified in the conceptual framework guided the development of the five research hypotheses. A predictive, correlational research method was used to test the hypotheses. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (Walker, Sechrist, & Pender, 1987), and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) were used to collect data. The study sample consisted of 120 college students attending a small, private, four-year liberal arts college. Mean age was 18.8 years. Students participated after being informed verbally and in writing of the purpose and voluntary nature of the study. Proposed relationships were analyzed by Pearson's product moment correlation and chi-square analysis. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine the power of health-promoting lifestyle and self-esteem in predicting health-risk behavior. Risk behavior was defined by specific YRBS items addressing sexual and alcohol-use behavior. One hypothesis was supported, one was not supported, and three hypotheses were partially supported. Relationships were found between self-esteem and health-promoting lifestyle, between health-promoting lifestyle and specific risk behaviors, and among specific personal characteristics such as academic self-assessment, religiosity, and physical health self-assessment and risk behaviors. Self-esteem was positively correlated with risk behavior, which was opposite the hypothesized direction. Self-esteem and health-promoting lifestyle were found to successfully predict membership into dichotomous risk behavior groups for two of the sexual behavior variables. The study concluded that health-promoting lifestyle may have a positive effect on behavior, and may be used in predicting health-risk behavior among older adolescents, but that self-esteem may have a spurious relationship with risk behavior, and should be investigated further. [Source: CI]

Donahue, Michael J. 1995. "Religion and the Well-Being of Adolescents." Journal of Social Issues vol. 51, pp. 145-160.
Abstract: Reviews literature on the relation between religiousness (RLG) and adolescent well-being, and provides new analyses of data on this topic from 34,129 adolescents in the report Troubled Journey (P. L. Benson, 1993). It is found that the average level of RLG of US adolescents has not declined recently, although it does appear to decrease on average across the years of adolescence. African-Americans are more religious than Whites, and girls are more religious than boys. RLG is positively associated with prosocial values and behavior, and negatively related to suicide ideation and attempts, substance abuse, premature sexual involvement, and delinquency. RLG is unrelated to self-esteem. These results are robust after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. [Source: PI]

Duncan, Garrett Albert. 1995. "The Light before the Dawn: Toward a Critically Grounded Theory of Black Consciousness, Adolescent Development, and Schooling." Thesis, The Claremont Graduate School, Claremont.
Abstract: In this project, I draw upon conversations with twenty-one Black male and female teenagers to illustrate ways in which consciousness promotes emancipatory, reflective thinking processes. Consciousness is defined in this project as an awareness of and action toward changing one's reality. The idea of consciousness and development strongly implicates effects of power. Power, here, is defined as the ability of the dominant American society to generate consensus as to what constitutes reality. Toward this end, the Zone of Black Bodies is advanced in this study as a site of conceptual struggle where truth and knowledge are contested by Black youths, especially in the domains of education, religion, and cultural politics. Specifically, I argue, Black consciousness empowers Black youths to break the conceptual template of white supremacist discourse by naming those cultural artifacts in American culture that engender subjective and objective racist requirements in society. By explicating the roots of racist knowledge that generate the terms by which reality is comprehended, Black youths are enabled to assert powerful subjectivities as persons who exist in and with the world. Conscientization is fostered by contradictions inherent in the historical and contemporary white supremacist contexts of American society. Gulfs between social representations and realities create contradictions in the unified and unproblematic landscape of the United States culture. These rifts, in turn, prime Black teenagers, with the assistance of authority figures, to deconstruct the dynamics of power that engender social contradictions. Such activities foster the conditions for Black youths to name and recreate their realities. Patterns drawn from the narratives of the individuals in the present study indicate that differences between and contradictions within Black teenagers are the result of a combination of factors. These factors include personal histories and the cognitive profiles Black adol [Source: PI]

Feldman, S. Shirley, Lawrence Fisher, Donald C. Ransom, and Sue Dimiceli. 1995. "Is "What Is Good for the Goose Good for the Gander?" Sex Differences in Relations between Adolescent Coping and Adult Adaptation." Journal of Research on Adolescence vol. 5, pp. 333-359.
Abstract: An investigation of how gender-related coping behaviors in adolescence predict adult adaptation, drawing on scale data collected 1984-1987 & 1991/92 from 82 males & 84 females in a semirural region of CA. Assessment of adaptation included self-esteem, well-being, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, work & romantic relationship satisfaction, & attachment style to romantic partner. For males, turning to religion & to friends - the two coping behaviors most closely associated with the feminine gender role - each predicted poor adult adaptation. For females, the same behaviors predicted good adaptation, suggesting that traditional gender roles may mediate the relationship between adolescent coping & adult adaptation. [Source: SA]

Hay, Steven D. 1995. "Maternal Employment, Parent-Adolescent Closeness and Adolescent Competence." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This study examined the relationships between maternal employment, adolescent employment, extracurricular activities, and closeness between parents and adolescents among a sample of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. A related focus was the relationship between parent-adolescent closeness and adolescent competency as represented by educational aspirations, self-esteem, and juvenile delinquency. It was found that maternal employment was not significantly related to parent-adolescent closeness. The strongest variable predicting LDS adolescents' closeness to their parents was the adolescents' perception of their parents marital quality. Parent-adolescent closeness was significantly related to girls' self-esteem, and negatively related to adolescent juvenile delinquency for both boys and girls. Maternal employment was positively related to victimless delinquency for both boys and girls. Close parent-adolescent relationships promote adolescent social competence. [Source: DA]

Huff, C. O. 1995. "The Relationship between the Source, Recency, and Degree of Stressors in Adolescence and Suicide Ideation." Ed.D. Thesis, The University of Tennessee.
Abstract: This research was undertaken for the purpose of identifying and verifying factors that predict the degree of suicide ideation in the adolescent population. An instrument was designed which was a modification of two scales: the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale developed by Yeaworth, York, Hussey, Ingle, and Goodwin; and the Suicide Intent Scale by Beck, Schuyler, and Herman. The instrument was evaluated for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The sampling frame consisted of the students in the Knoxville, Tennessee, school system. Five schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. To ensure equal representation of all age groups in the sample, classes from each school were utilized that were composed exclusively of ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth graders. The sample consisted of 382 adolescents from ages 14 to 18 years. Frequency counts were completed on the following data: the recency of stressors, degree of stressors, and recency of suicide ideation. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine which variable(s) were significant in predicting adolescent suicide. Tukey's Multiple Comparison Procedures compared the means of the different groups to identify significant differences. The major findings of the study were: (1) recency of stressor and degree of stressor together were significant in the prediction of the degree of suicide ideation and accounted for 80 percent of the variance; (2) recency of stressor and degree of stressor together were significant in the prediction of the recency of suicide ideation and accounted for 68 percent of the variance; and (3) the potential amount of perceived stress of an event varied when the actual occurrence of the event was considered. Based upon the findings of the study, the following major recommendations were made: (1) the curriculum for health education should address developmental issues of adolescence, coping, and provide a safe place for the adolescent to practice these skills; (2) parent workshops should be developed to focus on teaching parents developmental issues and coping skills; (3) groups for adolescent support should be formed in facilities where this age group congregates such as church, school, and recreational centers; and (4) such groups should be evaluated to determine their influence on the degree and recency of stress and suicide ideation. [Source: CI]

Kidd, Timothy W. 1995. "Psychosocial Development through Service-Learning: Enhanced Spiritual Consciousness in Workcamp Experience." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: The problem examined in this research was the identification and description of the distinctive components associated with the Christian youth workcamp experience found to promote the psychosocial development of church youth participants and the linkages to enhanced spiritual consciousness. The unit of analysis for this multi-case study was the Christian youth workcamp. The criteria used for selection of the three cases examined were: (1) location within the Appalachian region; (2) philosophy and practice consistent with service-learning principles; (3) emphasis upon facilitating spiritual development; and (4) logistical concerns. Thirty-four subjects were selected from three church youth groups, each attending one of the three workcamps. Data was gathered through the following methods: (1) a time sequenced series of four semi-structured interviews conducted individually with each of the thirty-four subjects; (2) participant-observation during the total experience at each of the three workcamps, including church based experience conducted before and after; and (3) collection and analysis of relevant documents. The descriptions of the experience drawn from the research offered valuable insights into the subjects's perceptions of their participation in the workcamp. The small size and nature of the sample preclude statistical generalizations to the larger population. Nevertheless, the following conclusions have been advanced for further research: (1) Participation in a Christian youth workcamp experience can promote psychosocial maturity by contributing to increased self-reliance and self-esteem, a greater ability to empathize with others, a stronger appreciation for community, greater concern for the needs of others, and a greater commitment to serving others. (2) The increased ability to empathize with others is correlated with an enhanced spiritual consciousness. (3) The particular aspect of spiritual perception (i.e., cognitive, affective, or volitional) [Source: PI]

Moore, Kristin A. and Dana Glei. 1995. "Taking the Plunge: An Examination of Positive Youth Development." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 10, pp. 15-40.
Abstract: Offers 2 measures that address the avoidance of multiple forms of risk taking or determinants of positive development in youth: a missteps scale in which multiple forms of risk taking are assessed through the adolescent years and a Positive Well-Being Index that includes multiple measures of positive development, ranging from satisfaction with life to community involvement. Demographic, family, school, and neighborhood characteristics were included in multivariate models estimated on a national survey of 2,301 children (aged 7-21 yrs). Youth who experienced fewer family disruptions, were closer with their parents, and had fewer behavior problems in elementary school, and whose parents were better educated, were at lower risk. Children in high-poverty neighborhoods experienced lower well-being and higher misstep hazards. Black youth scored higher on the well-being scale due to greater religiosity and concern for correcting social inequalities. [Source: PI]

Olszewski, Mary Elizabeth. 1995. "The Effect of Religious Coping on Depression and Anxiety in Adolescence." Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University.
Abstract: Research has revealed evidence that stressful life events are related to problems among adolescents, including poor health, abdominal pain, cancer, psychological distress, depression, anxiety, suicide, and runaway behavior. Research also has revealed several moderators of stress in adolescence, including high self-esteem, an internal locus of control orientation, and social support from family and friends. A moderator of stress that has received modest attention in the adult literature and even less attention in the adolescent literature is religious coping. Religious coping has been generally defined as the means by which individuals seek help from a higher power during times of life stress. Spiritual beliefs such as trusting God, doing good deeds such as attending church, and pleading by asking for a miracle are just a few of the many ways one might use religious coping during times of stress. This study focused on a specific form of religious coping called spiritually based coping. Spiritually based coping is defined as coping that reflects a personal relationship with God, who serves as a guide and helper in coping with life stress. The purpose of this study was to explore three ways in which spiritually based coping may affect adolescent depression and anxiety. First, this study investigated whether spiritually based coping had a direct effect on depression and anxiety. Second, this study investigated whether spiritually based coping moderated the impact of stress on depression and anxiety. Finally, this study examined whether the effect of spiritually based coping on anxiety and depression was mediated through levels of self-esteem and social support. Scales measuring life event stress, spiritually based coping, social support, self-esteem, depression and anxiety were given to 95 adolescents, 61 females and 34 males, ages 12-17. Subjects were recruited through the youth groups of several Christian denominations throughout a university town in Oregon. [Source: PI]

