National Study of Youth and Religion
National Study of Youth and Religion National Study of Youth and Religion National Study of Youth and Religion  
Research Study
Contact Us

Faith and Moral Development

Killen, M. and C. Stangor. 2001. "Children's Social Reasoning About Inclusion and Exclusion in Gender and Race Peer Group Contexts." Child Development vol. 72, pp. 174-186.
Abstract: This study investigated whether children's and adolescents' judgments about exclusion of peers from peer group activities on the basis of their gender and race would differ by both age level and the context in which the exclusion occurred. Individual interviews about exclusion in several different contexts were conducted with 130 middle-class, European American children and adolescents. Younger children were expected to reject exclusion, by using judgments based on moral reasoning, regardless of the potential cost to group functioning, whereas older children were expected to condone exclusion on the basis of group membership in cases in which the inclusion of these children might interrupt effective group functioning On measures of judgments, justifications for those judgments, and ratings of the appropriateness of exclusion, the vast majority of children used moral reasoning and rejected exclusion in contexts in which only the presence of a stereotype justified it. As expected, however, older children (13 years) were more likely to allow exclusion than younger children (7 and 10 years) when group functioning was threatened, and they justified this exclusion by using appeals to effective group functioning. [Source: SC]

Durka, Gloria. 2000. "Teaching Youth in a Socially Toxic Environment." Religious Education vol. 95, pp. 443-452.
Abstract: Provides information on a study which examined the threat social violence and abuse pose to young people's psychological and religious development. Information on parallel and contradictory structures of the world; Details on Nel Nodding's scheme for fostering the development of morally-inclined youths; List of James Garbarino's themes for successful coping and resilience. We live in a world that is at once violent and beautiful. Childhood and adolescence ideally are times of safety, security, and imaginative explorations into an ever widening world. But for too many young people, the world is a dangerous place. As religious educators, how can we transform the socially toxic environments of home and neighborhood into places of "caring community"? Drawing on more than a decade of empirical research on domestic and sexual violence, as well as critiques of the broader social environment, I describe the threat social violence and abuse pose to young people's psychological and religious development. I point to the power that we as religious educators have to reverse the violence by offering specific suggestions aimed at restoring young people's, as well as our own, sense of safety and hope. [Source: AS]

Furrow, James L. and Linda Mans Wagener. 2000. "Lessons Learned: The Role of Religion in the Development of Wisdom in Adolescence." Pp. 361-391 in Understanding Wisdom: Sources, Science, & Society, vol. 3, Laws of Life Symposia Series, edited by Warren S. Brown. Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Abstract: Argues that one aspect of wisdom, restraint, can be identified among youth who avoid the common risks of adolescence. A model is offered which suggests that critical influences and resources, with particular reference to religiousness, are essential for the development of wise youth. Internal and external developmental assets that are fundamental to socialization, personal use of wisdom, and access to wisdom in adolescents' developmental context through the positive influence of adults, peers, and community are related to the avoidance of high-risk behaviors in adolescence. Data from a survey of 6th-12th graders relates developmental assets and restraint norms to the prevalence of risk-related behaviors. An examination of the factor patterns reported by youth showing low interest and activity in religious matters with those expressing strong interest and moderate to high activity suggests that the religious adolescents report consistently higher numbers of developmental assets associated with increased restraint and decreased risk behavior. These findings provide support for the assumption that religion's influence on risk is mediated primarily through contextual factors, and that religious youth appear to have a better chance of appropriating the wisdom of the community. [Source: PI]

Van Someren, David Allen. 2000. "The Relationship between Religiousness and Moral Development: A Critique and Refinement of the Sociomoral Reflection Measure Short-Form of Gibbs, Basinger, and Fuller (John C. Gibbs, Karen S. Basinger, Dick Fuller)." Ed.D. Thesis, Clark University.
Abstract: This study argued that belief in an immanent God would promote moral development because of the additional perspective-taking opportunities inherent in the relational nature of that belief. That this positive effect had not been established earlier was considered more a reflection of the inadequacy of moral judgment measures than the effect of a religious perspective. An adolescent population (n = 195) in grades 6 through 12 enrolled in a religious school were given the Sociomoral Reflection Measure Short-Form (Gibbs, Basinger and Fuller, 1992). In grades 6 through 8 there was no significant difference between the religious subjects and those in a study done by the authors of the instrument, but the religious subjects in grades 9 through 12 scored significantly lower. Since 20% of all responses included some religious sentiment, these were analyzed qualitatively and half were found to be unscorable by the established protocol. Religiously sensitive criteria, consistent with the theoretical framework of the instrument, were developed and when utilized, showed that there were no significant differences in moral maturity between the religious subjects and the Gibbs base line sample. A belief in God measure developed specifically for the study was also administered. The results of this measure found that all of the subjects expressed belief in a personal God and 58% justified their belief with concern for God's feelings and wishes rather than fear of authority or punishment, suggesting that the relationship component of a personal belief appears to have a perspective-taking quality. Gender and grade point average (GPA) were also examined as variables. Females were found to be significantly more religious in terms of their selections of belief statements but not in terms of the number of their religious responses on the moral maturity measure. No significant gender differences were found on the moral maturity measure. A significant correlation was found between moral maturity and GPA, suggesting that GPA is a measure of character as well as intellect. [Source: DA]

Berne, Rosalyn Wiggins. 1999. "Listening to Their Voices: Meaning Making and Liminality in Contemporary Adolescence." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Virginia.
Abstract: This narrative study is a response to two seemingly unrelated situations, which in fact may be closely connected. First, it seeks to understand the experience of adolescents as they are developing their sense of meaning and purpose in an increasingly complex and rapidly changing society. In a manner of speaking, it is Erikson's Youth, Identity and Crisis revisited, thirty years later. Second, this study is an observation of particular adolescents who attend a small, private, college preparatory school, which was founded and operated for twenty-five years as an independent, secular institution, but which then sought and gained affiliation with the Society of Friends, as a Quaker school. The process of participating in this "conversion" experience created an unusual opportunity in which to observe young people respond to the introduction of spiritually grounded practices into their school community. The study was undertaken in the manner of Robert Coles' participant-observer methodology, the core of which is a deep and intentional listening to those who are the primary source and purpose of this work. It is steeped in the individual narratives of young people themselves, and offers an analytical framework for interpreting and authenticating what are the otherwise hushed, often misunderstood voices of adolescents. Contemporary adolescence is replete with perplexity. Healthy adolescent development today, depends, among other things, on the provision of spiritually based ritual structure, and compassionate adult mentoring. Young people will thrive within contemporary society only if adults truly listen and respond to adolescent voices--voices which call for a faith to live by, and a meaningful community in which to participate. [Source: DA]

Carotta, Michael. 1999. "Teaching for Spiritual Growth: Doorways to the Heart and Soul of Young People." Thesis, Spalding University.
Abstract: A model of facilitating adolescent spiritual growth is proposed wherein interested adults can engage in any of four different "teaching"; activities. "Teaching" is used to refer to both informal and formal attempts at promoting adolescent spiritual development by parents, counselors, teachers, ministers, youth workers, coaches, etc. This model identifies three distinct yet interrelated dimensions of spirituality: religious faith, moral living, and emotional awareness. Teaching for spiritual growth consists of these four activities: attending to stories, building skills, honoring the senses, and offering solidarity. Each of these four activities is supported by a review of related literature and research. Story themes which can evoke spiritual reflection among adolescents are identified. Specific skills for spiritual growth are listed. The power of adolescent emotion and religious imagination is explored. Particular areas of solidarity are described, along with certain characteristics of adults who are effective in maintaining supportive relationships with adolescents. This model encourages adults to intentionally participate in the spiritual journey of youth by engaging in the activity which best suits their own skills, background, and interest. [Source: PI]

Elkind, D. 1999. "Religious Development in Adolescence." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 291-295.

Fowler, James W. 1999. "Perspectives on Adolescents, Personhood and Faith." Family Ministry vol. 13, pp. 22-32.

Harrison, John E. 1999. "Forming Connections: A Study of Adolescent Faith Development as Perceived by Adult Christians." D.Min. Thesis, Princeton Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this research project is to learn more about how relationships between adolescents and adults outside of the family are experienced and remembered as influencing faith development. It employs interviews with adults who have been identified by their pastors as exhibiting mature Christian faith. In these interviews, the subjects were asked to describe their faith stories, specifically identifying influences which they felt led to their growth in faith. All twelve of the subjects described relationships with non- familial adults which they believed were influential in their becoming the Christians they are today. For nine of the twelve subjects, their faith stories included relationships which took place during adolescence with adults outside of their families. Common elements in these relationships included ease in communication, the perceived authenticity of the adults, and a sense of caring communicated through the relationship. For the nine who experienced these relationships during adolescence, the subjects described the relationships as enabling transitions in their understanding of God and in their own faith. These relationships were appreciated as enabling the subjects to realize their own gifts and value. One unexpected discovery in this project was the number of pastors identified as having been significant in the subjects faith development. All identified a pastor as having a role in some context of their faith development. As these pastors took time with youth in the church and developed caring relationships, they were remembered as being an influence in developing the style of faith lived presently by the subjects of the interviews. [Source: DA]

Hull, John M. 1999. "Bargaining with God: Religious Development and Economic Socialization." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 27, pp. 241-249.
Abstract: In view of the developmental conceptual and emotional similarities held by individuals with regard to both God and money, it seems likely that in an intense money culture the ultimate reality of God will be confused with, and even displaced by, the ultimate reality of money. Bargaining appears to be a developmental stage in both economic socialization and in the development of relationships with God. A study of the similarities between economic and religious bargaining offers a starting point for considering the impact of money upon the spiritual development of both children and adults. F. Oser's (1980) theory of religious judgment describes the second stage of the religious development of children as the bargaining stage. Oser's theory thus uses an analogy between religious development and economic socialization and traces the implications of this potential confusion into adolescence and adult life. In the more mature stages of spiritual development, self-centered bargaining is gradually transformed into a covenant of sacrificial love, in the flight of which the idolatry and false consciousness of the earlier confusion is revealed. [Source: PI]

Lindner, Cynthia Gano. 1999. "Images of Adolescence: Religio-Ethical Perspectives on the Theory and Praxis of Youth Ministry." D.Min. Thesis, The University of Chicago.
Abstract: The declining vitality and significance of the church's ministry to youth continues to be a source of frustration and confusion for ministers, educators, parents, and for youth themselves. The pluralism which characterizes our contemporary experience has had a dramatic effect on the adolescent process of becoming, on societal mores and norms, and on the church's self-understanding as well, resulting in ministries to youth that are increasingly unreflective, incoherent, inadequate, and irrelevant. This paper argue that what is lacking in the conceptualization and practice of youth ministry is the critical dimension of moral reasoning. The paper demonstrates that thematizing our task as a ministry of ethical sponsorship may provide a central organizing rubric that will help to bring order and clarity to the contributions of the many disciplines at the disposal of those who minister with youth. A revision of youth ministry's task and method must begin with a clearer understanding and deeper description of the relationship and contributions of theology, ethics, psychology, and other disciplines to our practice. To establish authentic conversation between disciplines, the paper relies on the practical theological method described by Don S. Browning, a five-fold schema which facilitates greater critical awareness of the assumptions and values of each contributing perspective. Using Browning's method, the paper reviews representative youth ministry literature and finds descriptions of adolescent needs, obligations and visions that are either too thin to be nourishing, or are held in contradiction with one another. Alternatively, the paper places the thicker descriptions of adolescent needs and moral agency provided by Erik Erikson, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Reed Larson alongside Lawrence Kohlberg's universalizable justice and H. Richard Niebuhr's imagery of human agency as responsibility. Finally, with an eye to these needs, principles, and images, the paper adapts Thomas Groome's shared praxis approach to Christian education to describe a dialogical model for ethical sponsorship of adolescents. This more adequate youth ministry schema involves honest confrontation with relevant life issues and critical correlation of youths' narratively conceived moral agency with the story of the Christian faith, all in the context of rigorous and accountable group moral inquiry. [Source: DA]

Reimer, Joseph. 1999. "Towards a More Inclusive Jewish Identity: Reflections on Reading Erik H. Erikson." Journal of Jewish Education vol. 65, pp. 9-15.
Abstract: Part of a special issue on research and Jewish education. The writer discusses Erik H. Erikson's formative work on identity development in relation to the creation of a more inclusive Jewish identity. There is no justification for defining as a goal of Jewish education the development of a "strong Jewish identity" if that identity is based on a narrow and exclusive ideological base. Jewish educators must think of Jewish identity as developing beyond the adolescent years and needing the active support of institutions that model and educate for Jewish pluralism throughout the life cycle. [Source: EA]

Rice, Emanuel. 1999. "Religion and the Adolescent: A Psychodynamic Perspective." Psychoanalytic Psychology vol. 16, pp. 58-75.
Abstract: The adolescent phase of emotional and cognitive development involves attempts, with varying degrees of failure or success, to disengage from primary parental objects and to solidify a sense of identity in terms of both self-image and sexuality. Some of the functions of formal, institutionalized religion are not only to give body to this emergent process by the creation of surrogate parental figures, be they in fantasy or reality, tangible or transcendent, but also to facilitate the completion in adulthood of this variant of a separation-individuation process. Religion also allows for control and aim-inhibited gratification of instinctual drives. The initiation, vicissitudes, and outcome of the theistic-atheistic conflict in adolescence is describe, and case vignettes exemplify this process. Peter Blos's (1984) concept of the incomplete resolution of the negative oedipal conflict in adolescents and its role in neurosogenesis is used as an explanatory hypothesis. [Source: PI]

Tobin, Gerard Andrew. 1999. "Adolescent Meaning Making and Faith Development: A Heideggerian Hermeneutical Approach." Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago.
Abstract: This study examines the process of meaning making among late adolescents within the context of faith development. The goal was to understand how the religious experience and spiritual development of late adolescents contribute to their ability to make sense of their lived lives and their personal world, what this study terms meaning making. Meaning questions are best addressed by qualitative research methods. To this end, a phenomenological-hermeneutical method of inquiry was employed which allowed the researchers to holistically approach and understand the late adolescent experience of meaning making within the specific experience of the Kairos retreat. Interviews were conducted with fifteen seniors in high school who had participated in the Kairos retreat program. Five males and six females discussed their positive experiences while two males and two females were selected to discuss their disappointing experiences. Analysis of the transcribed data yielded eleven thematic representations which were further delineated into five constitutive patterns which comprised the elements of the meaning making experience. From the stories the participants shared a profile of a person most likely to engage the Kairos experience as a means of recomposing meaning in his/her life was generated. The five constitutive patterns included: the importance of community before, during and after the experience; the experience of belonging through identification with the stories of other participants; transformation of childhood images of God and experience of the Numinous; transformation of suffering; and integration of the experience at the levels of intellect, affect and spirituality. Kairos does not change the lives of late adolescents but it offers a means to help late adolescents to compose and recompose meaning in their lives. The research method invites the reader to validate one's own experience of meaning making in light of the data which are represented. Implications for further study are discussed. [Source: PI]

Wells, M. Gawain. 1999. "Religion." Pp. 199-212 in Developmental Issues in the Clinical Treatment of Children, edited by Wendy K. Silverman and Thomas H. Ollendick. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) The 1st section of this chapter provides an overview of the developmental issues in children's religious growth, attempting to answer the question: In the general case, how do children at different ages differ in their understanding of and response to religion? The 2nd section of the chapter considers the roles that religion may play in the lives of children and adolescents, both generally and clinically. The final section comprises a discussion of how religion may be used and perhaps should not be used to influence the clinical treatment of children and adolescents. It is divided into 2 parts: intervening directly with children, and considerations in working with religious parents, inasmuch as much of the work of the psychologist must take place through the parents to the child. [Source: PI]

Flor, Douglas Leroy. 1998. "A Comparative Approach to the Internalization of Religiousness in Preadolescent Youth." Thesis, University of Georgia.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test two competing models of adolescent religious socialization: a transmission model and an integrated model which incorporates aspects from a transformation model with the transmission model. These models were tested and compared using data collected from 171 two parent families with an 11 or 12 year old child. The transmission model was based on social learning theory, with special emphasis on 'what' religious behaviors are internalized, as well as 'how' adolescents perceive that they are socialized to internalize their parents' values and beliefs. The transformational aspects of the integrated model are based on self-determination theory, with special emphasis on 'why' religious behaviors are expressed. The integrative model thus incorporates the 'how', 'what', and 'why' aspects of internalization. Both models fit the data equally well. Comparisons of separate nested LISREL analyses conducted for father-target and mother-target models revealed that the integrative theoretical approach was not able to fit the data significantly better than the social learning model of adolescent religiousness (change in X$p2$ = 4.07 for father-target and 2.15 for mother-target, $p>.05)$ for either parent -child model. Since the null hypothesis of the study could not be rejected, the more parsimonious social learning model was selected over the integrated model as a means of understanding factors related to adolescent religiousness. A key factor to this finding was the introduction of a domain specific parent-child process variable, dyadic discussions about faith. [Source: PI]

Josephson, Michael and Rosa Maulini. 1998. "1998 Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth." Josephson Institute of Ethics, Marina del Rey, CA.
Abstract: Reports the results of a national survey of the ethics of American young people. More than 20,000 youth from schools across the nation were interviewed about issues pertaining to lying, cheating and stealing. According to Michael Josephson, "this report card shows that the hole in our moral ozone is getting bigger." Results indicate that the percentage of high schoolers who admit to stealing from a store is on the rise. Similarly, the percent of high school students who say they cheated on an exam rose from 64% to 70% between 1996 and 1998. Another major finding is a significant increase in the percentage of students who lie to their parents or would be willing to lie to get a good job. [Source: AU]

Laird, Gary E. 1998. "Pedagogical Implications of Children's Religious Identity Formation through God-Images." Thesis, Columbia Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes a new epistemological understanding for Southern Baptist educators of how children formulate their deepest religious meanings and shows how to incorporate that understanding into a pedagogical framework for children's faith development. The project reviews Jean Piaget's play theory, Johan Huizinga's study of play, and J"rgen Moltmann's theology of play and examines the faith development theories of James W Fowler, Fritz Oser, and Romney Moseley, focusing on the importance of imaginative play and God images. Employing three play activities with a group of children, the project tests the teaching role of imaginative play and the centrality of God images. [Source: RI]

Peters, Becky Schuricht. 1998. "Linking Theory and Faith." Lutheran Education vol. 134, pp. 65-71.
Abstract: The writer discusses how educators can aid the faith development of children and adolescents up to age 18. Early childhood educators must educate parents on their role in faith development and provide opportunities for preschool children to experience the ritual of worship both on their own level and on a congregational level. In the elementary school, children have difficulty seeing and admitting their own sinfulness, and, therefore, must have interaction with Christian adult role models. During junior high school, the teacher must use relationships to structure religion classes. Meanwhile, high school students must be provided with an environment open to discussion where doubts and fears can be shared safely. [Source: EA]

Sager, David Ward. 1998. "Parental Behaviors and Values and Adolescent Internalized Prosocial Moral Reasoning." Ph.D. Thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.
Abstract: Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between selected demographic variables (age, gender, and family form--two-parent intact families versus other families), adolescents' perceptions of parental behaviors (support, induction, punitiveness, and love withdrawal), and parental values (intrinsic religiosity, altruism, prestige, mental alertness, and parents internalized prosocial moral reasoning) and adolescent internalized prosocial moral reasoning The study sample consisted of 114 adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age, 107 mothers and 84 fathers. The data were collected from a Church of Christ sample through mailout and survey in 8 churches in Texas and Oklahoma. Variables that were significantly related to internalized prosocial moral reasoning in the bivariate correlations were entered as predictor variables of adolescent internalized prosocial moral reasoning in separate hierarchical multiple regression models for mothers and fathers. Findings and conclusions. In the fathers' model, four predictor variables were significantly related to adolescent internalized prosocial moral reasoning. Gender of the adolescent (girls reported higher levels of internalized prosocial moral reasoning than boys, family form (adolescents from family forms other than two parent intact reported higher levels of internalized prosocial moral reasoning), fathers' support was positively related to adolescent internalized prosocial moral reasoning, and fathers' love withdrawal was negatively related to adolescent internalized prosocial moral reasoning. In the mothers' model, mothers' support was positively related and mothers' work value of mental alertness was negatively related to internalized prosocial moral reasoning. These findings suggest that parental support, as well as some demographic variables and some work values are all related to adolescent internalized prosocial moral reasoning. [Source: DA]

Bishop, Carolyn Greenway. 1997. "American Adolescents Schooled Overseas: Expectations in Education, Relationships, Religion, and Cultural Perspectives." Ph.D. Thesis, Emory University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescent "missionary kids" (MKs) living abroad, adolescents living in the United States, parents of MKs, and parents of stateside adolescents differed in their expectations of educational experiences, relationships with parents and friends, religious beliefs and practices, and cultural perspectives. Four research questions focused on whether there were significant mean differences by filial class (student or parent) and resident status (overseas or stateside) as regards expectations for the four dependent measures in the study (education, relationships, religion, and cultural perspectives). The sample consisted of 54 adolescent MKs living overseas and a contrast group of 100 stateside high school youth. Parent respondents included 72 parents of the MK respondents and a contrast group of 52 parents of the stateside student respondents. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. MKs and overseas parents reported lower expectations about educational experiences and achievement than did stateside adolescents and parents. MKs had higher expectations about integration of connected relationships with their parents than did stateside adolescents and parents. MKs had higher expectations for conformity in relationships than did other participants. Parents had higher expectations about religious beliefs and practices than did adolescents; students and parents living overseas had higher religious expectations than did their stateside counterparts. There were no significant differences regarding expectations about cultural perspectives. These results are not consistent with previous research indicating that MKs tend to report higher expectations for educational experiences and academic achievement than stateside adolescents. Results are consistent, however, with other findings indicating that MKs and their parents share similar expectations regarding connectedness of familial relationships. [Source: DA]

Burton, Linda M. 1997. "Ethnography and the Meaning of Adolescence in High-Risk Neighborhoods." Ethos vol. 25, pp. 208-217.
Abstract: Draws on field data & interviews from 186 African American teenagers in nine high-risk neighborhoods in the urban Northeast to illustrate how ethnography can discover elusive, but highly significant, issues concerning adolescent development in context. Data collection was supplemented by analyses of newspapers & interviews with religious, municipal, & community leaders. Findings uncovered three influences that indicated that adolescence had become an ambiguous & illusionary stage of life development in these neighborhoods: (1) an accelerated life course prompted by an anticipated short life expectancy; (2) diffuse age hierarchies that reduced respect for elders; & (3) inconsistent role expectations in family & social organization. [Source: SA]

Nations, Donald Dale. 1997. "The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Implications for the Worship Experience with Regard to Faith Development in Elementary Age Children." Thesis, Columbia Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project argues that the community of faith must understand the ways that children learn and perceive the world and the ways that faith develops in order to teach children responsibly. Based on research in faith development, human learning theory, and the theory of multiple intelligences, the project conducts a survey of multiple intelligence strengths in elementary age students, finding few differences between primary and intermediate students or between females and males. The project derives from this investigation implications for the worship experience in Christian education. [Source: RI]

Alexander, Hanan A. (ed.). 1996. "Faith, Prayer, and Spirituality." Religious Education vol. 91, pp. 4-134.
Abstract: Faith Communities and Education, by H. Alexander. The Relationship between Personal Prayer and Purpose in Life among Churchgoing and Non-Churchgoing Twelve-to-Fifteen-Year-Olds in the UK, by L. Francis and T. Evans. Formation of a God Representation, by C. E. Nelson. Teaching Faith in the Family: A Historical Overview, by F. Proctor. Knowing God: Children, Play, and Paradox, by R. Cram. Religious Education and Mental Illness: A Higher Education Model, by S. Govig. The Tradition of Teresa of Avila and Its Implications for Mentoring of Religious Educators, by L. English. Friendship: Context and Content of Christian Religious Education, by D. Shields. Toward Understanding Homosexuality: An Agenda for Adult Christian Education's Contribution to Human Wholeness, by C. J. Rowell. [Source: RI]

Bruggeman, Elizabeth Leistler and Kathleen J. Hart. 1996. "Cheating, Lying, and Moral Reasoning by Religious and Secular High School Students." Journal of Educational Research vol. 89, pp. 340-344.
Abstract: Examined the relationship between moral reasoning and the incidence of cheating and lying in a sample of 90 religious vs 131 secular (public) 9th-12th grade high school students. Ss were administered the Defining Issues Test to measure moral reasoning level, and 2 tasks which gave Ss high incentives to cheat and lie. Religious and secular school students did not differ in moral reasoning level or in levels of cheating and lying. Level of moral reasoning was not correlated with behavior. Surprisingly high levels of dishonest behavior were noted in all Ss. [Source: PI]

Buescher, Rhonda Edge and W. Lyndel Vaught. 1996. "Music Education: Its Role in Faith Development and Spiritual Growth." Southwestern Journal of Theology vol. 38, pp. 4-14.

Head, Roy Kevin. 1996. "Narrative Preaching: A Homiletical Form Contributing to the Identity Development of Adolescence." Ph.D. Thesis, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the contributions of narrative preaching for the development of identity during adolescence. The first chapter stated the purpose of this research project and discusses the background and methodology for the work. Chapter two offered a definition of narrative preaching by investigating primary works in the areas of narrative theory and narrative preaching. Chapter three described adolescent identity as a narrative structure. The psychoanalytic theory of Erik H. Erikson was perused in order to establish a foundation for the study of identity issues. James Fowler's theory of faith development was related to Erikson's identity developmental theory. The conclusion was reached that adolescents understand themselves and their relationships with others through a conglomeration of personal stories. The fourth chapter synthesized the work of chapters two and three by proposing that narrative preaching creates an experience of shared story for the listeners. Adolescents listening to a narrative sermon experience a strong sense of connection with the preacher, other church members and God as these individual stories merge together. This merger establishes for adolescent listeners a more complete understanding of the communal and temporal aspects of their identity. Chapter five included one original narrative sermon written for the prescriptive purpose of illustrating the experience of shared story. The sermon was analyzed according to the definition of narrative preaching in the second chapter of this dissertation and the conclusions of chapter four regarding the concept of shared story. The sermon was also preached to a group of adolescents for the purpose of conducting an empirical evaluation of their responses to the sermon. A pretest and posttest experiment was conducted, and the conclusions of this experiment were found to support the hypothesis that narrative preaching contributes to adolescent identity development. The sixth chapter proposed conclusions for this dissertation and suggested areas for further studies. [Source: DA]

Nye, Rebecca and David Hay. 1996. "Identifying Children's Spirituality: How Do You Start without a Starting Point?" British Journal of Religious Education vol. 18, pp. 144-154.