Paulson, Mary Alice. 1995. "Reactions to Childhood Sibling Death: A Qualitative Investigation." Thesis, Andrews University, Berrien Springs.
Abstract: Problem. In looking at the importance of sibling relationships, we see that the death of a sibling can cause considerable disruption to the surviving child's development. A review of the childhood sibling loss literature indicated that no study was found that investigated the effects of sibling loss on depression and psychosocial development and studied reactions to sibling loss and its effects on cognition, emotions, behaviors, interpersonal relations, and spirituality. Method. Thirty subjects participated in this research and composed three developmental groups. Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental stages were utilized in this investigation. The subjects were grouped according to their age at the time of the study. These groups were ages 8-12 years, ages 13-21 years, and ages 22-35 years. The subjects that participated in this study had experienced the death of a sibling before the age of 25 years. The subjects were voluntary participants who were recruited through The Compassionate Friends. Each subject was administered a depression instrument (either the Reynolds Child Depression Scale or the Multiscore Depression Inventory) and underwent a structured interview. Subjects that were 13 years of age or older were also administered a psychosocial development instrument (Measures of Psychosocial Development). The information obtained from the structured interview and the instruments was then developed into case studies, and analyzed using content analysis. Results. Both positive and negative short-term and long-term reactions to the experience of childhood sibling loss were found in the areas of cognition, emotions, behaviors, interpersonal relations, and spirituality. Most subjects in this study appeared to have been experiencing minimal or mild depression. In addition, both advanced psychosocial development and psychosocial developmental difficulties were found. Conclusions. The salient nature of childhood sibling loss was discussed for each of the three dev. [Source: PI]

Ringger, Mark David. 1995. "The Relationship between Private Religious Behavior, Religious Identity, and Self-Esteem among Latter-Day Saint Adolescents in the Context of Familial and Religious Socialization." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo.
Abstract: Longitudinal data gathered in 1989 and 1993 studied the connection between religion and self-esteem by investigating the relationship between private religious behavior, religious identity, and self-esteem among LDS female and male adolescents in the context of familial and religious socialization. A LISREL model was developed and tested which showed that in both early and later adolescence, private religious behavior and commitment to a religious identity are important intervening variables in explaining the relationship between family religious socialization, institutional religious socialization, and self-esteem. Private religious behavior has no direct effects on self-esteem but it is a very strong predictor of self-esteem through adolescent commitment to a religious identity. Commitment emerges as an important factor in explaining the positive effects of religion on self-esteem. The findings have implications for those wanting to understand the influence of religion in predicting self-esteem. There are also important implications for those interested in the study of religious identity and the role of commitment in identity formation. [Source: PI]

Chavez, Virginia. 1994. "Latino Gangs in Arizona." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: A large number of Latino youth are at risk for a multitude of mental health problems. There is a "cholo" subculture that has developed among this particular group across barrios nationwide. In AZ, Latino gangs have developed from this subculture & are considered to be social subsystems often characterized by competition for status & income opportunity through drug sales. Historically, Latinos have not received the attention or the resources necessary to combat social problems that gang members have encountered. For Latino youth, the gang must be reponsive to needs that the individual is lacking outside gang activity. Effects that Latino youths experience as a result of being labeled as a "cholo" or Latino gang member are investigated. Other contributing factors include the judicial & correctional system, police abuse, gang homicides, & church affiliation. Prevention & intervention programs are also discussed. [Source: SA]

Johnson, Matthew Allen. 1994. "The Effect of a Father's Locus of Control and Spiritual Well-Being on His Adolescent Child's Self-Esteem." Psy.D. Thesis, George Fox College, Newberg.
Abstract: Parents influence their children in many ways. One crucial area of parental influence in a child's life is in the development of his/her self-esteem. Many studies have demonstrated this fact. However, they have tended to focus on the mother-child relationship rather than the father-child relationship. Self-esteem is a complex construct which can be used to objectively measure the self-respect, self-worth, and the appreciation of one's own merits while recognizing one's own faults. The purpose of this study was to identify the significant interaction effects of a father's locus of control and spiritual well-being on his adolescent child's self-esteem. The population studied consisted of 83 fathers and their 93 adolescent children (grades nine through twelve) who were enrolled in five nondenominational Christian high schools in the greater area of Anchorage, Alaska. Five nondenominational Christian high schools agreed to participate in this study, thus comprising a population census. The dependent variable was Self-Esteem, as measured by the total score on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale. The two independent variables were Locus of Control, as measured by the total score on Rotter's Locus of Control (LOC) scale, and Spiritual Well-Being, as measured by the total score on Ellison and Paloutzian's Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) scale. The SPSS subprogram Analysis of Variance, through the regression procedure, was used to analyze the data. Significant interaction effects were found only for locus of control and spiritual well-being on male adolescent self-esteem. Significant main effects were not found for locus of control nor spiritual well-being. These results suggest that a father's locus of control interacting with his spiritual well-being only influences his male adolescent child's self-esteem. This information increases the body of knowledge concerning the father-child relationship, which in turn can be used to promote the development of high self-esteem in adolescent children. [Source: DA]

Rumbaut, Rub"n G. 1994. "The Crucible Within: Ethnic Identity, Self-Esteem, and Segmented Assimilation among Children of Immigrants." International Migration Review vol. 28, pp. 748-794.

Shortz, Joianne L. and Everett L. Worthington, Jr. 1994. "Young Adults' Recall of Religiosity, Attributions, and Coping in Parental Divorce." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 33, pp. 172-179.
Abstract: Combines K. I. Pargament's (1990) theoretical framework of religion & coping with Bernard Spilka's, Phillip Shaver's, & Lee A. Kirkpatrick's attributional theory (see SA 33:4/85Q0299) to extend the existing understanding of religion's role in coping with stress. University students (N = 131) in the southeastern US who had experienced their parents' divorce during their own adolescence were surveyed. Findings reveal that retrospective religious causal attributions predicted coping activities - especially religious coping - beyond measures of religiosity. Religious causal attributions may uniquely influence how people cope with stress. [Source: SA]

Brisben, David Edward. 1993. "Adolescent Spirituality: Relationships among Adolescent Self-Esteem, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Adolescent Spiritual Well-Being." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: Purpose. This research investigated the relationships among the factors of self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and spiritual well-being for older adolescents in the evangelical community. Two other factors in the family environment were identified in the research literature as important to a person's spiritual well-being. These factors, parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation, were also examined as to their interaction effect on the three previously mentioned interval variables. This study, unlike previous studies, has statistically analyzed the relationship between the level of constructive communication perceived by the adolescent in the parent-adolescent relationship and the sense of spiritual well-being experienced by the adolescent. Secondly, this study has statistically examined the interaction effect of parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation on the adolescent's spiritual well-being. Procedure. This correlational research focused on certain indicators of the spiritual well-being of older adolescents (16-20 years) within the evangelical, Christian community. The sample population of the study was made up of 202 volunteers selected from three Christian colleges and nine evangelical churches in the southeastern United States. Data were collected by having the subjects complete three testing instruments (the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Bienvenu Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory, and the Paloutzian-Ellison Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and a demographic questionnaire. The correlational method of statistical analysis utilizing the Pearson product moment correlation was employed to measure the degree of relationship between the variables of self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and spiritual well-being. The causal-comparative method of statistical analysis utilizing t-tests was then employed to test for significance in relationships between the above mentioned criterion variables and their interaction with categorical variables of parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation. Findings. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that there is a low, positive correlation between the variables of parent-adolescent communication and adolescent spiritual well-being and a moderate, positive correlation between the variables of self-esteem and spiritual well-being for the adolescents in this study. Moreover, the findings indicated that the parent's religious orientation is a stronger predictor of the adolescent's spiritual well-being and the adolescent's self-esteem than is the parent's marital status. Finally, the findings indicated that there is a different set of predictor variables for adolescents with divorced parents than for adolescents with intact parents and that the variable of self-esteem is a stronger predictor of the adolescent's sense of spiritual well-being for adolescents with divorced parents than it is for adolescents with intact parents. [Source: DA]

Calhoun, George K. 1993. "An Education Program to Enhance Self-Esteem among the Youth of Hilton Terrace Baptist Church, Columbus, Georgia." Thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this project was to design an education program which would enhance positive self-esteem among adolescents. Two separate studies were conducted during the project. An eight-week course for youth looked at biblical perspectives on self-esteem. A ten-week class for parents surveyed ways to provide a positive environment within the home. Questionnaires provided before and after the studies revealed that improvement was evident. The self-esteem of youth was raised, and parenting skills of the adults were enhanced. [Source: RI]

Josephson, Allan M. 1993. "The Interactional Problems of Christian Families and Their Relationship to Developmental Psychopathology: Implications for Treatment." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 12, pp. 312-328.
Abstract: Explores the clinical phenomenon of children and adolescents from Christian families who develop mental disorders. Common patterns of dysfunctional family interaction seen in some Christian families are related to child and adolescent psychopathology. The enmeshed family, the rigid rule-bound family, and the cold affect-bound family are described. This paper presents how mental representations are associated with developmental psychopathology. Case examples are provided along with implications for treatment from both a psychological and spiritual perspective. [Source: PI]

Nakkula, Michael James. 1993. "Toward Methodological Dialogue in Adolescent Risk Research." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: This study examined whether the clustering, prediction and self-reported meaning of various forms of high-risk behavior differed within two divergent high school cultures. 406 students were sampled, 242 from an urban high school in a low-income, working-class community, and 164 from a suburban high school in a middle-income, working-class and professional community. The urban subsample was largely African-American (35%) and Hispanic (30%), with smaller numbers of Haitian (15%) and Caucasian (7.5%) students. The suburban subsample was almost exclusively Caucasian (86%). Females comprised 55% of the sample within each school; males 45%. Sampling was largely random. Nine forms of high-risk behavior were included in the assessment of clustering differences: Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, harder drug use, multiple substance use, crime, depressive behavior, school-related problems, and sexual behavior. Involvement in each of these behaviors was assessed by the Risk and Prevention Questionnaire and Interview (RAP QI) (Nakkula, Way, Stauber, & London, 1989), a lickert-type survey, developed in consultation with high school students representing a broad range of reading levels. Multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis uncovered three clusters of behaviors within each school. The cluster of depressive behavior and school-related problems was found within both schools, while the two unique urban school clusters were sexual behavior with crime and the substance use cluster of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use and multiple substance use. The two unique suburban school clusters were cigarette smoking, alcohol use and sexual behavior; and marijuana use, multiple substance use, harder drug use and crime. Within each school, cluster scores were best predicted, via multiple regression, by different combinations of risk and resiliency factors, including family functioning, quality of relationships with parents and friends, hopefulness/hopelessness, religiosity, and friends' and family substance use, each of which was assessed by the RAP QI. Qualitative analyses of indepth research interviews were conducted to interpret the meaning of selected regression findings for each school. The particular strategy for using quantitative and qualitative methods interactively, designed and exemplified here, represents movement toward a methodological dialogue that can deepen our understanding of adolescent high-risk behavior. [Source: DA]

Ryan, Cynthia G. 1993. "Teenagers and Despair: Finding Hope in Faith and in One Another: A Group Ministry Experience." Thesis, Brite Divinity School, Forth Worth.
Abstract: This project is a pastoral care response to the issue of teenage depression and despair which is the root cause of many of the confusing acting-out behaviors exhibited by teens and also is at the base of much of adolescent inner pain and turmoil. This project is an attempt for the church to utilize its theology of hope, its use of mystery and ritual and its sense of identity and other resources to prevent teenage depression and despair. This project includes a support group for 9th and 10th graders at First United Methodist Church of Graham, Texas, which met five times for confidential sharing, peer feedback, education about depression and spiritual reflection. [Source: RI]

Ryan, R. M., S. Rigby, and K. King. 1993. "2 Types of Religious Internalization and Their Relations to Religious Orientations and Mental-Health." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol. 65, pp. 586-596.
Abstract: Two types of religious internalization are conceptualized that are presumed to vary in their relative autonomy. Introjection represents a partial internalization of beliefs and is characterized by self- and other-approval-based pressures. Identification represents adoption of beliefs as personal values and is characterized by greater volition. These 2 types of internalization are compared conceptually and empirically with existing measures of religious orientation and are used to predict varied functional outcomes. Results in 4 independent Christian samples show systematic construct validities and relations with mental health and self-related outcomes. Also, evangelical teenagers are shown to be higher on both introjection and identification than controls. Results are discussed both in terms of prior approaches to the psychology of religion and the significance of internalization for personality functioning. [Source: SC]