Ortiz, Victor Raul. 1996. "Longitudinal Study of the Development of Moral Conscience from Adolescence to Young Adulthood in Students of Catholic Schools." Ph.D. Thesis, Walden University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to discover and compare the conception of God, and the anthropological, moral and religious sensibility that the alumni of Catholic schools have at present. It was also intended to detect the relation that could exist between the level of self-esteem that the alumni of the Catholic schools possessed, the type of moral conception that they possessed, and how it was reflected in their lives. Contemporary society experiments profound and continuous changes that create crisis. These affect the totality of a human being and his/her institutions, especially the family, school and church. The concern of this investigation was to determine the moral conscience of the alumni that studied in Catholic schools and are now in the young adult stage. It intended to discover if any change had occurred in their moral conscience six years after their adolescence; if there existed a relationship between the type of moral conception and different personal variables; if there existed a relationship between the type of moral conscience and the degree of self-esteem of the alumni, and finally, if the alumni had a clear conscience about the institution that developed their moral conscience. The population studied was a group of alumni of two Catholic schools, Academia Santa Teresita Academy, of Naranjito and Academia Cristo de los Milagros Academy, of Caguas, Puerto Rico. Three instruments were used: the open questionnaire, This Is How Think Morally; the closed questionnaire Development of Moral Conscience in Youth; and a Personality Inventory questionnaire. Different statistical analyses were applied to study the four hypotheses: Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Cross Tabulation, Kendal Tau, Statistical Regression Analysis, Percent, and Frequency Analysis. The hypothesis states: There is no statistical difference in the moral conception of the alumni of the Catholic schools from adolescence to young adulthood. [Source: PI]

Dror, Y. (ed.). 1995. "Implications for Moral Education." Journal of Moral Education vol. 24, pp. 219-356.
Abstract: A special issue on the implications of the kibbutz experience for moral education includes an introduction to the issue as well as articles that feature a sociological account of kibbutz education, school-based curricula for kibbutz studies, education for work in the kibbutz, the kibbutz children's society, Zionist education in kibbutz high schools, the orientation and behavior of kibbutz youth, the impact of the Israeli kibbutz experience on Jewish identity and values, and a review of eight publications concerning the kibbutz in transition. [Source: EA]

Kreider, Eugene C. 1995. "Faith Development in Educational Ministry with Children." Word & World vol. 15, pp. 68-75.

Perry, Constance M. and Walter G. McIntire. 1995. "Modes of Moral Judgment among Early Adolescents." Adolescence vol. 30, pp. 707-715.
Abstract: Early adolescence is an important definitional stage during which a value system & behavior code are largely shaped. Survey data from 179 students in grades 7-8 indicate that early adolescents use a variety of modes to make moral decisions: care - where they wish others not to suffer; justice - where decisions are made according to principles (golden rule); & narrowly concerned or selfish. All 3 modes were used by both males & females, though the former were more likely to choose the narrowly concerned mode. [Source: SA]

Robertson, Graceann Mary. 1995. "Forming the Faith: Religious Identity Development in Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Abstract: A review of the literature on religious development reveals a dearth of empirical work investigating the process of religious development in adolescents. Eriksonian developmental theory suggests that religious identity is an important component of the developing identity of the adolescent. Allport's theory of religious orientation emphasizes the right of each individual to 'work out' his/her own philosophical and religious beliefs, suggesting a process of religious growth and development. This study involved adolescents in the midst of their search for identity, discussing through interview and questionnaire formats the development of their religious beliefs and practices. Analysis of the data included thematic analysis of the interview material, and correlations between quantified aspects of the interview data and data from the questionnaires. Results partially supported the hypotheses, with significant relationships noted between religious identity status and religious orientation, past and present personal religious activity level, and past and present family religious activity level. Primary themes of the data included the importance of family in religious development, the ongoing process of the developmental task, and the role of doubt. Commensurate with the exploratory nature of the research, a number of questions and ideas for future research were generated. [Source: PI]

Zeldin, Shepherd and Lauren A. Price. 1995. "Creating Supportive Communities for Adolescent Development: Challenges to Scholars." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 10, pp. 6-14.
Abstract: An introduction to a special journal issue (see related abstracts in this issue of SA 43:4) addressing the policy issue of how to promote positive adolescent development in communities of schools, religious institutions, & families. Scholars are challenged to focus on: desirable, not undesirable, adolescent outcomes; development opportunities & supports that create desirable outcomes; community-based organizations; narrative & voice; & new roles for scholars. Studies in this issue that address these challenges are summarized. It appears that national & community leaders are beginning to look at the adolescent development process, not just behavior problems. [Source: SA]

Beck, Gary L. 1994. "Discipleship Principles Applied to Confirmation Ministry." Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield.
Abstract: Confirmation ministry is most effective when discipling confirmands than merely teaching them the content of the Christian faith. Biblical principles of discipleship are presented from two main sources: The Master Plan of Evangelism by Robert Coleman, and Jesus Christ Disciple Maker by Bill Hull. The historical background and theological rationale for confirmation is presented, as well as an analysis of the physical, cognitive, emotional, social, moral, and faith development of thirteen- and fourteen-year olds. Interviews were conducted with representatives of five Lutheran churches with unique confirmation programs. Discipling confirmands stimulates growth in their relationship with the Lord. [Source: RI]

Eipers, Carole M. 1994. "Adolescent Faith Development: Facing the Tough Questions." Catholic World vol. 237, p. 215.
Abstract: Discusses the questions about faith Christian adults must ask themselves in relation to their role in enhancing teenagers' faith development. Disadvantages of the revival of `teen club' model without Catholic culture; Characteristics of masters of Christian faith; Adult community of faith as masters of word, worship, community and service. [Source: AS]

Kothari, Saroj. 1994. "Impact of Religion Upon Development of Moral Concepts." Psycho Lingua vol. 24, pp. 65-72.
Abstract: Examined the impact of religion upon different moral concepts. The study was conducted on 1,249 7th-graders. The Moral Concept Development Test was administered and the statistical technique of ANOVA and a t test were used. For the purpose of this study, the 10 moral concepts of duty, truth, responsibility, judgement, discrimination between good and bad, sympathy, respect, obedience, helpfulness, and honesty were selected. Results show that the students belonging to Hindu, Islam, Christian, and Jain religious groups differed significantly from one another in duty, truth, responsibility, judgement, sympathy, obedience, helpfulness, and over all moral scores, but they did not differ significantly in discrimination between good and bad, respect, and honesty moral scores. [Source: PI]

Brantley, Paul S. (ed.). 1993. "Valuegenesis Study of Seventh-Day Adventist Youth." Journal of Research on Christian Education: JRCE vol. 2, pp. 81-118.
Abstract: A Synopsis of the Valuegenesis Study of Faith Maturity and Denominational Commitment, by J Kijai. Researching Faith Maturity: Questions on the Methods and Findings of Valuegenesis, by M Donahue. Measuring Faith Maturity: Reassessing Valuegenesis and Development of a Denomination-specific Scale, by J Thayer. A Reply to Jerome Thayer, by M Donahue. [Source: RI]

Davidson, Adina Ruth. 1993. "Value Development among Jewish Adolescents: Processes of Engagement." Ph.D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore and identify patterns of engagement in value struggles leading to Jewish identity development in adolescents. Jewish identity has been defined as engagement in a set of value struggles between traditional and modern values, within a framework of Jewish World View, Concretization of World View, and Jewish Peoplehood. Twenty-five North American, adolescent participants in the Nesiya program, a six-week, arts oriented trip to Israel, were studied. The Nesiya program addresses Jewish identity development using a model that is both appropriate for the adolescent stage of development (Erickson, 1968; Kohlberg, 1974) and consistent with Jewish practice (Linzer, 1984b). The model used to facilitate Jewish identity development among adolescents consists of encouraging value struggles between traditional Jewish values and modern values within a Jewish framework. A Jewish identity questionnaire was developed to measure level of struggle. In addition, critical incident reports, interviews, questionnaires about program elements and participant observation were used to gather data. [Source: DA]

Lundwall, Karen A. 1993. "The First Act of Love Is to Listen: Children and Spiritual Formation." Thesis, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago.
Abstract: There are limitations in understanding spiritual formation in theories based on stages of faith, or faith development, and in an instructional model of nurturing faith. In a new paradigm, listening to children and their experiences of the presence of God is central. Research included reading based on stage theory, and material that critiques it, proposing other models for spiritual formation; interviews with children in Christian education classes; observation of Montessori classrooms; and incorporating some new models into parish ministry. Children welcome the opportunity to talk about their experiences, their beliefs, and their questions about God, and to teach adults who listen and take them seriously. [Source: RI]

Malony, H. Newton. 1993. "Religious Development in Childhood and Youth: An Empirical Study." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, pp. 200-201.

Nucci, Larry and Elliot Turiel. 1993. "God's Word, Religious Rules, and Their Relation to Christian and Jewish Children's Concepts of Morality." Child Development vol. 64, pp. 1475-1491.
Abstract: In Study 1, 64 Amish-Mennonite children (aged 10, 12, 14, and 16 yrs) were asked to evaluate 4 moral and 7 nonmoral religious rules as to rule alterability, generalizability, and whether the status of the acts was contingent on the word of God. As a 2nd aspect of Study 1, 64 age-matched Dutch Reform Calvinist children were asked to determine whether God's commands could make a harmful act morally right. Study 2 replicated the basic design of Study 1 with 64 Conservative and 32 Orthodox Jewish children. Ss differentiated between moral and nonmoral religious issues. Moral rules and some nonmoral rules were seen as nonalterable by religious authorities. The status of moral (but not nonmoral) acts was generalized to members outside the religion and was not viewed as contingent on the existence of statements from God. Judgments regarding moral issues were justified in terms of justice and human welfare considerations; nonmoral issues were evaluated in terms of their normative status. [Source: PI]

Osmer, Richard R. and James W. Fowler. 1993. "Childhood and Adolescence: A Faith Development Perspective." Pp. 171-212 in Clinical Handbook of Pastoral Counseling, Vol. 1 (Exp. Ed.). Studies in Pastoral Psychology, Theology and Spirituality, edited by Robert J. Wicks and Richard D. Parsons. New York, NY: Paulist Press.
Abstract: (from the chapter) approach childhood and adolescence from a Faith Development perspective / focus upon the importance of understanding normal patterns of human development in assessing both typical and pathological problems during these stages of life / examine the role of faith in human development / raise questions about definitions of normalcy and human maturity which are inevitably presupposed by developmental theories. [Source: PI]

Vande Kieft, Milly. 1993. "Children's Literature and the Development of Their Faith." Reformed Review vol. 47, pp. 43-52.

Warren, Tamara M. 1993. "Ego Identity Status, Religiosity, and Moral Development of Christian and State High School and College Students." Thesis, Biola University, Rosemead School of Psychology.

Mischey, Eugene J. 1992. "Faith, Identity and Morality in Late Adolescence." Pp. 176-191 in Christian Perspecties on Faith Development, edited by J. Astley and Leslie J. Francis. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Abstract: Previously published in Character potential: a record of research [Source: RI]

Fountain, Ron. 1991. "Faith Development in Childhood through Discovery Learning." CBRF Journal vol. 126, pp. 17-23.

Gu"guen, John A. 1991. "Christian Philosophy and the Formation of the Person." Pp. 248-252 in Atti Del Ix Congresso Tomistco Internazionale, edited by A. Piolanti. Citt" del Vaticano: Libreria editrice vaticana.

Oser, Fritz and W. George Scarlett (eds.). 1991. Religious Development in Childhood and Adolescence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Abstract: Editors' notes. The development of religious judgment, F Oser. Stages in faith consciousness, J Fowler. Religious development: a psychoanalytic point of view, A Rizzuto. The development of prayer in adolescence, W Scarlett and L Perriello. The role of complementarity reasoning in religious development, K Reich. Adolescents' justifications for faith or doubt in God: a study of fulfilled and unfulfilled expectations, K Nipkow and F Schweitzer. Understanding parables: a developmental analysis, A Bucher. Annotated bibliography on religious development, A Bucher and K Reich. [Source: RI]

Schneider, Jim D. 1991. "Autonomy in Moral Judgment among Bible College Students." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada), Edmonton.
Abstract: The overall objective of this project was to explore the nature of autonomy in moral judgments as it is experienced by college-aged youth raised within a conservative evangelical environment. A qualitative research design was employed and data collection consisted of a questionnaire and two interviews with each of the five participants. Data were organized around five major themes: cognitive expressions of the moral judgment process, faith expressions of the moral judgment process, religious resources, expressions of community in the moral judgment process, and holistic expressions of the moral judgment process. Participants demonstrated various levels of autonomy in the moral judgment process, reinforcing the notion of the developmental nature of autonomy. Generally speaking, their comments were most reflective of Petrovich's (1986) definition of autonomy as an act of willful obedience. [Source: DA]

Schweitzer, Friedrich. 1991. "Developmental Views of the Religion of the Child: Historical Antecedents." Pp. 67-81 in Stages of Faith and Religious Development, edited by J. Fowler, Karl Ernst Nipkow, and Friedrich Schweitzer. New York: Crossroad.