Wright, Loyd S., Christopher J. Frost, and Stephen J. Wisecarver. 1993. "Church Attendance, Meaningfulness of Religion, and Depressive Symptomatology among Adolescents." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 559-568.
Abstract: Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 208 male and 243 female 9th-22th graders. The instrument used contained the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and items to determine the participant's gender, frequency of church attendance, and meaningfulness of one's religion. Based on social support research and the writings of Jung (1932, 1933) and V. Frankl (1959), it was predicted that those who attended church frequently and those who viewed their religions as providing meaning for their lives would have lower BDI scores than their classmates. The findings supported these predictions. [Source: PI]

Fiori, Donna Louise. 1992. "Impact of Identification with God as Generative on Post-Menarche Adolescent Depression." Ph.D. Thesis, Loyola College in Maryland.
Abstract: A sample of 722 adolescent females from two northeast Ohio high schools was surveyed to determine if an affective appreciation of God's receptive, maternal function would prove to be a significant predictor of resilience toward post menarche depression. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the Feminine Image of God Scale measured affective attachment to God's receptive maternal function. Utilizing a forced ordered multiple regression model indicated that the receptive image of God accounted for 11% of the variance at a significance of.00 in this religiously affiliated group. The additional 89% variance probably was accounted for by other factors such as intelligence, family environment, self-esteem, socioeconomic factors and race. In a second analysis, the relation of two "age" variables, biological age and chronological age, was also examined via multiple regression which indicated that biological age had a significantly higher influence as a predictor at p $<$.019, while chronological age was not significant at p $<$.758. This finding indicates that it is likely that biological age is a stronger factor in depressive symptoms than is chronological age. Further exploration is needed to see what relationship exists, if any, between depressive and anxiety symptoms in this group. [Source: DA]

Grubbs, S., S. B. Hardin, S. Weinrich, M. Weinrich, C. Garrison, D. Pesut, and T. L. Hardin. 1992. "Self-Efficacy in Normal Adolescents." Issues in Mental Health Nursing vol. 13, pp. 121-128.
Abstract: This descriptive study, one component of the Carolina Adolescent Health Project (CAHP), measured self-efficacy in a voluntary sample of 432 normal freshmen and sophomore urban high school students. Using Coppel's Self-Efficacy Scale (SES), which is based on Bandura's conceptualization of self-efficacy, the research also examined the effect of gender, race, socioeconomic status, and self-reported religiosity on self-efficacy. The teenagers in this sample had a moderately high degree of self-efficacy with a mean SES score of 45.37 (SES range=13-65). A series of t-tests and one-way and two-way analyses of variance indicated no significant difference in SES scores by race, gender, socioeconomic status, or religiosity. Findings did not support the investigators' original expectation that these demographic and psychosocial variables would affect self-efficacy. The study provides normative data for future comparative studies using the SES. [Source: CI]

Johnson, W. Brad and Mark C. Eastburg. 1992. "God, Parent and Self Concepts in Abused and Nonabused Children." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 11, pp. 235-243.

Keith Lucas, Alan. 1992. "Encounters with Children: Children and Religion." Residential Treatment for Children and Youth vol. 10, pp. 65-73.
Abstract: Presents observations on the role of religion in the treatment of troubled children and adolescents. The importance of showing children love and answering their questions honestly is stressed. Examples from the author's experience are presented. [Source: PI]

Lind, Richard. 1992. "Helping Parents and Children Grieve Divorce: A Pastor's Perspective." Thesis, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago.
Abstract: Statistics reveal that over one million youth in our country experience the trauma of divorce each year. Those who are "significant others" to these young people play a vital role in helping them cope with such loss. This paper explores the nature of this grief; effects of separation and divorce on the parent-child relationship; a look at the way developmental stages affect childhood grieving; a consideration of the pain of divorce within the Christian faith; some ministries that relate to the pain; and something about recovery for children of divorce. [Source: RI]

Plotnick, Robert D. 1992. "The Effects of Attitudes on Teenage Premarital Pregnancy and Its Resolution." American Sociological Review vol. 57, pp. 800-811.
Abstract: Drawing on problem behavior theory and complementary models of behavior, the influence of attitudes and related personality variables on the probability of teenage premarital pregnancy, abortion, having an out-of-wedlock birth, or marrying before the birth were examined. 1,142 non-Hispanic White adolescents, drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, were analyzed using the nested logit method. The estimates show that self-esteem, locus of control, attitudes toward women's family roles, attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and religiosity were associated with premarital pregnancy and its resolution in directions predicted by theory. The effects of self-esteem, attitudes toward school, attitudes toward women's family roles, and educational expectations were substantively important. [Source: PI]

Werner, Emmy E. 1992. "The Children of Kauai: Resiliency and Recovery in Adolescence and Adulthood." Journal of Adolescent Health vol. 13, pp. 262-268.
Abstract: A prospective study of all 698 babies born on Kauai, HI, in 1955 & followed at ages 1, 2, 10, 18, & 32, documenting the course of all pregnancies & their outcomes in the community until the surviving offspring had reached adulthood & assessing the long-term consequences of perinatal complications & adverse rearing conditions on the individual's adult adaptation. About 30% of this cohort were considered high-risk children; about 60% of these Ss developed serious coping problems in the first two decades of life. By age 32, most of the high-risk youths with problems in childhood had staged a recovery of sorts. Five clusters of protective factors contributed to positive outcomes among the high-risk youth: (1) temperamental characteristics of the individual that elicited positive responses from caring persons; (2) skills that led to an efficient use of their abilities; (3) caregiving styles of the parents; (4) supportive elders; & (5) opportunities at major life transitions, eg, community college, a church group, or national service. Individuals selected environments that reinforced & sustained their temperamental dispositions & rewarded their competencies. [Source: SA]

Balk, David E. 1991. "Sibling Death, Adolescent Bereavement, and Religion." Death Studies vol. 15, pp. 1-20.
Abstract: Studied the impact of attitudes toward religion on the grief reactions of teenagers bereaved over a sibling's death. Ss were 42 older (aged 17-29 yrs) and younger (aged 14-16 yrs) adolescents. Several attitudes discriminated whether religion (1) had been important before the sibling's death; (2) currently held importance in the adolescent's life; (3) provided a source of help to deal with the death; (4) was difficult to believe; and (5) was considered valuable. Religious belief did not necessarily make coping easier. The increased importance of religion in the lives of many of the Ss could be a development facilitated by mourning. [Source: PI]

Beckwith, Ivy. 1991. "Youth Summer Mission Trips: A Case Study." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield.
Abstract: This research studied one youth summer mission trip in an attempt to discover the important components of the summer mission trip experience and the educational conditions created by the experience which may lead to greater psycho-social maturity in the youth who participate. It sought to discover the learning outcomes of the trip as perceived by the adolescent participants. Precedent literature in the areas of experiential education, adolescence, psycho-social maturity, and youth summer mission trips was explored as a background to this study. These precedents in the literature were helpful in discerning the research questions as well as the research methodology. The research design was that of participant-observation and interview. The participant-observer followed the summer mission team from its inception through its termination keeping field notes and a journal which recorded all the experiences of the project participants. The program participants were interviewed prior to leaving on the project in order to determine their expectations for the project, their worries about the project, and what they hoped to gain from the project. They were interviewed during the trip, itself. These questions sought to solicit from the program participants what they were thinking about the experience at that point in the process, what they were liking and disliking about it, and what they thought they would learn from the project. After the participants returned from the summer mission trip they were interviewed a third time. This interview sought to discover what the participants thought about the experience after they returned, what they perceived to be the most important components of the experience, and what they perceived to be their own personal learning outcomes from the experience. The data from the field notes and the interviews was broken down into categories in order to answer the research questions. The data was analyzed in order to discover the components of the experience, how these components worked together to provide the educational conditions optimal for psycho-social growth in the adolescent, and to discover what the students perceived to be the personal learning outcomes from the experience. Conclusions offered recommendations for program administrators of mission trips, recommendations for other educational programs, and suggestions for further research. [Source: DA]

Duckett, P. Joan. 1991. "Relationship of Mental Well-Being and Religious Commitment in Adolescence." M.SC. Thesis, University of Calgary (Canada).
Abstract: A sample of 172 adolescents (102 females, 70 males) was drawn from urban Roman Catholic high schools. Results of three statistical analyses failed to find an association between religious commitment, as measured by the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS), and mental well-being, as measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A significant correlation was found, however, between the Ego Strength Scale (ES) and the GHQ, r = $-$.55, p $<$.001, although the magnitude of the relationship was not large enough to recommend substitution of one test for the other in diagnostic work with adolescents. No gender differences in reported religiosity were found in the present study. But highly significant correlations were found between adolescent religious practices and the perceived practices of their parents, particularly for church attendance, r =.80, p $<$.001. Internal locus of control was found to be significantly related to intrinsic religiosity only when attributing failure to lack of effort. [Source: DA]

Gill, Walter. 1991. "Jewish Day Schools and Afrocentric Programs as Models for Educating African American Youth." Journal of Negro Education vol. 60, pp. 566-580.
Abstract: Argues that the success of Jewish day schools and Afrocentric educational programs have implications for educators who wish to help African American students achieve positive self-concept development and academic success. These schools have a record of successful achievement in student cognition and continuity skills. Their emphasis on moral and spiritual development has enabled them to better inculcate positive self-concept behaviors and academic achievement among their students at a level exceeding that of public schools with regard to African American populations. The low incidence of behavioral problems in Jewish schools has been attributed to the ability of the teachers to establish self-discipline behaviors in their students. Responsibility is shifted to students by degrees as they show themselves capable of assuming it. [Source: PI]

Koteskey, Ronald L., Michelle D. Little, and Michele V. Matthews. 1991. "Adolescent Identity and Depression." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 10, pp. 48-53.
Abstract: Examined the correlation between adolescence and depression among 109 college students (aged 17-27 yrs) using the Beck Depression Inventory and an identity scale. Depression was negatively correlated with some types of identity. Ss who scored higher on community, family, and religious identity scored lower on depression. Cultural identity was not negatively correlated with depression. The creation of adolescence in modern Western culture means that teenagers have lost much control of their lives relative to work, marriage, and education. Community inclusion of adolescents in activities could help them gain a stronger sense of community identity. The church could include adolescents as adults to help them gain a stronger sense of religious identity. [Source: PI]

Nydam, Ronald J. 1991. "Character Disorders: Where Faith and Healing Sometimes Fail." Journal of Pastoral Care vol. 45, pp. 135-148.

Thorson, James A. 1991. "Afterlife Constructs, Death Anxiety, and Life Reviewing: The Importance of Religion as a Moderating Variable." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 19, pp. 278-284.
Abstract: 65 high school students, 77 university students, and 247 adult continuing education students completed a death anxiety scale and questions dealing with frequency of church attendance, religiosity, and afterlife concerns. 72 of the Ss were male. Variance in both death anxiety and religiosity was greater between age groups than across gender. Afterlife items tended to have higher correlations with death anxiety than did either self-rated religiosity or frequency of church-going. Elements of religiosity seem to have important interrelationships with the developmental process of life review in old age. [Source: PI]

Antosz, Lawrence J. 1990. "Religiosity, Identity Development, and Health Outcomes in a Late Adolescent Sample." Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Abstract: The current study (N = 440) attempted to replicate and extend the findings of a previous study by this author on the role of religion in coping with stress in a late adolescent sample. That study suggested that religion, particularly personal religious beliefs and prayer, may help late adolescents cope with the stresses associated with their developmental period by selectively influencing their perceptions of minor daily events. The current research investigated whether this relationship between religion and the perception of minor daily events was in turn related to physical and mental health outcomes. Several hypotheses were made about the indirect and direct relationship of specific religious variables with health measures. Correlational and path analyses failed to support many of the hypotheses. Only some small positive, as well as negative, direct links between religion and health outcomes were found. In general, the results for this sample of late adolescents were consistent with the findings in the literature for adult samples that religion has a positive but small relationship to measures of well-being. Additional analyses uncovered some information about the relationship of religion to general identity development as well as pointing to some of the components of religion that seem to be particularly salient for this age group. Based on this sample, it appears that there are important gender differences in the structure and function of religion. For this sample, religion seemed to be closely associated with the Foreclosure identity status for males, while it related to the Achievement status for females. For both males and females of this age group, the personal meaning that is associated with religious belief and commitment appears to be the crucial element in religion. In particular for females, the social aspects of religious involvement seem to be important. Finally, this study provided further psychometric support for the religiosity measure developed by this author in a previous study. [Source: DA]

Butman, Richard E. and Joel- H. Arp. 1990. "Adolescent Depression in Its Developmental and Maturational Context." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 34-43.
Abstract: Explores 7 themes from the literature concerning adolescent identity formation that pertain to potential mood disturbance. Themes explored include (1) the nomothetic vs idiographic perspective of mood disturbance, (2) a definition of adolescent health, (3) trusting adolescents, (4) the need for the adolescent to have the "courage to be," (5) the role of religious education, (6) healthy escape and engagement, and (7) the need for catalysts and facilitators. Implications are discussed for mental health professionals, including the suggested importance of creating structures that cultivate healthy relationships and creating a climate that promotes faith development. It is proposed that important dimensions of adolescent depression might best be seen as symbols of unresolved struggles in the process of identity formation. [Source: PI]

Coisman, Frederick G. 1990. "Adolescent Depression and Eating Disorders." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 72-80.
Abstract: Examines definitions of anorexia nervosa and bulimia with their relationship to clinical depression. A partial review includes the literature regarding the diagnostic controversy surrounding anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and depression; belief systems of those with these disorders; and treatment approaches. It is concluded that eating disorders may be highly correlated with depression but that causality may be apparent in few cases. Treatment has been effective when it has targeted the whole person including eating behavior, cognitive distortions, affect, and depression when present. Implications for Christian researchers and therapists are discussed. [Source: PI]

Faraco Hadlock, Greta G. 1990. "Adolescent Depression and Substance Abuse." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 64-71.
Abstract: Addresses the comorbidity of substance abuse and depression in adolescents. Diagnosis and assessment, etiological factors, and treatment and relapse prevention are discussed. The relevance of spirituality as an aspect of etiology and its role in treatment are noted. [Source: PI]

Klosinski, G. 1990. "Ecclesiogenic Neuroses and Psychoses in Adolescence: On the Complicated Detachment Problems of Adolescents from Rigorously Moralizing, Christian-Religious Movements." Acta Paedopsychiatrica:International Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry vol. 53, pp. 71-77.
Abstract: Examined 9 male and female inpatients at a child and adolescent psychiatric department who came from Christian religious groups. Three case reports are presented of Ss (aged 13-27 yrs) with ecclesiogenic neurosis and or ecclesiogenic psychosis. These Ss developed either an obsessive-compulsive neurosis, a psychosis, or anorexia in puberty. A strictly moralizing upbringing by the parents was present that led to an aggravation of the relation conflict with them in the detachment and separation process in puberty. [Source: PI]

Lastoria, Michael D. 1990. "A Family Systems Approach to Adolescent Depression." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 44-54.
Abstract: Discusses key concepts and terms within family systems theory as they relate to depression in adolescents. The adolescent stage of the family life cycle is described as requiring structural changes within the family. Two major dynamics are addressed: (1) the differentiation of the adolescent self from the family system and (2) the sacrificial roles that adolescents may acquire within a family structure that arrest or slow the process of differentiation. Integrative reflections are offered for the therapist working with Christian families. [Source: PI]

Ostrander, Diane L., Carolyn S. Henry, and Charles C. Hendrix. 1990. "The Stressors of Clergy Children Inventory: Reliability and Validity." Psychological Reports vol. 67, pp. 787-794.
Abstract: Developed and evaluated a 58-item theoretically based instrument called the Stressors of Clergy Children Inventory. The initial self-report survey was tested for internal consistency reliability based on responses from 85 clergy families with adolescent and adult children (aged 15-42 yrs). The church stressors, family stressors, and individual stressor scales and their associated subscales all had acceptable internal consistency. Tests for construct validity, concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability indicated that the inventory could be used in research. Recommendations for refinement and use were presented. [Source: PI]

Van Wicklin, John F. 1990. "Adolescent Depression: A Systematic Overview." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 5-14.
Abstract: Discusses adolescent depression with emphasis on psychological models of behaviorism, psychoanalysis, cognitivism, and existential psychology. Loss of support and control emerges as primary environmental determinants; however, belief patterns and ways of processing information are important contributing factors. Depression is discussed as it relates to religious beliefs and to Christian doctrines of creation, fall, and redemption. [Source: PI]

Yopp, Michael Steven. 1990. "An Investigation of the Impact of Family Marital Status Upon the Self-Esteem of Adolescents in a Mental Institution with Implications for Pastoral Counseling." Ed.D. Thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This research was designed to determine whether significant differences existed between the self-esteem levels of troubled adolescents from intact families versus troubled adolescents from divorced families and to discover implications for pastoral counseling. Chapter one contains the statement of the problem, statement of the subproblems, hypotheses, delimitation, definition of terms, assumptions and importance of the research. Chapter two consists of a review of the related literature examining adolescence; previous studies of the relationship between the family and self-esteem; and the impact that divorce has upon the family. Chapter three details the methods and procedures of the research including population, subjects, sample selection, instrumentation, method of conducting research, and statistical analysis. Chapter four contains the results of the research collected from the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and personal data sheet. General results revealed under four of the variables (age, race, gender, religion) evaluated that there was not a significant difference between troubled adolescents from divorced or intact families. Significant differences in the self-esteem levels between troubled adolescents from intact families and troubled adolescents from divorced families was revealed. Chapter five consists of the summary, conclusions, strengths and limitations of the study and the study's relationship to pastoral counseling. The major conclusion from the research was that family marital status may have a significant impact upon the self-esteem level of adolescents in a mental institution. The possibility of utilizing the information for the general adolescent population are discussed. Chapter six gives a brief understanding of pastoral counseling and discusses the applicability of pastoral counseling to assist in the maintenance and increase of self-esteem levels in adolescents dealing with divorce in their family of origin. [Source: DA]

Gill, Newell T. and Linda H. Thornton. 1989. "Religious Orientation and Self-Esteem among High School Students." High School Journal vol. 73, pp. 47-60.
Abstract: Conducted a study to determine the popular religious mindset of 2 groups of high school seniors, 92 from 2 public schools and 87 from Catholic high school, and to identify what relationship existed between their religious orientation and their perceived self-esteem. Instruments included the "What I Believe" (WIB) scale (N. T. Gill and L. H. Thornton, 1988), the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI [S. Coopersmith, 1967]), and a personal data questionnaire. Crisis dependency and school type were found to be related to religious zeal. The parochial school Ss performed better on the WIB's Judeo-Christian scale and indicated greater religious zeal than the public school Ss. No relationship was found between the SEI and religious beliefs. [Source: PI]

Gunter, William A. 1989. "A Self-Esteem Course for the Adolescents of the Calvary Baptist Church of Kingsport, Tennessee." Thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project was designed to increase the self-esteem level of a group of adolescents through the use of a course on the biblical basis for self-esteem. The Hudson Index of self-esteem was used as a pretest and posttest for two groups. Groups A was exposed to the course which included practical instruction in hospital visitation. Group B was exposed only to the pretest and posttest. Fifty percent of the Group A participants experienced a signficant increase in their self-esteem level. Research indicates a positive correlation between adolescent developmental needs and the biblical responses. [Source: RI]

Hillman, Evelyn D. 1989. "The Relationship of Church Attendance to Adolescent Self-Concept and Career Choice." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: The relationship of church attendance to adolescent self-concept and career choice is a research study which engaged forty-four (44) grade 11 and grade 12 students in career decision-making activities in order to study the impact of church attendance, which provides for moral training, on the variables: self-concept, career decision-making skill, career maturity and the formation of post-high school plans. The sample, from a large, metropolitan high school, completed the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, Fitts (1965); the Career Maturity Inventory, Crites (1978) and a questionnaire which revealed post-high school plans. Data from these instruments were analyzed using analysis of variance and chi-square statistics. Results revealed that church attenders had a higher self-concept and better career decision-making skills than non-church attenders. The career maturity (ability to successfully enter into the world of work) was not statistically different for the two groups, but church attenders displayed superior performance on all indices. There was no real difference between the groups in their formation of post-high school plans. These research findings suggest that the addition of moral training to adolescent preparation for adulthood increases the likelihood of positive development. Indications are that moral development might be considered as an important additional variable in the study of adolescent development. [Source: DA]

Mangino, Nancy A. 1989. "Adolescents' Death Anxiety: Relationships with Parental Death Anxiety, Religious Orientation, and Death Experience." Thesis, George Washington University.

McKaig, Charlene S. 1989. "The Relationships among Adolescent Future Time Perspective, Self-Esteem and Present Health Behavior." Ed.D. Thesis, State University of New York At Buffalo.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship of adolescent health behavior to future time perspective, self-esteem, and the demographic characteristics of gender, race, age, grade in school, socioeconomic status, and religion. The health promotion model was used as the organizing framework. Four instruments were used to measure the variables: the Teen Wellness Check measured health behavior, the dependent variable; the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory; the Future Time Perspective Inventory; and a short questionnaire eliciting information about religion, church attendance, and parents' education and occupation. In addition, parent questionnaires were completed by 18 parents to compare their responses on selected health behavior items with their adolescents' responses. A sample of 303 adolescents were surveyed from three different high schools in one public city school system in the Southeastern United States. The majority (64.4%) of the sample was in middle adolescence, 15 and 16 years old and in the 9th grade (69.6%). More than half were female (59.7%). The adolescents were predominantly Black (95.7%) and came from families where the mothers (92.6%) and fathers (89.9%) had a high school education or less. Two hundred sixty-one subjects (86.7%) identified themselves as Protestants and 194 (64.7%) said they attended a church once a week or more. Multiple regression analyses resulted in three variables being mildly predictive (17.9% of the variance at p $leq$.05) of positive health behavior: high self-esteem, church attendance weekly or more often, and a father with less than a high school education. Self-esteem accounted for over one third (38.1%) of the variance. A longer future time perspective, although weakly correlated (r = $-$0.19), was not predictive of positive health behavior. Future recommendations include expanding the research to include a more heterogeneous sample, adolescents in each developmental category, and adolescents from a variety of identified family constellations. Another recommendation is to continue to evaluate instrumentation to gather data about the multiple factors that influence adolescent health behavior. [Source: DA]

Wilson, Jeannette D. 1989. "The Relationship between Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study in the U.S. And Brazil." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Tennessee.
Abstract: Cultural variation in the relationship of parental behaviors to adolescent self-esteem was tested through secondary analysis of a cross-cultural data set (Ferreria & Thomas, 1984). The sample, 393 urban middle class students from two Catholic high schools in the U.S. and Brazil, was split evenly by gender and culture. Cross-cultural comparability was assured. Varimax rotated factor analysis was performed on 75 parental behavior items selected from three standard instruments (Heilbrun, 1964; Devereaux, et al., 1969; Schaefer, 1965), and 21 items measuring self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965; Openshaw, et al, 1981). The factor structures of the dependent and independent variables in each culture were found to be very similar across cultures. Models of adolescent socialization in the family context were tested in both cultures in two specific ways: (1) four dimensions of self-esteem were identified (Social Worth and Self-Derogation from Rosenberg, Positive Self-esteem and Self-Esteem Power from a Semantic Differential scale), (2) the relationships between these four dimensions of self-esteem were tested with seven similarly identified parental behavior scales (General Support, Companionship, Physical Affection, Induction, Coercion, Love Withdrawal and Inconsistent Control) employing regression analysis cross-culturally. Our hypotheses of significant influence between adolescent perceptions of parental behaviors (Induction, Coercion, Physical Affection, Companionship) and adolescent Self-Derogation and Social Worth were not supported. General support from both parents in the U.S., and fathers in Brazil, were influential with adolescent Self-Derogation and Social Worth. Significant cultural differences were found only for mothers. U.S. parental behaviors were more influential. Parental support was found to be more important than control in both cultures, especially for fathers in Brazil. Mother control was found to be more influential than father control in both cultures. Overall, more similarities than differences were noted. [Source: DA]

Gordon, Samuel A. 1988. "The Impact of Adolescent and Maternal Religiousness on the Psychological Functioning of Chronically Ill Adolescents." Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park.