Turiel, Elliot, Carolyn Hildebrandt, and Cecilia Wainryb. 1991. "Judging Social Issues: Difficulties, Inconsistencies, and Consistencies." Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development vol. 56, pp. 1-103.
Abstract: High school & college students' reasoning about the nonprototypical issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, & incest was examined in 3 studies. In Study 1, 87 high school seniors & 98 college undergraduates, divided between those who judged prototypical issues negatively or positively, were asked to evaluate 1 nonprototypical issue, 1 moral issue, & 1 personal issue. The groups differed in judgments about the nonprototypical issues, but not the moral issues. Both groups gave noncontingent & generalized judgments about moral issues, with justifications of justice & rights. Ss who evaluated nonprototypical acts negatively used varied & often inconsistent configurations of criterion judgments. Ss who evaluated nonprototypical acts positively judged that they should be legal & nongeneralized & gave justifications based on personal choice. Using similar procedures, Study 2 was conducted with 58 practicing Catholics who were seniors in parochial high schools. Findings paralleled those of Study 1, including a split among Ss in their evaluations of the nonprototypical issues. In Study 3, the role of informational assumptions in judgment of nonprototypical issues was examined through a set of questions & probes pertaining either to abortion or homosexuality given to 87 undergraduate introductory psychology students. Assumptions were found to be ambiguous & inconsistently applied. Ambiguity around assumptions is discussed as a central component of the nonprototypicality of these issues. In Why Are Nonprototypical Events So Difficult, and What Are the Implications for Social-Developmental Psychology?, Herbert D. Saltzstein (Graduate School & U Center, City U of New York, NY) lauds Turiel et al for their examination of the judgment & reasoning applied to nonprototypical issues, & their variations based on moral & personal issues. In light of their findings, several questions are explored concerning the organization of moral thought in relation to other forms of social thought. In essence, the findings do not provide a model by which to explain individual & group differences; rather, they suggest that they simply cannot be explained. [Source: SA]

Tye, Karen B. and Marlene Bireley. 1991. "Moral and Spiritual Development of the Gifted Adolescent." Pp. 215-227 in Understanding the Gifted Adolescent: Educational, Developmental, and Multicultural Issues. Education and Psychology of the Gifted Series, edited by Marlene Bireley and Judy Genshaft. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Abstract: Examines the moral and spiritual development of gifted adolescents. (from the chapter) developing morality and spirituality the search for meaning [organized religion, community service, nontraditional religious groups] the role of teachers, counselors, and parents [Source: PI]

Vogel, Ruth Seltzer. 1991. "The Impact of the Level of Parents' Religious Observance on Discipline Style and on the Moral Orientation of Young Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between parental religiosity and parental discipline styles, and the impact of these upon children's moral development. Subjects were 149 suburban Philadelphia adolescents and their mothers. The adolescent subjects completed the Defining Issues Test, measuring moral reasoning. Mothers completed either a Catholic or Jewish Religious Practices Questionnaire, measuring religiosity; a Parents' Discipline Survey, measuring preference for discipline style and type of induction; and a personal data questionnaire consisting of questions on demographic background. The relationship among overall discipline style (use of power assertion, love withdrawal, and induction), religion and religiosity was tested through multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), as was the relationship between religion, religiosity, and the content of inductions (induction-regarding-parents, induction-regarding-peers, and matter-of-fact induction). The relationship between religion, religiosity, and adolescents' moral reasoning skills was tested with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, significant findings were tested with analyses of variance (ANOVA's) in order to establish the relationship between these findings and demographic variables. There were no significant differences in overall discipline patterns according to the religiosity of the mothers. Most mothers preferred induction (explanations) over other discipline techniques. No significant differences were found in preference for type of induction according to religiosity. Most mothers showed a slight preference for matter-of-fact inductions. Further, no significant differences found between Catholic and Jewish mothers in overall discipline patterns or preference for type of induction. For adolescents, no significant differences were found between P scores on the DIT according to religiosity. However, Jewish adolescents showed a significantly stronger preference for principled moral reasoning than did Catholic adolescents. A significant association was found to exist between mothers' college education and children's preference for principled moral reasoning. The higher P scores of the Jewish adolescents appear to reflect the higher educational level of the Jewish mothers. Further, a significant negative trend exists between mothers' level of education and the tendency to disciple with love withdrawal. [Source: DA]

Buchanan, David R. 1990. "How Teens Think About Drugs: Insights from Moral Reasoning and Social Bonding Theory." International Quarterly of Community Health Education vol. 11, pp. 315-332.
Abstract: Reported the results of a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews focusing on the relationship between moral reasoning (MOR) and the decision to initiate adolescent substance use. 95 8th graders divided among nonusers, experimental users, and experienced users were interviewed following an open-ended, semistructured protocol on issues pertaining to the psychological and sociological domains of MOR. Drawing on cognitive-developmental psychology and social bonding theory, the analysis revealed 3 patterns of thinking in Ss' decisions about whether or not to try drugs: (1) perceptions of harm, (2) perceptions of drug use as a matter of personal choice, and (3) perceived degree of institutional embeddedness (i.e., Ss see church, school, family, friends, work, and government as providing meaningful goals of which they can be a part). [Source: PI]

Butman, Richard E. and Joel- H. Arp. 1990. "Adolescent Depression in Its Developmental and Maturational Context." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 9, pp. 34-43.
Abstract: Explores 7 themes from the literature concerning adolescent identity formation that pertain to potential mood disturbance. Themes explored include (1) the nomothetic vs idiographic perspective of mood disturbance, (2) a definition of adolescent health, (3) trusting adolescents, (4) the need for the adolescent to have the "courage to be," (5) the role of religious education, (6) healthy escape and engagement, and (7) the need for catalysts and facilitators. Implications are discussed for mental health professionals, including the suggested importance of creating structures that cultivate healthy relationships and creating a climate that promotes faith development. It is proposed that important dimensions of adolescent depression might best be seen as symbols of unresolved struggles in the process of identity formation. [Source: PI]

Darley, John M. and Thomas R. Shultz. 1990. "Moral Rules: Their Content and Acquisition." Annual Review of Psychology vol. 41, pp. 525-556.

Dykstra, Robert Craig. 1990. "Even Youths Shall Faint: A Pastoral Theological Investigation of Self Disorders in Adolescents, Based on Works of Jurgen Moltmann, Heinz Kohut, James F. Masterson, and Robert Jay Lifton." Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton Theological Seminary.
Abstract: While there is widespread evidence of increasing self- and other-destructive behaviors among contemporary American adolescents, reflected in statistics concerning drug and alcohol abuse, eating disorders, sexual promiscuity, suicide, homicide, and so forth, adolescents have received little attention in pastoral theological and counseling literature. What has been written usually attempts a topical strategy that identifies problem areas, suggesting ways adults might address each topic with youth. While recognizing the value of this approach, the present study understands destructive behaviors as various symptoms of a compromised self "structure," itself the result of broad cultural and spiritual forces. Adolescent despair and destructiveness thus serve as a barometer of peculiar ambivalences of American society. This study develops a body of practical theological knowledge for guiding pastoral counselors working with adolescents with severe self disorders, while also recognizing the prophetic contribution such youth make to church and society. The writings of Jurgen Moltmann serve as the theological lens of this investigation. Moltmann's usually implicit understanding of the self is drawn from his major works in terms of key doctrines of his theology, and labelled here the 'eschatological self', the 'trinitarian self', and the 'political self'. Recent depth psychological self theories are also explored, including Heinz Kohut's self psychology for treatment of narcissistic personality disorders; James F. Masterson's appropriation of developmental object relations theory for treating borderline and narcissistic disorders in adolescents; and Robert Jay Lifton's symbolic-formative psychohistorical paradigm, emphasizing the threat death images and experiences pose for the continuity of the self. Aspects of the development and transformation of the self, including self-structure, dynamics of attachment and separation, the impact of time perspectives,and boundaries between self and culture, are critically examined in the context of a case study involving pastoral counseling with an adolescent. A pastoral theological perspective is presented which negotiates these aspects from the theological and psychological models, with implications for counseling troubled youth. [Source: DA]

Guerra, Lee Roy. 1990. "Acculturation and Measurement of Moral Development in Hispanic Adolescent Males." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.
Abstract: This study questioned whether moral development as defined by Kohlberg (1958) is a culturally biased construct. Specifically, this study investigated if the Defining Issues Test (DIT, Rest, 1974), a measure of moral development based upon Kohlberg's theory, is an ethnocentric instrument. It was predicted that less-acculturated subjects would score lower on the DIT than would more-acculturated Hispanic subjects, because the DIT was assumed to be measuring only those aspects of moral development that exist in Western, Anglo, male culture. The sample consisted of 99, adolescent, Hispanic males recruited as volunteers from a California high school. They completed the Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1974), the Olmedo Acculturation Scale (Olmedo, Martinez, and Martinez, 1978) and several additional questions assessing gang involvement and delinquency. The results were mixed. Global measures of acculturation did not relate significantly to global DIT scores. However, several specific variables of acculturation (primary language and SES) did show significant relationships to moral development as measured by the DIT. In addition, several variables intuitively expected to correlate with moral development (gang involvement, delinquency, and church involvement) showed no significant relationship to DIT scores. These findings suggest strongly that the DIT may not be a good universal measure of moral development, as it claims. There appears to be an ethnocentric bias. This study thus supports a major criticism of Kohlberg's theory and the DIT, namely that Kohlberg's theory is not universal but is specific to Western, Anglo, male culture. [Source: DA]

Shelton, Charles M. and Dan P. McAdams. 1990. "In Search of an Everyday Morality: The Development of a Measure." Adolescence vol. XXV, pp. 923-943.
Abstract: Current interest in moral theorizing has been dominated by Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental view. Haan (1982) has challenged psychology's reliance on this rationalistic focus and has argued for a rethinking of morality's meaning in accord with everyday human experience. In light of this challenge, the present study gives both theoretical and empirical support to the advancement of a morality for everyday life. Specifically, a new measure called the Visions of Morality Scale (VMS) is reported. The VMS is sensitive to three dimensions which are necessary for an everyday morality: (1) a human constituitive component which is universally experienced by all human beings (empathy); (2) the inclusion of a behavioral component which reflects actual behavior (prosocial implications); and (3) a view of morality that is multilevel (private, interpersonal, and social). A brief sketch of the VMS is provided. Results are presented from a study of 181 high school students which relate the VMS to empathy and political orientation. Highly significant relationships were found among morality, political orientation, and empathy. In addition, results revealed numerous sex differences. Finally, the implications of an everyday morality are discussed. [Source: NS]

Blazer, Doris A. (ed.). 1989. Faith Development in Early Childhood. Kansas City Mo: Sheed and Ward.
Abstract: Introduction. Strength for the journey: early childhood development in selfhood and faith, J Fowler. The roots of faith: the crucial role of infant/toddler caregivers, A Honig. A faltering trust, B Caldwell. Attitude education in early childhood faith development, L Barber. Strengthening families for the task, K Swick. Inviting children into the faith community, P Boone and R Boone. The public church: ecology for faith education and advocate for children, J Fowler. [Source: RI]

Fowler, James W. 1989. "Strength for the Journey: Early Childhood Development in Selfhood and Faith." Pp. 1-36 in Faith Devlopment in Early Childhood, edited by D. Blazer. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward.

Shelton, Charles M. 1989. Morality and the Adolescent: A Pastoral Psychology Approach. New York: Crossroad.

Benson, Peter L. 1988. "The Religious Development of American Protestants: Overview of the National Research Project." Paper presented at Religious Research Association (RRA).
Abstract: In 1987, Search Institute launched a four-year research project, with funding from the Lilly Endowment and six Protestant denominations, to examine the religious development of adults and adolescents. Data sources include adults, adolescents, teachers, and clergy in random samples of 150 congregations in each of the six denominations (Christian Church, Disciples of Christ; Evangelical Lutheran Church in America,; Presbyterian Church, U.S.A; Southern Baptist Convention; United Church of Christ; United Methodist Church). The project is designed, in part, to examine the contribution of a group of potential sources of influence to four criterion variables: mature faith, change in mature faith (last 3 years), denominational loyalty, and congregational loyalty. Influences examined include age-specific, biographical accounts of religious modeling and practice, congregational involvement, congregational climate, congregational type, exposure to formal and informal congregationally-based religious education, exposure to non-congregational relgious programs and events, exposure to religious media, religiousness of friends, religiousness of spouse, and life experiences. This paper provides an overview of project purposes, sampling and measurement, and analysis. [Source: NS]

Clark, Cynthia A., Everett L. Worthington, Jr., and Donald B. Danser. 1988. "The Transmission of Religious Beliefs and Practices from Parents to Firstborn Early Adolescent Sons." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 50, pp. 463-472.
Abstract: An examination of family & religious variables that affect the transmission of religious values from parents to early adolescent sons, using questionnaire & scale data on 68 mother-father-son triads from Protestant congregations. Canonical correlation analyses described relationships between parent-son agreement & parent variables on religious beliefs, experience, & practice. Mother-son & father-son agreement were examined separately. Few variables affected agreement on religious belief. For religious experience & practice, mothers mostly influenced sons' practical application of religion, while fathers influenced sons' church attendance. It is concluded that mothers & fathers functioned differently in transmitting religious values to their children. [Source: SA]

Moore, Joseph. 1988. "Adolescent Spiritual Development: Stages and Strategies." Religious Education vol. 83, pp. 83-100.