Hunt, Angela Elwell. 1988. "Annice Craddock's Book of Love." Fundamentalist Journal vol. 7, pp. 30-33.
Abstract: This project was designed to increase the self-esteem level of a group of adolescents through the use of a course on the biblical basis for self-esteem. The Hudson Index of self-esteem was used as a pretest and posttest for two groups. Groups A was exposed to the course which included practical instruction in hospital visitation. Group B was exposed only to the pretest and posttest. Fifty percent of the Group A participants experienced a signficant increase in their self-esteem level. Research indicates a positive correlation between adolescent developmental needs and the biblical responses. [Source: RI]

Kuntz, Barbara Blohm. 1988. "Exploring the Grief of Adolescents after the Death of a Parent." Ph.D. Thesis, The Union For Experimenting Colleges and Universities.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the grief of 26 adolescents after the death of a parent during the subjects' adolescent years. It sought to explore how adolescents grieve and what factors, including age and sex, influenced their grief reactions. The conceptual framework was organized around Bowlby's phases of mourning: numbness, yearning and searching, disorganization and despair, and reorganization. Data collection utilized a one-time, semi-structured interview. In addition, the adolescents were asked to write and draw about death. Parentally bereaved when 12 to 22 years of age, the adolescents were interviewed from between six weeks and six years post death. Adolescents were of both sexes, and mixed by race, religion, and socioeconomic class. The study identified variables and themes that appeared to have possible significance for how adolescents coped. Variables included family structure, history of prior loss, nature of the parent's death, age and sex of the adolescent at time of death, and the nature of the involvement of friends, church, and school. The thirteen themes on how adolescents were coping included: withdrawal, aloneness, fearfulness, chronicity of grief, sadness, unpreparedness, presentation of facades, lack of guilt, increased resilience, increased maturity, honesty in thoughts and feelings, achievement of closure, and awareness of support systems. The research concluded that adolescents do grieve differently from children and differently from adults; that younger adolescents even grieve differently from older adolescents. No discernible differences in grieving were ascertained on the basis of sex, type of death, or prior loss experiences. The adolescent who was perceived as grieving in an adaptive manner had the advantage of open communication with family members, had closure with the parent now dead, had seen the parent when dead, and had been involved with the rituals surrounding the death. Implications for future research and recommendations for adults involved with adolescents are included. [Source: DA]

Stillwell, Peggy Taylor. 1988. "Family Stress, Coping, and Resources as Perceived by Adolescents in Nuclear, Single Parent, and Remarried Families." Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in family stress, availability of resources, and levels of coping as reported by adolescents in nuclear, single parent, and remarried families. The 1,277 respondents were selected from a larger sample who participated in a statewide project funded by the Florida Department of Education. Four instruments were administered to Home Economics Family Living students by their teachers: (1) a background information questionnaire; (2) the Adolescent-Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes; (3) the Family Inventory of Resources for Management; and (4) the Adolescent-Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences. Adolescents' scores indicated that members of nuclear families had experienced fewer family life events or changes and less family stress than adolescents in single parent and remarried families. The level of available resources was higher for adolescents in nuclear families than for those in the other family forms. Despite differences in the number of life events or changes, levels of family stress, and availability of family resources, the coping scores among adolescents were not significantly different across family types. Sex of the adolescent was identified as an important influence on stress levels in nuclear and remarried families. Adolescents' coping scores were most influenced by the sex of the adolescents in all three family forms and by the importance of religion in nuclear families. Social class appeared to influence perceptions of available resources in nuclear families but appeared to have little effect in other family forms. Social class and the importance of religion appeared to be predictive of the level of available resources in nuclear families. In all three family types, a higher correlation was found between students' coping scores and their resource scores than between their coping scores and perceived level of family stress. [Source: DA]

Clark, Joyce Henrene. 1987. "An Investigation of the Relationship between Influences on Black Adolescent Sexual Decision-Making and Self-Concept, Family Structure, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity." Ed.D. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago.
Abstract: This study was designed (1) to investigate social and psychological factors identified by black adolescents as most influential in their decision-making about sexual behavior and (2) to analyze the relationship between these factors and self-concept, intactness of family structure, parental supervision of dating, ethnicity, religiosity, age, gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects of this study include 308 black high school students ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. The sample includes 142 males and 166 females from middle and lower socioeconomic levels. Instruments used in this study include the Juhasz-Schneider Sexual Decision-Making Questionnaire (1978), The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (Fitts, 1965), and the Black Power Ideology Scale II (Lessing, 1976). Data collected from subjects using the various research instruments were analyzed using a combination of principal component factor analysis. Eight major hypotheses were formulated and tested utilizing a discriminant analysis procedure where individual survey items to the JSSDMQ were used as the predictor variables and self-concept, family structure, ethnicity, religiosity, age, gender and socioeconomic status were used as the criterion variables. The results of the factor analysis yielded the following factors that seem to influence black adolescent sexual decision-making: (1) Adolescent Egocentrism emphasizes an attitude toward intercourse that is egocentric, impulse-oriented and manipulative; (2) Parenthood Competency focuses on desire and ability of the adolescent to assume the responsibilities of parenthood; (3) Consequences of Early Childbearing emphasizes the limitations and consequences of childbearing on education, career chances, social life and personal development of the adolescent; (4) Dyadic Interaction centers on the importance of intimacy, respect, commitment and quality in the romantic relationship; (5) Outer Directiveness, where Locus of Control is the focus, and the responsibility for sexual decisions relates to outer forces such as parents, peers and religion rather than to an inner personal responsibility; (6) Consequences of Early Marriage stresses the limitations and consequences of early marriage on educational plans, career chances, independence, social life and life style. The results of the study support the claim that a statistically significant relationship exists between factors which influence sexual decision-making and the hypothesized variables. [Source: DA]

Fehring, Richard J., Patricia Flatley Brennan, and Mary L. Keller. 1987. "Psychological and Spiritual Well-Being in College Students." Research in Nursing and Health vol. 10, pp. 391-398.
Abstract: Two separate correlational studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between spirituality and psychological mood states in response to life change. In the first study a spiritual well-being index, a spiritual-maturity scale, a life-change index, and a depression scale were administered to 95 freshman nursing students. The spiritual well-being index was composed of two sub-scales; a religious well-being and an existential well-being scale. In the second study a spiritual-outlook scale and the Profile of Mood State index was added to the above tests and administered to 75 randomly selected college students. The results demonstrated a weak positive relationship between life change and depression. Unlike a previous study, spiritual well-being, existential well-being, and spiritual outlook showed strong inverse relationships with negative moods suggesting that spiritual variables may influence psychological well-being. [Source: PI]

Hogan, Nancy Schildberg. 1987. "An Investigation of the Adolescent Sibling Bereavement Process and Adaptation." Ph.D. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago.
Abstract: This descriptive investigation was designed to study the adolescent sibling bereavement process. The sample consisted of 40 children, 13-18, who had experienced death of a sibling within the previous three years. An instrument to study sibling bereavement, the Sibling Inventory of Bereavement (SIB), was developed for this purpose. This self-report inventory consists of 109 items in the following categories: self, mother, father, surviving sibling, family, friend, religion, school. The stem phrase, "Since my brother/sister died I feel:--" focused the respondents on their perception of the impact of siblings death and the subsequent bereavement process of self and family members. The independent variables were age of respondent, difference in age of respondent and deceased at death, sex of respondent and deceased, cause of death, length of time respondent knew sibling would die, and time elapsed since death. Data were analyzed using correlations, t-tests and multiple regression techniques. Analysis of data resulted in a taxonomy of thirty nine concept areas, including, anger, anniversary reactions, compassion for mother and father, escape behavior, perception of personal growth and survivor guilt. A scheme allows interpretation of individual items and clusters of items. Significant findings emerged: (1) The nature and function that siblings play in each others lives is revealed with death of sibling; (2) The bereaved adolescent sibling articulation on a range of sibling bereavement symptomatology through self-report; (3) Survivors of sibling bereavement have "normal" transcient and enduring grief responses; (4) The sense of personal growth and maturity that evolves as a result of becoming a surviving sibling; (5) The importance of separating "parent" variability into separate mother and father variability; (6) The importance of investigating factors associated with children becoming resilient or vulnerable to the stresses of sibling bereavement; (7) The differential significance of mothers, fathers, surviving siblings, and friends, as social support systems for the bereaved child. The significant items and hypothetical constructs derived from this study can serve as a foundation for the systematic investigation of the physical and psychosocial effects of both "normal" and psychogenetic factors that associate with adolescent sibling bereavement. The outcome of this investigation and future research will be the development of a comprehensive baseline of information that health care workers, counselors/therapists can use to devise empirically based strategies that are developmentally appropriate for bereaved siblings. [Source: DA]

Miller, Brent C., Roger B. Christensen, and Terrance D. Olson. 1987. "Adolescent Self-Esteem in Relation to Sexual Attitudes and Behavior." Youth and Society vol. 19, pp. 93-111.
Abstract: The relationship between self-esteem & sexual intercourse experience was investigated in surveys of 2,423 high school students in 3 western US states in 1983/84. In this sample, self-esteem was related to sexual attitudes & behavior in ways that are consistent with a normative context hypothesis. That is, among those who were in conservative groups (frequent church attenders & Mormons) there was a significant negative relationship between self-esteem & permissive sexual attitudes & behavior. The relationship was also mediated by personal attitudinal permissiveness, with self-esteem being positively related to sexual intercourse among adolescents who believed that premarital sex was usually or always right, & negatively related to sexual intercourse among those who believed it was always wrong. [Source: SA]

Miller, Denise R. 1987. "Shame/Guilt Proneness, Symptoms and Treatment Satisfaction in Irish and Jewish Families." Thesis, New School for Social Research, NY.