Schmidt, Paul F. 1988. "Moral Values of Adolescents: Public Versus Christian Schools." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 7, pp. 50-54.
Abstract: 118 students in public high school and 73 students in Christian schools completed a true false test measuring 8 pairs of moral and immoral attitudes. Findings indicate that there were significant differences on a "total morality index" favoring the Christian school students. Significant differences were obtained in 3 particular areas: Money, Body/Health, and Sexuality. Christian school students were more inclined than public school students to be aware of and confess their minor character flaws, contradicting the view that Christian students tend to present themselves in a socially desirable light. [Source: PI]

Brown, George, Jr. 1987. "Children's Faith." Reformed Review vol. 40, pp. 214-224.

De Witt, Craig Alan. 1987. "Ego Identity Status, Religious Orientation and Moral Development of Students from Christian Colleges." Psy.D. Thesis, Biola University Rosemead School of Psychology.
Abstract: From both a social and developmental perspective, the stages of adolescent development have received a great deal of focus. James Marcia (1964) operationalized Erik Erikson's (1963, 1968) stage of identity development by introducing four identity states. As a result of Marcia's work, additional research has been conducted that in essence looks at other developmental issues, such as religion and morality, and how they appear to be related to the larger and more comprehensive developmental systems. In this study, ego identity statuses for religion, as assessed by the Dallas Identity Scale (1981), were compared to levels of religiousity, as assessed by Fleck's (1977) Attitudes About Religion Scale, and levels of moral development, as assessed by Rest's Defining Issues Test (1974). The goal was to clarify and extend the literature relative to ego identity development, especially as it relates to religious orientation and moral reasoning. It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences found between the various identity statuses for religion when compared to the subjects' maturation and development in terms of religious orientation and moral reasoning. Furthermore, it was expected that there would be a high correlation among the variables moral reasoning and religious orientation and their predictability of a specific identity status for religion. A survey completed by 210 Christian college students assessed the following variables: identity status (Achieved, Moratorium, or Foreclosed), religious orientation (Committed, Consensual, Extrinsic), and level of moral reasoning. Comparison of the three identity statuses for religion indicated significantly different means for the intrinsic-committed and extrinsic scales (p $<$.05). Further comparisons show that the three identity statuses had significantly different mean scores on moral reasoning (p $<$.05). Finally, when focus was placed on the subjects' endorsement of extrinsic items and the level of moral reasoning, it was possible to predict 7.3% of the variance of identity status. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for identity status and the type of thought processes that are the result of maturation and development. [Source: DA]

Westerhoff, John H. 1987. "Children: Faith, Formation, and Worship." Reformed Liturgy and Music vol. 21, pp. 13-16.

Ban, Joseph D. 1986. "Reflections Upon the Religious Development of Adolescents in Canadian Culture." Theodolite pp. 16-24.

Brantley, Lenore Spence. 1986. "Adolescent Moral Development and Religious Exposure in a Black Seventh-Day Adventist Parochial School." Ed.D. Thesis, Peabody College For Teachers of Vanderbilt University.
Abstract: This investigation was a pilot study which analyzed the relationship between adolescent moral development and religious exposure in a black Seventh-day Adventist parochial school. To date, little research has explored the area of moral development and black youth. The study was conducted at a small private Seventh-day Adventist school in Alabama and included 67 11th- and 12th-grade black students (27 males and 40 females) enrolled during the 1984-85 school year. Moral development is defined as one's developing ability to make decisions regarding right and wrong conduct. The Defining Issues Test (Rest, 1972) assessed the survey group's level or moral reasoning. This test is based on Kohlberg's six stage model of moral maturity. Religious exposure was measured by a Religious Exposure Checklist which elicited information on student involvement in religious activities. Seven hypotheses were used to assess the effect of religious exposure upon black youth. The step-wise multiple regression and the Pearson r correlation procedure were used to assess the relationship between variables. The findings tested at the .05 level of significance included the following. There is a significant relationship between the moral development of black 11th- and 12th-grade parochial school students and grades in Bible class, frequency of family worship, and grade level. Moral developmental scores were also significantly higher for one third of the survey group who regularly attended prayer meeting. There is a nonsignificant relationship between the moral development of black 11th- and 12th-grade parochial school students and number of years of formal religious education, Sabbath or Sunday School attendance, 11 o'clock church service attendance, and frequency of personal Bible study. It was further discovered that the moral development reasoning level of the survey group as measured by the Defining Issues Test was lower than the national high school sample. Such a finding may be attributed to (a) religious conservatism, (b) method of test analysis, and (c) test instrument bias against the survey group. Further research is recommended to ascertain more precise reasons for the findings of this study. [Source: DA]

Dykstra, Craig. 1986. "Youth and the Language of Faith." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 163-184.
Abstract: Discusses the importance of religious language to religious faith and considers ways in which it can be imparted to adolescents. Religious faith is a distinctive communal form of life based in a relationship with a reality that transcends it. Religious faith is borne by religious language because of common mutual expectations that faithful people hold, because such language makes historical continuity possible, and because it helps people participate rightly in reality as a whole. By taking E. Erikson's central dynamic of adolescence as the development of a sense of identity, the potential significance of religious language becomes apparent. Religious communities must recover religious language that is lively, vital, and easily understood by adolescents in order to help them interpret their lives and live them more fully. [Source: PI]

Hill, Cathryn I. 1986. "A Developmental Perspective on Adolescent "Rebellion" in the Church." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 14, pp. 306-318.
Abstract: Reviews theories on the development of faith with an emphasis on the developmental changes associated with adolescence in relation to moral development and identity resolution. A unified framework is proposed that distinguishes conventional (consensual and/or extrinsic in quality) from postconventional (intrinsic and committed) faith. It is suggested that the developmental issues faced in adolescence make it a natural and ideal opportunity for making the transition from conventional to postconventional faith. Implications are suggested for explaining the problem of teenage rebellion in the church. [Source: PI]

Jacob, Walter. 1986. ""Youth and the Language of Faith": A Response to Dykstra." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 185-187.
Abstract: Comments on C. Dykstra's (see record 1987-18411-001) article on encouraging use of religious language among adolescents and describes conditions necessary for a successful revival of such language. [Source: PI]

Kantzer, Kenneth S. (ed.). 1986. "Building Faith: How a Child Learns to Love God." Christianity Today pp. 1-16.
Abstract: Building faith: a CT Institute forum on how a child learns to love God. Fowler on faith: a theologian discusses his faith development theory. Tough questions: what should parents do when a child questions the faith? by C Stonehouse. Final thoughts: dealing with the least Christian segment of our population--our youth, by K S Kantzer. [Source: RI]

Schipani, Daniel. 1986. ""Youth and the Language of Faith": Iii. A Response to Dykstra." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 194-198.
Abstract: Comments on C. Dykstra's (see record 1987-18411-001) article on encouraging use of religious language among adolescents and discusses the article in the context of adolescent identity formation and the responsibility of the religious community in facilitating youth's participation in it. [Source: PI]

Simmonds, Randy James. 1986. "Content and Structure in Faith Development: A Case Examination of James Fowler's Theory." Ph.D. Thesis, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville.
Abstract: This dissertation explored the relationship between contents of faith and the structure of faith in the Faith Development Theory of James W. Fowler by examining issues of faith in two communities. The purpose of the research was to demonstrate that the contents of a person's faith are embodied in the faith group to which that person belongs, and that the faith group is highly influential, if not determinative, of the faith structuring for that person. Chapter One introduced the area of study for the dissertation, and explored the content-structure problem in faith development. Specific study on the content of faith, as described by Fowler, provided the foundation for using "modal levels of faith" as the particular focus of study in the content-structure issue. Chapter Two provided an overview of the Faith Development Theory and explored the history of faith development in the context of pastoral care and counseling. A descriptive assessment of the theological roots of faith development theory was made and a critique of the theoretical aspects of Fowler's theory was given. Chapter Three was a phenomenological exploration of community modal levels of faith by evaluating two church communities. A model level of faith for each community was determined by analyzing church documents and faith development interviews with church leaders. Chapter Four presented the findings of faith development interviews with adolescents from each of the churches studied in Chapter Three. The results of the study indicated that the adolescents from Community "A" had made significant movement into the transition between Stages Three and Four, while the adolescents from Community "B" were solidly within a Stage Three perspective. Given the research controls placed on the adolescent samples, these results indicated that the community modal level of faith was the determinative factor in the difference between the two groups. The inter-relationship between the community modal level of faith and contents of faith was demonstrated by showing their common reliance on the same foundational dynamics. The conclusion of the study was proposed and possibilities for further study in the area were suggested in Chapter Five. [Source: DA]

Westerhoff, John H. III (ed.). 1986. "Adolescence." Religious Education pp. 161-326.
Abstract: Youth and the language of faith, by C Dykstra; responses, by W Jacob, D Russo, and D Schipani. Young adolescents: a national study, by J E Forliti and P L Benson. Adolescents in Canadian culture: religious development, by J D Ban. Educating Jews and Americans: the influence of the first American Jewish juvenile magazine, by S Levi Elwell. Conservative Judaism and adolescence, by E S Schoenberg. Spiritual direction: a model for adolescent catechesis, by G L Davis. Educating for cult (and Christian) awareness, by F Majika. Ethics and high school students, by G C Higgins. Testimony and religious cohesion, by L C Ingram. Teaching of religion is a secular school: the South Australia experience, by R B Crotty. On readingreligious education books in Britain, by J L Elias. [Source: RI]

Cranford, Kathleen T. 1985. "A Multitrait-Multisource Examination of the Relationship between Moral Judgment and Religiousness of Eighth Grade Students." Thesis, Louisiana State University and A and M College.

Dunn, Roy A. 1985. "Moral Judgment among High School Freshmen and Seniors in Selected Seventh-Day Adventist Schools." Thesis, University of Southern Mississippi.

Friedman, Seymour I. 1984. "The Effect of Jewish Religious Education on the Moral Reasoning and Social Interest of Yeshiva High School Students." Thesis, Fordham University.

Mason, Michael M. 1984. "Faith Development of Young People: A Study of the Differences of Faith Development." Thesis, San Francisco Theological Seminary.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to isolate differences in faith development. The interview technique was adapted from a study done by William Perry and based on the faith development models of John Westerhoff and James Fowler. Those who were active in the church's youth program displayed a number of characteristics including: supportive parents, some type of emotional "faith experience," and a significant relationship with another adult for whom faith was important and meaningful. Those interactions are more significant in some ways than the curriculum or program used. From this study implications for youth ministry were drawn. [Source: RI]

Nieratka, Dolores M. 1984. "Religious Development and Cognitive/Affective Maturity in Adolescents and Adults." Ph.D. Thesis, Wayne State University.
Abstract: Within the context of a lifespan developmental framework, the present study examined the development of religious concepts by age and by level of cognitive/affective maturity. Characteristics of mature cognition such as: the acceptance of contradiction and ambiguity, the development of the self as referent, and the integration of real world knowledge with logic were used in assessing the type of religious concepts held by individuals. The present research also studied Batson's Quest orientation to religion in relation to age and maturity level. Four groups of 16 (8 male, 8 female) adolescents, and young, middle, and older adults were interviewed regarding such issues as their concepts of God, of prayer, and of good and evil. The tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and scored according to a coding framework for Religious Complexity. This framework was based on contemporary cognitive-developmental theory regarding adult cognition and essentially used three levels to differentiate complexity of thought regarding religious concerns. Participants also completed the Loevinger Sentence Completion Test, a measure of ego development used here as an assessment of cognitive/affective maturity; the Batson Religious Life Inventory, used to measure the Quest orientation; a formal operations measure, and a control measure of verbal ability. Results indicated that Religious Complexity and ego development are significantly related, with participants higher in ego development expressing more complexity in thought regarding religious concepts. The hypothesis that age and Religious Complexity would be related was partially confirmed, in that the adolescent group was significantly lower in Religious Complexity scores than the three adult groups. Neither hypothesis regarding the Quest dimension was supported, although with ego development, certain characteristics of the I-3/4 level may be artificially accounting for the lack of support. The highly significant relationship of Religious Complexity with ego development suggests clear support for the view that, as people grow in cognitive/affective maturity, they experience change in their concepts of God and religious issues. Further research in this area could corroborate these findings and continue to explore religious development within a lifespan framework. [Source: DA]

Nye, W. Chad and Jerry S. Carlson. 1984. "The Development of the Concept of God in Children." Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 145, pp. 137-142.
Abstract: Attempted to determine if the development of the concept of God in children is compatible with general congitive stage development. Ss were 180 children, 5-26 yrs of age, equally divided among 3 religious orientations (Jewish, Protestant, Catholic) and all involved in formal religious training. Each S responded to a series of questions in a clinical-interview format. Results indicate that the development of the concept of God in these Ss paralleled Piaget's general stages of cognitive development. Findings are discussed in terms of the differentiation of religious training/orientation. [Source: PI]

Shelton, Charles M. 1984. "Adolescent Morality: A Revised Paradigm." Religious Education vol. 79, pp. 192-202.
Abstract: Criticism of Kohlberg's approach to moral development has centered on the lack of normative values as well as the absence of prescribed behaviors; both of these factors have emerged as a concern for religious educators. As an alternative to a cognitive-developmental approach, it is argued that a more meaningful view of morality, at least in the adolescent context, consists of a theoretical paradigm which incorporates seven discrete dimensions: normative, attentive, processing, situational, efficacy, maintaining, and environmental orientations. Each of these orientations is discussed briefly. A set of questions focusing on this paradigm is then presented. [Source: RI]