Schwartz, Morry Avrum Joel. 1987. "Jewish Adolescent Self-Esteem in Contemporary Society." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Manitoba (Canada), Winnipeg.
Abstract: The present study investigated Jewish Adolescent self esteem in contemporary society in order to shed light on the relationship between self esteem and (1) sex differences, (2) socioeconomic status, (3) family satisfaction and (4) parental child-rearing behaviors. In addition, Jewish identity and its relationship to self esteem was investigated. Participants included 255 Jewish adolecents from Joseph Wolinsky Collegiate, a Jewish Parochial high school in the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Participants were administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; Family Satisfaction Scale; Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory, and a Jewish Identity Scale. In addition, a demographic questionnaire was included with the administered measures. An overall MANOVA revealed no sex or sex x age-related effect in the measures of the study. A one-tailed t -test confirmed that Jewish males scored significantly higher in self esteem then Jewish females. The results of correlational analyses (Pearson r) confirmed the following predicted relationships: family satisfaction and self esteem, parental child-rearing behavior Acceptance and self esteem, and Jewish identity and self esteem (some age groups only). The following predicted relationships were not confirmed: a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and self esteem, and a negative relationship between Psychological Control, Firm Control and self esteem. A stepwise regression analysis on self esteem confirmed family satisfaction to be a better predictor of self esteem than socioeconomic status but failed to confirm the importance of parental child-rearing behaviors or Jewish identity. Contrary to prediction, sex was found to be a significant predictor of self esteem. The results of this study are discussed and placed in perspective. In light of the findings, it appears that the most profitable line of future inquiry into adolescent self esteem development lies within the area of family relations. [Source: DA]

Tebbi, Cameron K., Janis C. Mallon, Mary E. Richards, and Lewis R. Bigler. 1987. "Religiosity and Locus of Control of Adolescent Cancer Patients." Psychological Reports vol. 61, pp. 683-696.
Abstract: Administered a religious beliefs scale by J. E. Faulkner and G. F. DeJong (see record 1967-04453-001) and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control (LC) Scale to 28 adolescent cancer patients (aged 10-23 yrs). 17 Ss indicated that practicing their religion provided them with support by offering security in the face of death and helped them understand and accept their illness. There were no significant relationships among religiosity subscales or between the use of religion as a secondary source of control and LC scores. Religiosity subscale and LC scores did not differ significantly as a function of sex, age, religion, or time since diagnosis. Among younger Ss, illness may have accelerated the development of internality associated with older adolescence. [Source: PI]

Goodman, Roberta Ann. 1986. "Adolescent Grief Characteristics When a Parent Dies." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado At Boulder.
Abstract: Normal grief characteristics of non-psychiatrically involved adolescents were researched to provide parents and significant others with guidelines for constructive support of the adolescent when a parent dies. This research was conducted because the grief characteristics of adolescents cannot be clearly understood from research with psychiatric and adult populations. A descriptive research design was utilized. The interview questions concerned grief characteristics, what the adolescent thought was naturally experienced in mourning, sex differences in grief characteristics, family patterns and interaction effects, and from whom the adolescent learned how to mourn. Thirty adolescent subjects between the ages of 11 and 21 were located through grief centers and personal referrals. They were contacted following the surviving parent's approval. The 30 adolescents and their 16 surviving parents were then separately interviewed in the subject's home using an audio tape. The private interview was conducted with a structured questionnaire for the adolescent and the surviving parent which related to the research questions. Investigation of grief characteristics showed differences for the bereaved adolescent in school grades and attendance, sleeping and eating patterns, somatic complaints and a group of core feelings. Other specific feelings were related to pre-existing family relationships, the type of death, and length of illness.. Few differences were found for alcohol use, religion, or careers. Adolescents' and parents' beliefs concerning what was naturally experienced in mourning were similar to the subjects' experience. Moreover, they appeared to have learned to mourn from their parents. The surviving parents' relationship to and interaction with the adolescent as a support system were found to provide a significant difference in the constructive resolution of mourning. Other valuable support systems were found to be school, peers, and talking with someone who had also lost a parent. Additionally, adolescents' involvement in funeral ceremonies, securing mementos of the deceased, and significant others' acceptance of their grief were important in the mourning process. Sex differences found included more psychotherapy for females following the death and more school attendance difficulties for males. No sex differences were found regarding alcohol, grades or closer peer relationships. [Source: DA]

Hanson, Shirley M. 1986. "Healthy Single Parent Families." Family Relations: Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies vol. 35, pp. 125-132.
Abstract: Assessed the characteristics of 42 healthy single-parent families. A total of 84 Ss--the parent (mean age 41.6 yrs) and a target child (mean age 14.1 yrs)--participated. The variables included socioeconomic status (SES), social support, communication, religiousness, problem solving, and the physical and mental health status of single parents and their children. The effects of the sex of custodial parents and the custody arrangements on health outcomes were also analyzed. A multimethod, multivariable approach was used. Data collection procedures included 6 questionnaires (e.g., Family Environment Scale, Family Interaction Schedule) and an interview in the home setting. Single parents and their children reported fairly high levels of both physical and mental health. Communication, social support, SES, religiousness, and problem solving were also correlated with the mental and physical health of parents and children. [Source: PI]

Dodd, David K. and Latecia L. Mills. 1985. "Fadis: A Measure of the Fear of Accidental Death and Injury." Psychological Record vol. 35, pp. 269-275.
Abstract: Investigated the validity and reliability of a fear of accidental death and injury scale (FADIS). This 25-item scale was administered to 177 high school seniors and college students. It was found to be internally consistent and related to several predictors. Significantly higher FADIS scores were obtained for non-Whites than Whites and for women than men. Religiosity and religious preference were also strongly related to FADIS for women. It is suggested that locus of control may affect the development of accidental death anxiety. [Source: PI]

Francis, Leslie J. and Paul R. Pearson. 1985. "Psychoticism and Religiosity among 15-Year-Olds." Personality and Individual Differences vol. 6, pp. 397-398.
Abstract: Administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Junior EPQ, and an attitude-toward-religion scale to 49 male and 83 female 15-yr-olds. Findings show discrepancy between results obtained using the EPQ and the Junior EPQ. If it is assumed that the adult scale is a more adequate operationalization of the construct of psychoticism, data confirm the hypothesis that there is a significant negative correlation between psychoticism and religiosity for both sexes. No clear relationship emerged with the Junior EPQ, indicating that it is a less satisfactory operationalization of the Psychoticism scale. Scores on the Psychoticism scale of the Junior EPQ, but not the adult version, were significantly correlated with sex. [Source: PI]

Gay, J. E. 1985. "Religious Correlates of Death Anxiety among High School Students in Rural Southern America." Australian Journal of Social Issues vol. 20, pp. 308-315.
Abstract: The relationship of religiosity to death anxiety is explored, based on questionnaire data from a sample of 312 Ru high school students in La. Multiple regression analysis reveals 6 variables associated with death anxiety, in the following order of importance: experience with death; intellectual religiosity; ideological religiosity; religious affiliation; born-again status; & race. Since these variables together account for less than 15% of the variance in death anxiety, their meaningfulness is debatable. [Source: SA]

Kellinger, K. G. 1985. "Factors in Adolescent Contraceptive Use." Nurse Practitioner vol. 10, pp. 55-62.
Abstract: This study examined three variables--knowledge of contraception, self-esteem and religiosity-and the relationship of each variable to the use of contraception among unmarried adolescent women. A questionnaire designed to measure contraceptive knowledge, self-esteem and religiosity was administered to 28 pregnant, unmarried adolescents and to 31 unmarried, never-pregnant, adolescent contraceptive users. A t-Test was used to measure the significance of the relationship of the three independent variables to the dependent variable, contraceptive use. Upon analysis of the data, no significant difference was found between either group in relation to their knowledge of contraception, self-esteem scores or religious attitudes; however, some additional data were gathered from the research tool that may provide areas for future investigation. [Source: ML]

Powell, Lane H. and Stephen R. Jorgensen. 1985. "Evaluation of a Church-Based Sexuality Education Program for Adolescents." Family Relations: Journal of Applied Family and Child Studies vol. 34, pp. 475-482.
Abstract: 49 females and 25 males (aged 14-28 yrs) attending a Protestant church were administered a sex knowledge test, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a personal values scale. Ss subsequently attended a church-based sexual education program designed to increase sex information and self-esteem and to clarify personal values. 41 control Ss from a church of the same denomination and size in the same geographic area completed the pre- and posttests but not the education program. Posttest evaluation showed that level of sexual knowledge and clarity of personal sexual values in the experimental Ss increased over levels in the controls. Results suggest that short-term programs are effective, and a recommendation for parent/teen involvement in program design is made. [Source: PI]

Wells, V. E., E. Y. Deykin, and G. L. Klerman. 1985. "Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence." Psychiatric Developments vol. 3, pp. 83-108.
Abstract: Public health concern regarding depression has recently increased as a result of the rise in the rate of adolescent suicide, with a probable concomitant rise in the rate of depression in this age group. The rise appears to be both a period effect, in that increased rates are now observed across age categories, and a cohort effect, in that being born after 1960 also contributes to the increase. The clinical phenomena and epidemiology of depression in adolescence are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria for depressive mood and depressive syndrome are similar to those in adults. However, the predictive value of a depressive episode in adolescence, and whether the occurrence of depression in adolescence is a transient developmental experience or whether it predicts a particular subtype of future depression, are at present unknown. The familial, social and personal risk factors for adolescent depression are reviewed, The major factors are: parental history of affective illness, childhood experience of parental loss, and female gender. Other factors, such as birth order and sibling factors, socio-economic status, race, religion, geography, concomitant medical illness, intelligence, career aspirations, substance abuse and life events, are reviewed, although their relative contributions as risk factors are less clear-cut. It is proposed that cross-sectional, retrospective and longitudinal studies are required to clarify important areas of uncertainty. [Source: ML]

Bahr, Howard M. and Thomas K. Martin. 1983. ""and Thy Neighbor as Thyself": Self-Esteem and Faith in People as Correlates of Religiosity and Family Solidarity among Middletown High School Students." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 22, pp. 132-144.
Abstract: As part of a replication by T. Caplow et al (1983) of the "Middletown" studies by R. S. Lynd and H. M. Lynd (1929, 1937), questionnaire data were obtained from 1,673 high school students. Measures included items from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Srole Anomia Scale. Grades and leadership activity showed the strongest positive relationships with self-esteem, followed by family solidarity and parental SES. Neither church attendance nor evangelicalism was related to self-concept, but both were related to faith in people. Related work on the correlates of religiosity is discussed. [Source: PI]

Balk, David. 1983a. "Adolescents' Grief Reactions and Self-Concept Perceptions Following Sibling Death: A Study of 33 Teenagers." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 137-161.
Abstract: Interviewed 13 males and 20 females 14-29 yrs old regarding a sibling's death and administered Ss the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents (OSIQ). Reactions investigated were emotional responses, extent of preoccupations with thoughts of the dead sibling, effects on sleeping and eating habits, anniversary reactions, hallucinations of the dead sibling, thoughts of suicide, and effects on grades and study habits. In addition to OSIQ data, self-concept measures included self-concept in common contexts, perceptions of personal maturity, lessons learned from the sibling's death, relationship with the sibling before the death, and importance of religious beliefs. Comparison with OSIQ standard scores indicated that Ss were as adjusted as same-age same-sex norm groups. Analyses identified emotional responses significantly associated with sex and age. Significant results emerged regarding effects on grades and study habits, perceptions of personal maturity, and increased importance of religious beliefs. Specific emotional responses were influenced by family closeness and perception of family communication. Two case descriptions show typical patterns experienced by the Ss. [Source: PI]

Balk, David. 1983b. "Effects of Sibling Death on Teenagers." Journal of School Health vol. 53, pp. 14-18.
Abstract: A focused interview was used to collect data on bereavement reactions and self-concept in 33 14-29 yr olds who had experienced the death of a sibling 4-84 mo previously. The most common emotional reactions following the death were shock, confusion, depression, and anger. 23 Ss reported difficulty sleeping after the death, and 11 said that they had thought about suicide. Most Ss reported anniversary reactions, half the Ss reported seeing or hearing the dead sibling, and many reported problems with school work immediately after the death. Most reported that religion and the funeral helped them deal with the experience; and friends, family members, and conversation were cited as sources of support. After an initial period of adjustment, Ss had better relationships with parents and peers, a sense of increased maturity, and a self-concept not significantly different from their peers. [Source: PI]