Westerhoff, John H. (ed.). 1984. "The Moral Person." Religious Education vol. 79, pp. 162-228.
Abstract: Editorial. Kohlberg's theory and the religious Jew, by A Feder. The Augustinian tradition: a different voice, by J W Houghton. Adolescent morality: a revised paradigm, by C M Shelton. Pluralism and religious belief: surviving relativism, by T D Cooper. The Nigerian schools: toward a national morality, by C U Manus. [for absts see individual auths]. [Source: RI]

Apostolos Cappadona, Diane (ed.). 1983. The Sacred Play of Children. New York, NY: Seabury Pr.
Abstract: Preface, F McManus. Introduction, G Ryan. Is the adult church ready for liturgy with young Christians?, M Collins. To celebrate with children: a developmentalist approach, J Hiesberger. Reflections: children and symbols and five years after the Directory for Masses with Children, J Gelineau. A look at questions for the future: the Eucharist, E Jeep. Taste and see: Orthodox children at worship, C Tarasar. Children and worship, L Weil. The Rite of Anointing and the pastoral care of sick children, J Berryman. Assembly, G Huck. Seasons, G Huck. Drama, liturgy, and children, T Kane. Liturgy for young people: the present situation in England, E Matthews. Planning our sacred play, G Ryan. The pre-schooler in the liturgy, G Schmidt. Children at worship: a Presbyterian perspective, V Thomas. Appendices: The Directory for Masses with Children; Resource bibliography for liturgies with young children, M Bryce. [Source: RI]

Bergman, Marvin Martin. 1983. "An Investigation of the Moral Judgment of Youth and Adults." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the moral judgment of five age groups, junior high youth, senior high youth, young adults, middle-age adults, and older persons. Particular attention was given to describing developmental trends in the moral judgment of youth and adults. A study of the relationships between moral judgment and seven variables, gender, years of schooling, intelligence test scores, memberships in community and school groups, socioeconomic status index, church membership, and voting precinct, was conducted. Data for the study were collected through an information sheet, the Defining the Issues Test, which assessed the amount of principled thinking, and the Quick Word Test, a measure of intelligence. The sample consisted of a random selection of 64 youth, ages 13-18 years, and 92 adults, ages 19-79 years. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the statistical analysis of the sample data. Tests for significance were the F test, Pearson product- moment correlation, Spearman's rho, t-test, and coefficient of multiple correlation. The major findings were: (1) There were significant differences in the moral judgment scores of some age groups, with scores reflecting an upward and downward trend. (2) The correlations of moral judgment scores and years of formal schooling, intelligence test scores, memberships in school and community groups, and socioeconomic status index were statistically significant. (3) There were no significant differences in the moral judgment scores of the two sexes, residents of two voting precincts, and members of eight church groups. (4) The most powerful predictors of moral judgment scores identified in the literature, years in school, age, and intelligence test scores, accounted only for 25 percent of the total variance of the sample. (5) The data only allowed for speculation as to factors that may be related to the lower moral judgment scores of older persons. [Source: DA]

Currie, Peter Scott. 1983. "Current Attachment Patterns, Attachment History, and Religiosity as Predictors of Ego-Identity Status in Fundamentalist Christian Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology - Los Angeles.
Abstract: Bowlby's attachment theory was integrated with theory in the areas of ego development, moral development, and identity formation in order to examine adolescent development in a Fundamentalist Christian population. This study focused on factors that affect identity formation as theoretically defined by Erikson's developmental theory and as operationalized by Marcia's empirically identified ego-identity statuses. Variables of religiosity along with attachment history and current attachment patterns were investigated in order to identify the best predictors of identity status in the adolescent population. A sample of 76 male and female adolescents, age 14 to 20, participated. Each adolescent completed the Attitudes About Religion Scale, the Attachment History Questionnaire, the Separation Anxiety Test, the Parental Warmth and Encouragement of Exploration Scale, and the Ego-Identity Status Interview. Results indicated that identity status was consistently predicted by the current attachment patterns derived from the Separation Anxiety Test. Contrary to expectations, the variables of religiosity and attachment history were only partially successful in discriminating identity status. The results added support to the theoretical premise that attachment patterns form the basis for identity formation in adolescence. The current attachment patterns of detachment, secure attachment, and anxious attachment together with the salient characteristics of attachment history, identified as the adolescent's sense of alienation and his/her perception of parental love, accurately discriminated membership in the identity statuses. Conclusions and implications were discussed in terms of the need to assess adolescent development by integrating the analysis of current attachment with current identity status. [Source: DA]

Kipust, Philip Joseph. 1983. "Moral Development and Self-Concept of Hasidic Adolescent Boys and Girls." Ed.D. Thesis, Yeshiva University, New York.
Abstract: This study compared Hasidically educated boys and girls, in grades 9 and 11, for moral development and self-concept. It also attempted to determine if any differential effect on the level or stage sequence of moral development was exhibited by this cultural group. Two issues dealt with were the sexual aspects of Kohlberg's theory and women's status in Orthodox Jewish education and tradition. The sample, 125 boys and 160 girls, attended six Yeshiva high schools in Boro Park, Brooklyn, New York. Three research instruments were administered: the Ethical Reasoning Inventory (ERI), to measure moral reasoning; the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS); and the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test (OLMAT), to measure intelligence. Non-parametric statistical procedures were utilized to analyze the data. Findings and Conclusions. (1) A significant correlation (P < .01) was found between moral development and grade level. (2) The moral development scores of the girls were significantly higher than those of the boys for the overall sample and for the 9th grade level. No significant differences were found at the 11th grade level. (3) No significant differences were found in the self-concept scores between the boys and girls although the 11th grade girls scored higher than the 11th grade boys. (4) There was a positive correlation (P < .01) between self-concept and moral development for the overall sample and the 11th grade males. (5) The correlation between self-concept and moral development was higher for the 11th grade boys than for the 11th grade girls. (6) There was a significant correlation between moral development and intelligence (P < .001) and between self-concept and intelligence (P < .05). The findings supported the "Stage sequence" and "Universality" aspects of Kohlberg's theory and showed that no special differential effect was exhibited by this cultural group. It also supported the contention of the Orthodox Jewish leaders that the status of women in their community, as reflected by their self-concept and moral development scores, is on par with that of the men. Also included are suggestions for modifying Kohlberg's stage model. [Source: DA]

Wright, Derek. 1983. "Religious Education from the Perspective of Moral Education." Journal of Moral Education vol. 12, pp. 111-115.
Abstract: Asserts that the nature of moral education must be clarified before it can be determined that religious education interferes with or helps the process. For teachers, there are 2 tasks in moral education: to create a moral community in the school and to facilitate students' understanding of morality through specific curriculum activities. These 2 tasks correspond directly to Piaget's (1932) distinction between practical and theoretical morality. In promoting a moral community, the teacher must promote 4 principles defining the core of morality: equality, truthfulness, fairness and justice, and keeping promises and contracts. In curriculum activity, the teacher should develop students' theoretical morality by creating conditions in which students can seriously reflect on and articulate their own moral experience and explore their reasoning with others. It is contended that religious education will influence students' theoretical morality in 2 ways: It can directly affect students' understanding of morality, and it can contribute to students' philosophy of life within which morality is embedded. It is noted that any form of moral or religious education teaching one set of world beliefs as true would be morally unacceptable. [Source: PI]

Dean, Roger A. 1982. "Youth: Moonies' Target Population." Adolescence vol. 17, pp. 567-574.
Abstract: Examines the stages of normative development that predominate during the late adolescent and early adulthood periods to determine why young people are particularly vulnerable to the ministrations of cults, particularly those of the Unification Church (Moonies). The problem of ego identity and its by-products--ego diffusion, idealism, intellectual curiosity, disillusionment, and traumatic experiences--are discussed. By recognizing, crystallizing, and responding to the universal discontent of the young, Reverend Moon, leader of the Unification Church, forges a powerful bond of identification between himself and an otherwise diverse group of people. He expresses this sense of dissatisfaction in universal and transcendental terms with which the young can identify on a personal level, while still retaining appeal to a broad-based constituency. By constructing and communicating a utopia, the Unification Church offers broad sections of discontented young people a new and concrete option for the reconstruction of their lives. [Source: PI]

Parks, Sharon. 1982. "Young Adult Faith Development: Teaching Is the Context of Theological Education." Religious Education vol. 77, pp. 657-672.

Philibert, Paul J. 1982. "Moral Maturity and Education Beyond Conventional Morality." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 286-296.
Abstract: "Moral Maturity" was the first goal of four of the denominations in our study and was rated second and third by the other two. What does this mean? three perspectives are developed here. 1) An examination of the items in the Moral Maturity scale shows that postconventional elements appear there enough to warrant thinking that adults want youth to be reasonably independent. 2) A refactoring of the ten goals of part 1 yielded two new factors, whose analysis indicates that the denominations vary in their support for postconventional morality, with the Evangelicals least supportive. 3) Given Fowler's stages of faith as an interpretive tool, only two denominations prefer critical stage four to conventional stage three for the outcome of religious education; none want stage five (a postcritical and universalizing posture). [Source: RI]

Philibert, Paul J. and James P. O'Connor, (eds.). 1982. "Adolescent Religious Socialization: Goal Priorities According to Parents and Religious Educators." Review of Religious Research vol. 23, pp. 226-315.
Abstract: Editors' introduction, by P. J. Philibert and J. P. O'Connor. Desired outcomes of religious education and youth ministry in six denominations, by D. R. Hoge, E. Heffernan, E. F. Hemrick, H.M. Nelsen, J.P. O'Connor, P.J. Philibert, and A.D. Thompson. The influence of social and theological factors upon the goals of religious education, by H.M. Nelsen. Teachers, pedagogy and the process of religious education, by P.J. Philibert and D.R. Hoge. Moral maturity and education beyond conventional morality, by P.J. Philibert. Different conceptualizations of goals of religious education and youth ministry in six denominations, by D.R. Hoge and A.D. Thompson. Response: "Moral maturity" and social justice goals, by H.C. Simmons. Response: religious education goals for youth, by D.E. Miller. Glossary of technical terms. [Source: RI]

Powers, Sally Isbell. 1982. "Family Interaction and Parental Moral Development as a Context for Adolescent Moral Development: A Study of Patient and Non-Patient Adolescents." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge.
Abstract: The relationship between family interaction, parental moral judgment and adolescent moral judgment was investigated in two groups of families: 27 families with a psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent and 32 families with a non-patient adolescent. All families were intact and siblings were not included in the study. The mean age of the adolescents was 14 1/2 years. Parental and adolescent moral judgment was assessed by Kohlberg's moral stages, scored according to the Standard Form Scoring system. Family discussions of revealed differences on hypothetical moral dilemmas were observed. Behaviors were coded using the Developmental Environments Coding System, a system constructed for this study which operationalizes interaction variables that structural-developmental theory suggests will influence moral development. The first part of the study analyzed group and sex differences in parental and adolescent moral judgment and the parent-adolescent moral judgment relationship. The second analyzed relationships between family interaction and family members' moral judgment. Background variables of socio-economic status, education, and religion were controlled. Correlations, multiple regression, and cluster analysis were used. It was hypothesized that adolescent non-patient status and family interactions coded as Sharing Perspectives, Challenging, Focusing, Supportive and Transactive would be positively related to moral judgment; adolescent patient status and family interactions coded as Avoidance, Distortion, Rejection and Affective Conflict would be negatively related to moral judgment. Analyses of relationships between family interaction and moral judgment indicated that family members' Support, Affective Conflict, Rejection, Avoidance and adolescent Transactiveness were most predictive of adolescent moral judgment. Mothers' moral judgment was most related to mothers' Distortion, Rejection, Focusing and Support. Fathers' moral judgment was most related to fathers' Avoidance and Focusing. Mothers' advanced moral reasoning was associated with Supportive, Sharing families and fathers' advanced moral reasoning was associated with Challenging families. There were differences between groups in the relationship of moral judgment to family interaction and differences in interaction according to the sex of the adolescent. Theoretical implications of the findings and recommendations for future research were discussed. [Source: DA]

Richter, Don. 1982. "The Creative Process in Adolescent Development (with Response)." Pp. 208-241 in Religious Education: Ministry with Youth, edited by D. Wyckoff. Birmingham, Ala.: Religious Education Press.

Solway, Patricia Hurley. 1982. "An Investigation of Social-Interactional Variables Related to Level of Moral Development among Catholic High School Girls." Ed.D. Thesis, University of Houston, Houston.
Abstract: Two areas of societal concern with regard to the subject of morality and moral judgment are education and crime. However, if the implications arising from the study of moral development theory are to be most effectively applied to programs designed to prevent or remediate problems associated with lack of moral development, the precise role of the various factors that underlie the development of moral reasoning must be clearly understood. A review of recent literature indicated that the cognitive factors related to moral development have been much more extensively studied than have social-interactional factors, despite the fact that cognitive factors are often not amenable to change and, therefore, not useful for practical application purposes. The major purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the relationship of the following social-interactional variables to level of moral development: religious education, influence of family environment, and socioeconomic status; (2) to discuss implications for inclusion of any social-interactional variables found to be correlated with moral development and also known to be amenable to change in preventive and remedial programs such as in schools, adolescent rehabilitation institutions, and parent education groups. The subjects involved in this study were 100 girls ranging in age from 14 to 19 years who were randomly selected from an all-girl Catholic high school in Houston. All subjects were administered the following instruments: the Ethical Reasoning Inventory, the Moral/Religious Emphasis subscale of the Family Environment Scale, the Hollingshead-Redlich socioeconomic rating scale, and a cover sheet requesting information pertaining to age, grade, race, and number of years of attendance in Catholic schools. Intelligence scores were obtained from an admission test which was given to all students as freshmen. Correlation and multiple regression analysis procedures were computed on the data obtained. Significant correlations were found between moral development and religious education, family influence, intelligence, age, and grade level. The implication of these results for educational programs and counseling strategies were discussed and recommendations for future research were suggested. [Source: DA]

Berryman, Jerome W., Richard E. Davies, and Henry C. Simmons. 1981. "Faith, Identity, and Morality in Late Adolescence: Comments." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 9, pp. 186-191.
Abstract: J. W. Berryman raises questions about the validity of mixing a scientific paradigm with a religious paradigm in J. W. Fowler's (1977) work and, thus, in E. J. Mischey's (see record 1983-25319-001) work. He gives an alternative solution for the ambiguities in Mischey's study. R. E. Davies asks for further research because of the exploratory nature of Mischey's study. He warns readers that stage scores are ordinal, not interval. H. C. Simmons asks for greater attention to the communities to which Ss belong. Each of the commentors acknowledge Mischey's contribution to research about identity formation, faith development, and moral reasoning development. [Source: PI]

Dalrymple, M. Charlene. 1981. "The Moral Reasoning of Catholic High School Seniors: School Environment, Family Background, and Alienation Correlates." Ed.D. Thesis, Temple University.
Abstract: The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the moral reasoning of twelfth grade students and their perceptions of their school environments, their family backgrounds, and themselves. A sociological perspective, presenting the influence of these three major factors on an individual's moral growth, provided the conceptual framework. A random sample of 608 students from fifteen Catholic high schools located in or near urban centers in the northeastern section of the United States participated in the research project. All subjects completed James Rest's Defining Issues Test (DIT) to obtain a moral reasoning score, and they responded to three questionnaires: James Mackey's Adolescent Alienation Scale; Marvin Siegelman's Parent-Child Relations II Questionnaire; and selected statements from the National Catholic Education Association's Giving Form to the Vision, a set of questions designed to measure the characteristics of a Catholic secondary school. Students provided personal data. When each of the components of the major correlates (Alienation, Family Background, School Environment) was treated as a separate entity and added to the personal data responses, there were twenty-one variables correlated with the subjects' moral reasoning scores. Data analysis provided percentages, means, and standard deviations for the statements on each of the components of the major correlates. A computer program, written specifically for this study, grouped each student's responses to the DIT according to stages and produced a principled reasoning score. Pearson Product Moment coefficients were determined between the dependent and all the independent variables. A step-wise Multiple R was obtained to determine which variables were the best predictors of moral reasoning. A "t" test was run to discover differences between males and females with regard to their scores on the Defining Issues Test. Results of the DIT indicated that the majority of subjects reasoned predominantly at the conventional level of morality with the larger segment preferring Stage 4 moral concepts. Approximately one-sixth of the sample had moved into the principled level of morality with the greater number preferring Stage 5A moral concepts when attempting to solve a moral dilemma. According to the perceptions registered on the alienation scale, the subjects tended to view themselves and their ability to deal with life situations in a positive manner. From the PCR II, their perceptions of parent-child relations indicated a loving family setting in which harmony was obtained through an appropriate balance of rewards and punishments. Responses to Giving Form to the Vision revealed that the subjects viewed their schools in a positive light although there were certain aspects with which they were dissatisfied. Product moment correlations indicated a significant (p(' )<(' ).05) relationship between moral reasoning scores and twelve variables. Moral reasoning scores rose in direct proportion to the degree of cultural estrangement, demanding attitude of parents, and service opportunities perceived by the subjects as well as according to the amount of education attained by each parent, the subjects' scholastic ability, and their participation in extra-curricular activities. The "t" test (p = .04) indicated that females used principled reasoning more than males when solving a moral dilemma. An inverse relationship was found between moral reasoning scores and the degree of guidelessness, the attention of mothers and the pedagogical-psychological environment of the school as perceived by the subjects. Results of the stepwise Multiple R revealed the five strongest predictors (significant at .01) of moral reasoning to be scholastic ability, degree of cultural estrangement, degree of guidelessness, mothers' education, and the pedagogical-psychological environment of the school respectively. Two of the five predictors registered negative associations: guidelessness and the school's pedagogical environment. [Source: DA]

Harris, Anton T. 1981. "A Study of the Relationship between Stages of Moral Development and the Religious Factors of Knowledge, Belief and Practice in Catholic High School Adolescents." Thesis, University of Oregon.

Hayden, Joseph Jean. 1981. "A Study of the Relationship between Ego and Moral Development in Adolescent Males." Ed.D. Thesis, The George Washington University.
Abstract: This study explored the relationship between levels in Jane Loevinger's model of ego development and Lawrence Kohlberg's hierarchy of moral development. The data were examined for indications of precedence of moral development over ego development. Levels of moral development of the subjects in this study were compared with those of subjects from similar high schools. The subjects were 66 male high school seniors between the ages of 16 and 18 years, who attended the same all-male Catholic high school. Of the sample, 95 percent planned to attend college immediately after graduation. The majority came from middle and upper middle income families, while eight percent received financial aid to help pay the tuition. Seventy-six percent of the sample was Caucasian, 20 percent was Black, and 4 percent was Oriental. Subjects in a sample of 22 male seniors attended a high school with a higher socio-economic status and a smaller minority representation. Another sample of 83 male seniors was more homogeneously "blue collar" and Caucasian in background than the subjects in the other groups. Each subject in the main sample of 66 males was tested in groups on the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (an assessment of ego development levels). One week later the same subjects were tested in groups on the Defining Issues Test (an assessment of moral development levels). The other two samples were tested in groups on the Defining Issues Test only. Analysis of the data from the main sample indicated an insignificant correlation of .13 between levels of ego development and moral development. Study of the relative levels of ego and moral development yielded "stageless" scores for 36 subjects on the Defining Issues Test. Informal comparisons suggest the precedence of ego development to moral development. Evidence from the 30 subjects with dominant stages of moral development reported a distinct mode of Stage 4, Law and Order, with the mode of ego development at Stage I-3/4, Conformist-Conscientious, suggesting that the ego levels of the sample were more advanced that the levels of moral thinking. Comparison of the moral development of the main sample with the more upper middle class sample of 22 males manifested no significant difference (t = 1.137; p = .26) and similar variance (F = 1.238; p = .30). Comparison of the main sample with the 83 males of more "blue collar" and Caucasian background also resulted in statistically insignificant differences in levels of moral development (t = 1.084; p = .28) and similar variance (F = 1.149; p = .27). The lack of significant differences among the samples was interpreted to be the result of a selection factor of home backgrounds operating with families of similar values selecting similar schools for their sons. [Source: DA]

Potvin, Raymond H. and Che Fu Lee. 1981. "Religious Development among Adolescents." Social Thought vol. 7, pp. 47-61.
Abstract: Durkheimian & Piagetian theory are integrated to explain adolescent religious development. The resulting hypotheses are tested with data from a national probability sample of 1,121 US youths aged 13-18 who were interviewed in 1965. At 13-14, the impact of peers is minimal, & religious practice, mainly related to parental religions, has a greater influence on internal religiousness than the reverse process. At 15-16, adolescents begin to coconstruct with peers worldviews impacting on internal religiousness that at these ages have a greater influence on practice than the reverse process. At 17-18, the influence of practice on internal religiousness regains its former primacy. Adolescents tend to reconcile early religiousness attained on the basis of authority relations with those modifications of religiousness attained on the basis of meanings coconstructed with peers. [Source: SA]

Hutsebaut, Dirk. 1980. "Reference Figures in Moral Development." Pp. 193-221 in Toward Moral and Religious Maturity, edited by Christiane Brusselmans. Morristown, N.J.: Silver Burdett Co.

Schlimpert, Charles E. 1980. "The Effect of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in the Parochial Secondary Classroom on Levels of Moral Judgment and Dogmatism." Thesis, University of Southern California.

Stonehouse, Catherine M. 1980. Patterns in Moral Development. Waco, TX.: Word.

Allanach, Robert C. 1979. "The Troubled Adolescent." Christian Ministry pp. 22-25.

Damrell, Joseph. 1978. Search for Identity: Youth, Religion, and Culture. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Hoge, Dean R. and Gregory H. Petrillo. 1978. "Development of Religious Thinking in Adolescence: A Test of Goldman's Theories." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 17, pp. 139-154.
Abstract: Assessed R. Goldman's (1964, 1965) hypothesized factors for facilitating or impeding development of religious thinking using data from 451 10th graders in suburban Catholic, Baptist, and Methodist churches. The role of overall cognitive capacity was less than Goldman suggested, and the role of religious training was greater. The impact of religious education varied widely across denominations. Goldman's theory that a gap between concrete religious thinking and higher-level cognitive functioning in other areas tends to produce faith rejection was not supported; the results, except for the private school Catholics, were just the opposite--more abstract religious thinking was associated with greater rejection of doctrine and the church. [Source: PI]

Trevelyan, J. Ann. 1978. "The Religious Dimension of Life During Adolescence: A Study of the Relationship between Psychological Perspectives in the Works of Erikson, Jung, Kohlberg and Tillich, and Clinical Perspectives in Two Research Settings." Thesis, Harvard University.

Gorman, Margaret. 1977. "Moral and Faith Development in Seventeen-Year-Old Students." Religious Education vol. 72, pp. 491-504.
Abstract: Studied levels of moral and faith development in 50 students in public and private schools, using structured interviews and standardized coding procedures based on work by L. Kohlberg and J. W. Fowler. Most students were at conformist, conventional levels of development. Development was significantly related to intelligence but not to any of 6 demographic and experiential variables. Subjective or "qualitative" analyses suggested that experiences with crises (such as death) and with growing up in a socioeconomically varied area (as contrasted with an affluent suburb) raised levels of moral and faith development. A number of educational implications are drawn from these data. [Source: PI]

Peatling, John H. 1977. "Cognitive Development: Religious Thinking in Children, Youth and Adults." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 8, pp. 100-115.
Abstract: Addresses 3 questions: (a) Does cognitive development continue across the life span? (b) Are there stages in development? (c) Can age-level group means be predicted? The total sample of 10,648 Ss (CA 9 yrs to middle 50s) included subsamples from 7 separate studies in North America and Finland. The scale, Religious Thinking Total Abstract, is derived from the instrument Thinking About the Bible. CA group means were tested for significant differences by the t test. Cross-sample comparisons were examined by fitting means to a theoretical logarithmic curve. Finally, comparisons were made by generational groups and also by educational levels for the 6 scales derived from Thinking About the Bible. Results suggest an affirmative answer to all 3 questions. Three levels of development appear in student samples. A 4th, more abstract, level appears in adult samples, and possibly a 5th. The mean percentage of difference between observed age level means and the logarithmic curve is 4.25%, which suggests predictive capability for the Religious Thinking Total Abstract scale. Other results and numerous interpretations are reported. [Source: PI]

Stevens, Carey, Arthur M. Blank, and Greg Poushinsky. 1977. "Religion as a Factor in Morality Research: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Older Adolescents, Young Adults, Middle Age and Senior Citizens." Journal of Psychology and Judaism vol. 1, pp. 61-80.
Abstract: Four groups of a total of 272 Ss ranging in age from 15 to 72 yrs were assessed with respect to the relationship between various aspects of religion and their level of moral development (Kohlberg Moral Judgment Test and Defining Issues Test). Findings suggest that religious influences relate to moral reasoning but that this depends upon the type of moral assessment utilized. Further, speculation concerning the relation of morality to agnosticism and atheism is made. [Source: PI]

Weiner, Alan S. 1977. "Cognitive and Social-Emotional Development in Adolescence." Journal of Pediatric Psychology vol. 2, pp. 87-92.
Abstract: Reviews recent findings concerning cognitive, social-emotional, moral, political, and religious development in normal adolescents. Unlike findings with standardized intelligence tests, Piagetian research supports the hypothesis of cognitive differentiation during development. Recent research on personality development tends to refute the previous consensus that adolescence is normatively a time of emotional stress or crisis and thus suggests that adolescent emotional problems be taken more seriously when they do appear. Similarly, considerable diversity exists among adolescents, and research findings on cognition, morality, intergenerational relations, and ideological development are often inconsistent with generally held, theoretically derived views of modal adolescent functioning. [Source: PI]

Blum, Paul. 1976. "A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Family and Social Role Orientation on the Development of Religious Values among Adolescents." Thesis, University of Notre Dame.