Balk, David. 1983c. "How Teenagers Cope with Sibling Death: Some Implications for School Counselors." School Counselor vol. 31, pp. 150-158.
Abstract: Investigated the reactions and coping behaviors of 33 bereaved adolescents (aged 14-29 yrs) whose siblings had died 4-84 mo earlier. Ss were interviewed privately, and the interviews were coded for content. Results are discussed in terms of emotional responses, relationships with parents, relationships with peers, effects on grades and study habits, discussions on the sibling's death, and the importance of religious beliefs. Ss expressed such emotional responses as shock, guilt, depression, and loneliness both at the time of death and at the time of the interview. Ss indicated that they participated in the study primarily to help other bereaved teenagers. The implications of their responses for counselors suggest that (1) teenagers suffer enduring grief reactions, although the passage of time seems to help this suffering; (2) a strong factor toward resolution of bereavement is the quality of the parent-child relationship after the death; (3) the impact of bereavement on academic work needs to be appreciated by school personnel; (4) religion may provide a crucial source of counseling leverage with a bereaved teenager; (5) teenagers rely greatly on discussion of the death as a means of coping; and (6) counselors may also want to inform and counsel the teenager's friends about a sibling death. [Source: PI]

Florian, Victor and Dov Har Even. 1983. "Fear of Personal Death: The Effects of Sex and Religious Belief." Omega: Journal of Death and Dying vol. 14, pp. 83-91.
Abstract: Used a multidimensional method of measurement to investigate differences in fear of personal death between 225 religious and nonreligious high school students studying in state religious and nonreligious schools. Findings indicate significant and simple interactive effects of sex and religious belief. Females feared factors such as loss of identity and self-annihilation, while males showed more fear in factors of consequences to family and friends and punishment in the hereafter. Religious Ss' fear of personal death stemmed mainly from fear of punishment in the hereafter and consequences to family and friends. Results are explained according to differences in sex-role socialization and in the male and female emphasis on the family that is taught by Judaism. [Source: PI]

Johnson, Carol Ann. 1983. "An Exploration of Selected Factors for Predicting Adolescent Self-Esteem and Locus of Control." Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University.
Abstract: The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether the middle school and senior high school adolescents' self-esteem and locus of control can be predicted from their age, sex, race, religion, grade level, report card grades, position in the family, and attitudes toward mother, father, and teacher. The secondary purpose was to compare the relationship between the adolescents' self-esteem and locus of control. Data were collected by responses to two demographic questionnaires, The Cornell Socialization Inventory, The Self-Esteem Scale, and The Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire from 449 middle and high school adolescents in eight selected counties in Florida. The data were analyzed utilizing the Pearson correlation coefficients, the Stepwise multiple regression technique, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model. Analysis of the data provided the basis for the following conclusions: (1) In order of importance, the independent variables used to predict the adolescents' self-esteem were the adolescents' sex, attitude toward teacher, age, report card grades, religion, attitude toward father, attitude toward mother, grade level, and race. Position in the family was not selected as a variable to predict the adolescents' self-esteem. (2) In order of importance, the independent variables used to predict the adolescents' locus of control were the adolescents' attitude toward teacher, attitude toward mother, sex, age, race, attitude toward father, report card grades, position in the family, religion, and grade level. (3) There was a very low, but significant relationship between adolescents' self-esteem and locus of control. [Source: DA]

Leonard, Barbara Jane. 1983. "Psychosocial Consequences on Siblings of Children with Chronic Illness." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: An exploratory study of 77 healthy siblings of brothers and sisters with newly diagnosed chronic illness (cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, cystic fibrosis) was conducted to determine the impact of their siblings' illnesses on their emotional, social, and psychological health. Tools utilized included the Symptom Checklist (SCL 90-R), Family Environment Scale, Child Behavior Checklist and interview schedules designed by the author. All new cases of the disease which fit the study criteria were recruited from three midwestern metropolitan medical centers. The 49 families comprising the study population were generally stable, middle-class, caucasian and religious. They came from rural (51 percent) and urban (49 percent) areas in the five-state region surrounding Minnesota. The independent variables included the parents' psychological health, the family environment, marital status, religiosity, severity of the illness, type of illness, control of the disease, communication between family members, other family problems, sex and age of the healthy siblings. Families were interviewed in their homes within one year of the diagnosis. Parents were interviewed together and children over the ages of four were interviewed privately. Of the 77 healthy siblings between the ages of four and 16 years of age, 17 (23.6 percent) evidenced behavioral problems as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. These children were in families which had other serious parental and marital problems said to antedate the ill child's diagnosis. The relationship was statistically significant at (p = .01) using Chi square analysis. The relationship between the parent's psychological health and that of the siblings was also significant (p = .01). None of the other independent variable relationships were significant. Siblings perceived their relationships to parents as close, understanding and open generally and with regard to the disease. The siblings and the ill children perceived the disease differently, with the siblings identifying the disease as more serious than the ill child, statistically significant at the .01 level. Healthy siblings and ill children did not discuss the disease with each other, with the exception of the adolescents who shared feelings with each other. [Source: DA]

Pompa, Janiece Lynn. 1983. "Aspects of Sex Role and Self-Esteem in Mormon Adolescents Following a Wilderness Experience." Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State University.
Abstract: This study described the psychological sex role characteristics of 67 Mormon adolescents prior to a five-day wilderness experience, as compared to a control group of 71 Utah high school students. In addition, the relationship of sex role and self-esteem in these two groups, as well as changes in the Mormon sample following their outdoor experience, were investigated. T-tests revealed that at pre-test, experimental and control females scored significantly higher than experimental and control males on sub-scales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) measuring moral-ethical worth and social self-esteem. Experimental group females also scored significantly higher than experimental group males on TSCS measures of behavioral satisfaction and global self-esteem. With regard to psychological sex role, subjects' scores on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) revealed that at pre-test, most Mormon adolescent males were classified as Masculine, while most Mormon adolescent females were classified as Feminine and Androgynous. In addition, the number of subjects classified as cross-sex-typed was very small. A Chi-square test of independent samples revealed that the distribution of experimental group subjects in sex role categories was significantly different than the distribution in Bem's standardization sample. Although McNemar tests showed that neither male nor female experimental group members shifted from sex-typed to androgynous from pre- to post-test to a significant degree, multiple regression analyses revealed that mid-and high-scoring experimental females' BSRI Masculinity scores increased significantly from pre- to post-test, when compared to mid- and high-scoring control females. There was no significant difference in these males' BSRI Masculinity or Femininity scores, or females' Femininity scores, from pre- to post-test. Finally, it was found that the experimental group as a whole showed significantly increased TSCS global self-esteem scores from pre to post-test. A main effect for sex role was also found, and Scheffe post-hoc analyses revealed that Masculine and Androgynous subjects' scores considered together were significantly higher than Feminine and Undifferentiated subjects' scores at both pre- and post-test. [Source: DA]

Heinrichs, Daniel J. 1982. "Parental Contributions to the Mental Health of Their Children." Mennonite Quarterly Review vol. 56, pp. 92-98.
Abstract: The quality of relationships between parents and between the parents and each of their children plays a major role in shaping the personality and character of the child. Parental contributions include their encouraging trust, developing language, communication, and interpersonal negotiation skills, as well as the freedom to exercise initiative in using personal skills, assets, and attributes. Parents serve as models to identify within such crucial areas as controlling and expressing sexual and aggressive impulses, and coping with emotions, both positive and negative. As the child in the home sees that the values lived out before him by the parents are valid he/she becomes free unambivalently to make them his/her own. Parental behavior in such critical areas as expressing love, mercy, justice, forgiveness, and restoration in their relationships with each other and the children, has a profound impact on the child's subsequent perception of his Heavenly Father, for the child's portrait of God is initially sketched from the reflections of parental behavior in these areas. [Source: RI]

Whiting, Brooke Elizabeth. 1982. "Determinants and Consequences of Mattering in the Adolescents' Social World." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland College Park.
Abstract: The importance of Others to the Self has been well established in the social psychological literature and concepts from both the Symbolic Interactionist and the Reference Group perspectives have been used to describe this phenomenon. However, the reciprocal concept, the Self's importance to the Other has been a largely neglected issue until M. Rosenberg's and B. Claire McCullogh's (1979) pioneer research on parental mattering. Mattering was defined as the individual's judgements that they are the object of concern, attention or interest to the other. The present study examined other indivduals in the adolescents' social world as sources of mattering and compared the determinants and consequences of mattering to them with those of parental mattering. Variables to operationalize perceptions of mattering to parents, teachers, friends, siblings and globally were defined and posited as intervening between the socio-demographic variables (Race, Religion and Socio-Economic Level) and the outcome variables (Self Esteem, Self Concept of School Ability, Depression and Rebellious Behavior in School). Data from a nationwide study on tenth-grade boys in 1968 and a path analytic technique were utilized to examine the relationships. Only some of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results revealed: (a) mattering to one or more of the sources affected all of the outcome variables, corresponding with increased self esteem and self concept of school ability and decreased depression and rebellious behavior in school, (b) parental mattering exhibited the strongest and most consistent impact on the outcome variables, (c) although mattering to the other sources did not emerge to be as significant as expected there is some modest support for the application of the principle, which predicts that the differential strength of mattering on an outcome will be contingent upon the area of source expertise, (d) socio-economic level was the only socio-demographic variable with a consistently strong impact, and this was only evident for parental mattering, (e) a subsample analysis by race revealed that the process of mattering may be radically different between blacks and whites, (f) the reciprocal effects model indicated that global self-esteem and the self concept of school ability had nearly equivalent effects on each other. [Source: DA]

Brun, John Albert. 1981. "An Investigation into the Adolescent's Conception of Death." Ph.D. Thesis, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville.
Abstract: An exploratory, descriptive study of adolescent attitudes and feelings about death phenomena was conducted using forty-eight male and female volunteer subjects (white, middle-class, urban residence, 63% Catholic) evenly divided between the ages of eleven and sixteen. Subjects' emotional adjustment, health history, separation experiences and intelligence were assessed. Using a semi-structured interview, responses to a variety of questions about death and dying were elicited. Responses were coded and frequency counts obtained. The following trends were observed: Subjects thought occasionally too often about death with little evidence of personal denial or avoidance of the topic. More than one third said they had not discussed death with anyone. Parents' thoughts about death were described as discomfort or avoidance, and provision of explanations of a religious or naturalistic kind. Subjects' thoughts were realistic and appropriate when compared to usual adult conceptions, although manner and style of expression were diverse suggesting the need for closer evaluation of personality and other variables as affecting integration and utilization of death knowledge in this age group. Recall of early awareness (ages 4 to 6) of death phenomena was prominent (48%). Thoughts were said to be precipitated by death of relatives (or others) but also at times by loss of a pet or observations of the death of animals. Expressions of fear of death ranged from afraid to not at all afraid. It was suggested that fear of specific aspects of death, dying or loss might better account for data than an assumption of a general fear of death. High religious affiliation, intact, middle-class families, above average intelligence, no significant numbers of subjects with a loss in the immediate family may have mediated expressed fear of death. Results of experiences with death, funerals and wakes were conflicting and suggested that degree of attachment (to person or animal) might be a better predictor of reactions. Results were consistent with other studies which emphasize a model of death concepts and attitudes which is multidimensional and interactive, with personality experiential, social-familial, and other variables thought to be important. [Source: DA]

Rosenberg, Morris and B. Claire McCullough. 1981. "Mattering: Inferred Significance and Mental Health among Adolescents." Research in Community and Mental Health vol. 2, pp. 163-182.
Abstract: Explored adolescents' beliefs that they matter to their parents. Data from 4 large-scale surveys completed by 6,568 junior and senior high school students were analyzed using the research strategy of theoretical replication. Results indicate that "parental mattering" was related to global self-esteem and that this relationship was not attributable to Ss' beliefs that their parents held positive or negative attitudes toward them. Ss' feeling that they mattered to their parents was also associated with a number of fundamental dimensions of mental health independent of self-esteem (e.g., depression, anxiety, and negative affective states). Males who felt they mattered little to their parents were more likely to be delinquent. The relationship between significance and mattering is discussed, and social and cultural influences of parental mattering (idiosyncratic factors, socioeconomic status, sibling structure, and religion) are reviewed. [Source: PI]

Young, Michael and Seldon Daniels. 1981. "Religious Correlates of Death Anxiety among High School Students in the Rural South." Death Education vol. 5, pp. 223-233.
Abstract: Conducted a study of 312 rural high school students to determine the relationship of several aspects of religiosity to death anxiety. The Ss completed the Death Anxiety Scale and a multidimensional scale of religiosity. Data were analyzed using stepwise multiple-regression analysis. Results indicate that 6 variables--sex, religiosity (the ideological and intellectual dimensions), religious affiliation, born-again status, and race--were significant correlates of death anxiety. [Source: PI]

Young, Michael and Seldon Daniels. 1980. "Born Again Status as a Factor in Death Anxiety." Psychological Reports vol. 47, pp. 367-370.
Abstract: 320 rural high school students completed the Death Anxiety Scale. A 3-way ANOVA yielded significant main effects for race, sex, and born again status. Higher death anxiety was exhibited by Blacks, females, and non-Christians than by Whites, males, and Christians. [Source: PI]

Cremins, John J. 1979. "Perceptual Style and Religious Orientation as Indices of the Fear of Death in Junior High School Students." Thesis, St John's University.

Levin, S. 1979. "Understanding Religious Behavior." Journal of Religion and Health vol. 18, pp. 8-20.
Abstract: The attached (to mother) fetus-infant finds his religious expression in Buddhism. The attached (to group) juvenile finds his religious expression in Judaism and other tribalisms. The attached (to spouse) adult finds his religious expression in agnosticism and secularism. Attached phases are placid and of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The three detaching phases are hurtful and hence soteriological, and are also of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The toddler-young child finds his religious expression in Christianity, the adolescent in atheism and/or Marxism, and the aged, sick or dying plucks at any religious or secular aid. [Source: RI]

Smith, Christopher B., Andrew J. Weigert, and Darwin L. Thomas. 1979. "Self-Esteem and Religiosity: An Analysis of Catholic Adolescents from Five Cultures." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 18, pp. 51-60.
Abstract: Hypothesized (a) a positive relationship between adolescent self-esteem and religiosity across 12 purposive, middle-class, Catholic samples from cities in 5 cultures: New York and St. Paul in the US; Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); San Juan, Puerto Rico; Seville, Spain; and Bonn, West Germany; and (b) a stronger relationship between the 2 variables for females than for males. Findings yield consistent support for the 1st hypothesis, and mild support for the 2nd in the Latin samples only. [Source: PI]

Swain, Helen L. 1979. "Childhood Views of Death." Death Education vol. 2, pp. 341-358.
Abstract: Investigated (a) the nature of concepts of death held by children at different ages (2-26 yrs) and (b) whether these concepts are influenced by such variables as sex, level of parental education, or degree of religious influence within the family. Attention was directed toward themes of finality of death, inevitability of death, and acknowledgment of death as a personal event. Interviews with 120 children were rated independently by 2 judges, according to a 5-point scale for each of the 3 themes. A 4-way ANOVA was used to analyze the ratings in terms of the independent classification variables. Age was the only variable found to be significant. Results of the study indicate that, although children do differ in their concepts of death along an age continuum, the greatest change appears to occur about the time they enter school, that is, at ages 5-7 yrs. It is at that time that they begin to demonstrate concepts similar to those held by older children, exhibiting less magical thinking and a greater reliance on biological and social reality. A 2nd key change appears to occur in the mid-teen-age years, when the concepts appear to become more abstract on the one hand and more personally real on the other hand. [Source: PI]

Ahrendt, Collene J. 1976. "Relationships between the Self-Concepts of Children and Their Concepts of God." Thesis, University of Texas, Austin.

Chartier, Myron R. and Larry A. Goehner. 1976. "A Study of the Relationship of Parent-Adolescent Communication, Self-Esteem, and God Image." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 4, pp. 227-232.
Abstract: Studied 84 10th and 11th graders from a Christian high school. They were administered 3 tests to measure the relationships of parental communication, self-esteem, and God image: M. J. Bienvenu's Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and a 5-item differential extracted from P. Benson and B. Spilka's 13-item semantic differential developed for measuring loving and controlling God images. Significant relationships were found between parental communication and self-esteem, between self-esteem and God image, and between practical communication and the adolescents' image of God. [Source: PI]

Mueller, Mary L. 1975. "Reducing the Fear of Death in Early Adolescents through Religious Education." Thesis, University of Notre Dame.

Stewin, L. and C. C. Anderson. 1974. "Cognitive Complexity as a Determinant of Information Processing." Alberta Journal of Educational Research vol. 20, pp. 233-243.
Abstract: Conducted a study of 107 11th-grade students to examine the relationships between cognitive complexity as defined by B. Tuckman's (1966) Interpersonal Topical Inventory (ITI) and O. Harvey's (1967) Conceptual Systems Test (CST). Generally, characteristics of impulsivity, flexibility, and conformity were associated with ITI functioning, whereas a number of religious orientations were found to be associated only with CST functioning. It is concluded that (a) the ITI and CST assessed conceptual systems functioning differently and (b) no necessary relationship existed between their domains of functioning. The latter conclusion suggests that a disparity rather than a difference exists between at least these 2 psychometric approaches to systems functioning. [Source: PI]

Benson, Peter and Bernard Spilka. 1973. "God Image as a Function of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 12, pp. 297-310.
Abstract: Predicted that a believer's level of self-esteem and his degree of locus of control will influence his description and definition of God. 23 items selected from S. Coopersmith's 1967 list of 50 items measuring self-esteem and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale were administered to 128 male Catholic high school students. Self-esteem was positively related to loving, accepting God images and negatively related to rejecting images. Locus of control was unrelated to controlling beliefs. It is suggested that self-esteem may be a major determinant of God images and that results have important implications for studying the dynamics of personal religion. [Source: PI]

Richek, Herbert G. 1972. "Personality and Mental Health Concomitants of Religiousness in Late Adolescent College Students." Thesis, University of Texas.

Frazin, Lester A. 1971. "The Relationship of Religious Value Acceptance to Self-Esteem and Degree of Isolation among Reform Jewish Adolescents." Thesis, Northern Illinois University.

Garber, Benjamin and Robert Polsky. 1970. "Follow-up Study of Hospitalized Adolescents." Archives of General Psychiatry vol. 22, pp. 179-187.
Abstract: Describes 158 adolescent patients hospitalized in a psychiatric research and training facility, and the follow-up study made of their progress after discharge. Using hospital records for a period of 10 yr., Ss were divided into 3 diagnostic catagories (psychoses, neuroses, and character disorders) and compared on a number of variables, including family background, religion, social adjustment while hospitalized, age, sex, and condition at discharge. To evaluate Ss after discharge, a program using personal interviews, questionnaires, and letters was conducted to ascertain the following: (a) perceived benefits or criticism of hospitilization, (b) attitudes towards therapist and therapy, (c) need for a transitional facility, and (d) current occupation and life-pattern. In comparing staff expectations for Ss at time of discharge and findings of data at time of study, it is concluded that Ss are achieving a better life adjustment than was expected. [Source: PI]

Mayo, Clyde C., Herbert B. Puryear, and Herbert G. Richek. 1969. "Mmpi Correlates of Religiousness in Late Adolescent College Students." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease pp. 381-385.
Abstract: Ss were 99 female and 67 male undergraduates at a small Southwestern denominational university. Groups were defined on the basis of sex and of church membership and self-classification as religious and nonreligious; dependent variables were the standard MMPI clinical scale scores, 3 validity scales and Repression, Anxiety, and Ego Strength. In the comparisons between religious and nonreligious males, religious males were found to be significantly less depressed, less schizoprenic, and less psychopathic deviant that nonreligious males. Only 1 difference emerged between the female groups: nonreligious females were found to score higher on the MMPI Ego Strength scale than the religious females. [Source: PI]

Cooley, C. Ewing and Jerry B. Hutton. 1965. "Adolescent Response to Religious Appeal as Related to Ipat Anxiety." Journal of Social Psychology vol. 67, pp. 325-327.
Abstract: 72 of 255 adolescents attending a summer camp in a religious setting responded to group invitations for rededication, conversion, or special service committal. All campers received the IPAT Anxiety scale questionnaire on the 1st day of camp and the 72 responders received it the 2nd time, on the last day. The comparison of test results suggests that levels of anxiety are not significantly related to responses to religious appeals. Also, it appears that the responders experienced a lessening of anxiety to a significant degree. [Source: PI]

Academy of Religion and Mental Health. 1960. Religion in the Developing Personality. NY: New York Univer. Press.
Abstract: This book represents the Proceedings of the Second Symposium of the Academy of Religion and Mental Health, Harriman, New York, December 5-7, 1958. Topics covered: "Religion and Childhood"; "Religion and Adolescence"; "Religion, Adulthood, and the Aging." Sections devoted to the academy's future plans and a list of the 24 participants may also be found. Participants represent the fields of religion, medicine, and behavioral sciences. The general theme of the book is the need for sharing information between members of these 3 professional groups. [Source: PI]

Manwell, Elizabeth M. and Sophia A. Fahs. 1951. Consider the Children; How They Grow. Boston: Beacon Press.
Abstract: A revision and expansion of the 1940 edition (see 14: 4793.) Some of the phases of child growth and development treated in the separate chapters of this book include the developmental tasks of the nursery years, the awakening to the world of nature, the child's experiments in social behavior, his experiences with the dark and with dreams, and his attitudes toward life and love. The authors consider the mental and emotional health of young children and their spiritual or religious health to be interdependent, and maintain that each must be examined in the light of the other. [Source: PI]

Engle, T. L. 1945. "Personality Adjustments of Children Belonging to Two Minority Groups." Journal of Educational Psychology vol. 36, pp. 543-560.
Abstract: A group of 101 Amish children and a group of 107 Negro children, as well as 168 children belonging in neither of these minority groups, were given the California Test of Personality--Primary, Form A. Comparisons among the groups were made for the test as a whole, for subsections, and for particular items. In general, differences in favor of the nonminority control group were found in self-, social, and total adjustment, although there was an exception in the case of Amish boys. The handicap of belonging to a minority group appeared to be somewhat greater for girls than for boys. Significant contrast between the experimental and control groups was shown in the case of specific test items. No detailed personality patterns were found to be characteristic of both minority groups. [Source: PI]

Whittaker, M. L. 1932. "Adolescent Religion in Relation to Mental Hygiene." Religious Education vol. 27, pp. 811-817.
Abstract: The author finds that the period of adolescence is one of much stress and strain. While there are not commonly experienced the extreme emotional upheavals that were formerly supposed to be present, there is a growth of the emotions found in the pre-adolescent period and also a development of emotional control. Fears of death and other fears suggested by literature are common, and there are doubts especially with respect to religion. Love and other emotional states associated with sex are at this time especially difficult to manage, and are threatening to mental stability. There are differences of opinion as to the influence which religion has at this time. Some say that there is a striking lack of religion among girls, although just what constitutes religion is something of a question. Boys are likely to be critical and skeptical. Fears of sin and its consequences are common, but often fail to influence conduct. The tendency of religion at present is to create mental conflicts, whereas a guiding and dominating influence which would avoid them would contribute to tranquillity and mental health. It seems to be the general conviction that the teaching of religion will need to be changed in order to provide a wholesome and balancing outlook upon life such as will appeal to adolescents. [Source: PI]

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.