Eisenberg Berg, Nancy. 1976. "The Relation of Political Attitude to Constraint-Oriented and Prosocial Moral Reasoning." Developmental Psychology vol. 12, pp. 552-553.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between prosocial and constraint-oriented moral reasoning and liberal and humanistic political attitudes. 76 White middle-class 7th-12th graders from a Presbyterian church and a Jewish camp completed a 41-item political questionnaire and a written objective test of moral reasoning based on L. Kohlberg's (1969) conceptualizations. Chi-square analyses revealed that older Ss were significantly more liberal and humanitarian than younger Ss, and older Ss exhibited a significantly higher level of moral reasoning. Correlations between political attitude scores and moral indices partially supported the hypothesis that higher levels of moral reasoning are associated with more liberal and humanistic attitudes: Liberalism scores were significantly related to the prosocial, constraint, and combined moral indices; humanitarian scores were significantly related to the prosocial and combined indices, but not the constraint index. Further research is needed to determine whether findings generalize to other social strata. [Source: PI]

Maddock, James W. 1976. "Future without History: Youth's Crisis of Commitment." Religious Education vol. 71, pp. 5-16.
Abstract: This article suggests that a society characterized by chronic social change and radical pluralism produces youth lacking a clear sense of identity and (therefore of) historical perspective, a continuity of meaning over time. The solution, it is argued, lies in socializing youth toward a sense of moral commitment as a bridge between personal identity and social community. The result can be a pluralistic society guided by basic moral sensibilities, a realistic network of interpersonal obligations, a core of common moral purposes, and a shared willingness to take responsibility for shaping the future. [Source: RI]

Miller, Kenneth L. 1976. "The Relationship of Stages of Development in Children's Moral and Religious Thinking." Thesis, Arizona State University.

O'Byrne, Simon. 1976. Moral Development and Logical Reasoning of Adolescents: An Experimental Research Study with Adolescent Girls Comparing Different Techniques. Dublin: Frederick Press.

Blackner, Gary L. 1975. "Moral Development of Young Adults Involved in Weekday Religious Education and Self-Concept Relationships." Thesis, Brigham Young University.

Knox, Ian. 1975. "Religion and the Expectations of Modern Society Towards the Adolescent." Religious Education vol. 70, pp. 649-660.
Abstract: Discusses implications for adolescent moral education of the tension between individuality and social demands. Given E. Erikson's theory of adolescent identity development and psychoanalytic theory in general, the theologically important need to attain delay of gratification is more readily served by focus on the community and institutional dimensions of religion. [Source: PI]

Peatling, John H., Charles W. Laabs, and Thomas B. Newton. 1975. "Cognitive Development: A Three-Sample Comparison of Means on the Peatling Scale of Religious Thinking." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 7, pp. 159-162.
Abstract: Compared means on the 6 Peatling Scales of Religious Thinking for 3 age levels. Youngest Ss were 988 students in Lutheran Missouri Synod schools (average grade level, 6.4). Older Ss were 1,994 students in Episcopal schools (average grade level, 7.9). 3,289 adult Ss were in United Methodist Adult Bible classes. The predictions that means for the 3 Abstract Stage Scales would increase with age while means for the 3 Concrete Scales would decrease with age were confirmed. Results suggest that the Peatling Scales measure Piagetian constructs, upon which they were based, and inferentially exhibit construct validity. Results indicate more rapid development in religious thinking between childhood and adolescence than between adolescence and adulthood. The complexities of development during middle adolescence are highlighted by the use of 6 scales rather than just the 2 summary scales. Results refute the assumption that cognitive development is completed during adolescence. Educational implications are discussed. [Source: PI]

Kawakami, Melvyn W. 1974. "A Pattern of Development: Adolescent Structures as Applied to Faith Development." M.Div Thesis, Harvard Divinity School.

Peatling, John H. 1974. "Cognitive Development in Pupils in Grades Four through Twelve: The Incidence of Concrete and Religious Thinking." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 7, pp. 52-61.
Abstract: Studied chronological age, mental age, and grade level in relation to the incidence of concrete and abstract religious thinking. 1,994 students from a 7% random sample of the National Association of Episcopal Schools, grades 4-12, were administered an untimed, criterion-referenced multiple-choice test entitled "Thinking About the Bible." Results generally support the findings of J. Piaget and R. Goldman. The statistical procedures employed demonstrated periods of growth and plateaus (or intermediate periods). In this American sample, abstract religious thinking appeared to begin in Grades 8 and 9, not becoming dominant until Grades 10-12 because of a plateau period. Results for all 3 factors were significant, but grade level gave the clearest indications of change. Implications for religious educators and for needed further research are discussed. [Source: PI]

O'Doherty, E. F. 1973. The Religious Formation of the Adolescent. Staten Island: Alba House.

Strommen, Merton P. 1971. Research on Religious Development: A Comprehensive Handbook: A Project of the Religious Education Association. New York, NY : Hawthorn.

Pattison, E. Mansell. 1969. "Development of Moral Values in Children." Pastoral Psychology vol. 20, pp. 14-30.

Peretti, Peter O. 1969. "Guilt in Moral Development: A Comparative Study." Psychological Reports pp. 739-745.
Abstract: 400 17-20 yr. old undergraduates participated in an investigation to find out: (a) those areas which college students consider important in their moral considerations; (b) the extent to which such students will feel guilty when considering to engage in activities in these areas; and (c) any differences in pertinent classifications for youngsters reared or not reared in relatively strict Christian backgrounds. Results suggest 13 areas which tend to be important to the youth in moral considerations, differences in guilt feelings, and differences in responses relative to backgrounds. [Source: PI]

Hugen, Melvin D. 1968. "The Church Role in Maturity." Proceedings of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies pp. 59-67.
Abstract: Using the stages of growth through which the individual normally passes on the pathway to maturity as outlined by "The Fact-Finding Report of the Midcentuary White House Conference on Children and Youth," ways in which the church can furnish resources for such growth are discussed. [Source: PI]

Eppel, E. M. and M. Eppel. 1967. Adolescents and Morality: A Study of Some Moral Values and Dilemmas of Working Adolescents in the Context of a Changing Climate of Opinion. New York: N.Y. Humanities Press.
Abstract: Presents "an analysis of the climate of opinion on the morality of young people as expressed in educational, religious, and medical reports in recent years, including an assessment of the impact of 'the new morality.'" The first section presents research derived from the foregoing analysis, "and deals with the views and attitudes of magistrates, probation officers, and youth leaders on the morality of...(adolescents) and on differences between the generations." It is concluded that the main focus of adolescents' moral concern seems to lie in the problem of their establishing satisfactory relationships. [Source: PI] [Source: PI]

Amatora, Mary. 1963. "Needed Research on Religious Development During Adolescence." Catholic Psychological Record vol. 1, pp. 1-9.
Abstract: Studies of attitudes and practices of the adolescent toward religion are of limited use, unless the resulting knowledge can be applied to helping him deepen his spirituality. Motivation for living his religion must be intrinsic. Religion can help fulfill the 8 basic needs of childhood. [Source: PI]

Van Dyke, Paul and John Pierce Jones. 1963. "The Psychology of Religion of Middle and Late Adolescence: A Review of Empirical Research, 1950-1960." Religious Education vol. 58, pp. 529-537.
Abstract: Review of empirical research related to development of ethical attitudes during middle and late adolescence, excluding authoritarian personality, dogmatism, and prejudice. [Source: PI]

Godin, Andre. 1958. "Faith and the Psychological Development of Children and Adolescents." Lumen Vitae vol. 13, pp. 297-311.
Abstract: There are 5 psychological characteristics of faith loosely connected with 5 periods of adolescent development: experience of love and de-centration, knowledge of moral fault, acceptance of mystery and development of "symbolic sense," sense of expectancy, and finally, joyful assurance and security. Affective disorders formed in the first years of life can inhibit the plenitude of faith. The role of the parents and especially the function of the father-figure are very important. The development is traced through early childhood (2-8 years), late childhood (8-12 years), pre-puberty (12-14 years), puberty (14-16 years), and adolescence (16-18 years). [Source: PI]

Heath, R. W., M. H. Maier, and H. H. Remmers. 1958. "Youth's Attitudes toward Various Aspects of Their Lives." Purdue Opinion Panel Poll Report p. 24.
Abstract: The majority of teenagers appear to be absorbing the values of the culture and reflect pretty much the attitudes of the culture toward drinking, dating, divorce, religion, and juvenile delinquency. [Source: PI]

Hirschberg, J. Cotter. 1956. "Comments on Religion and Childhood." Menninger Quarterly vol. 10, pp. 22-24.
Abstract: Religious attitudes and understanding can help in the healthy emotional growth of children. But the child and his concepts concerning religion should grow up together. The development of religious beliefs and functions is traced through the stages of childhood. (See 31: 669.) [Source: PI]

Hirschberg, J. Cotter. 1955. "Some Comments on Religion and Childhood." Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic vol. 19, pp. 227-228.
Abstract: The child and his concepts concerning religion should group up together; "in childhood, religion has a social as well as a divine object." [Source: PI]

Manwell, Elizabeth M. and Sophia A. Fahs. 1951. Consider the Children; How They Grow. Boston: Beacon Press.
Abstract: A revision and expansion of the 1940 edition (see 14: 4793.) Some of the phases of child growth and development treated in the separate chapters of this book include the developmental tasks of the nursery years, the awakening to the world of nature, the child's experiments in social behavior, his experiences with the dark and with dreams, and his attitudes toward life and love. The authors consider the mental and emotional health of young children and their spiritual or religious health to be interdependent, and maintain that each must be examined in the light of the other. [Source: PI]

Odenwald, Robert P. 1951. "The Spiritual Development of the Child, with Emphasis on Problems of Maladjustment in Children and the Emotion of Fear." Journal of Child Psychiatry vol. 2, pp. 161-167.
Abstract: In this essay the author discusses the importance of parental attitudes in determining the adequacy of the child's personality adjustment. He draws special attention to fear and emphasizes the importance of religious training. [Source: PI]

Harms, E. 1944. "The Development of Religious Experience in Children." American Journal of Sociology vol. 50, pp. 112-122.
Abstract: A study of children's religious imaginations, as expressed in drawings and paintings during specially conducted experiments, showed quite different results from those found by studies of what children say about their religion and God. An examination of such graphic expressions in the various age levels resulted in the postulation of three different stages of religious experience in children: the fairy-tale, the realistic, and the individualistic. [Source: PI]

Garrison, K. C. 1940. The Psychology of Adolescence. NY: Prentice-Hall.
Abstract: New material on youth problems, religious development, and achieving independence has been added to this revised edition which represents the 4th printing since the original publication of the book in 1934. The book, designed as a text, is addressed to both, adolescent college students and to those entrusted with the care and guidance of adolescents. It is divided into (1) development of the individual and (2) personality development. There are 16 chapters, most of which have a summary and are followed by 5-9 thought questions and 5-11 selected references. [Source: PI]

Mary, Sister and M. M. Hughes. 1936. "The Moral and Religious Development of the Preschool Child." Studies in Psychology and Psychiatry from the Catholic University of America p. 51.
Abstract: Through asking 15 abstract questions of 693 Catholic and 525 non-Catholic children moral and religious development was studied. No significant differences were found between Catholics and non-Catholics, but purely religious questions were not asked of non-Catholics. Moral ideas such as obedience, right of ownership, love of parents, etc., were found early, with highest growth from 3 to 5 years, which corresponds with the period of rapid physical and mental growth. Religious development shows that definite concepts of God, Heaven, angels, and the Holy Family are also found at the preschool age, as evidenced by "correct" answers. Since these concepts develop early parents "need to be made aware of the undeveloped spiritual potentialities of preschool children." [Source: PI]

Dimock, H. S. 1934. "The Modern Child and Religion." University of Iowa. Child Welfare Pamphlets p. 11.
Abstract: Early emotional conditioning is shown to have an effect on the tenor of religious development. Parents and educators are warned of the danger of imposing adult religious concepts on children and of using theological concepts as controls of conduct. Development of religious behavior can take place only through the practice of religious behavior. [Source: PI]

Fahs, S. L. 1930. "The Beginnings of Religion in Baby Behavior." Religious Education vol. 25, pp. 896-903.
Abstract: The reports gained from a number of graduate students regarding the religious experiences of their childhood suggest that one's religious bent is acquired during the first years of life and before religion in a formal sense can be understood. This bent depends upon the experience had with the intimate objects and conditions of life, and above all with parents. The development of emotional attitudes depends upon the success with which the child meets his world, and the ideas of God, rewards and punishment are made consistent with these more primitive experiences. [Source: PI]

Bose, R. G. 1928. The Nature and Development of Religious Concepts in Children. Tempe, Ariz: Aircraft Print Shop.
Abstract: This dissertation presents a more detailed report of the study printed in Rel. Educ. 1930, 24, 831-837 (see IV: 769). An analysis of the results is assisted by extended tables. [Source: PI]

Kupky, O. 1928. The Religious Development of Adolescents. NY: Macmillan.
Abstract: The author has attempted to study the religious development of adolescents from diaries, letters, and poems which adolescents have produced, together with results from a supplementary questionnaire given to a certain group of students to determine when religious development begins. Little can be learned from a study of the religion of childhood, as true religious experiences do not ordinarily appear until puberty. The religious community and the temperament of the individual determine whether the development shall be continuous or catastrophic and leading to conversion. Factors such as sex, nature, and love influence religious development, but it cannot be said that the development is exclusively determined by them. Moral, intellectual, and esthetic elements are significant in religious experiences. Illustrations of religious development are scattered throughout the text; an appendix gives further illustrations. A 6 page bibliography. [Source: PI]

Various. 1927. The Manual of Child Development. NY: University Society.
Abstract: Contains a chart for child development which is an outline of the average child's growth from birth through the 20th year, and gives at each period a list of the traits of character nascent at that particular period. This is followed by a series of articles telling why each trait is desirable, giving practical suggestions for its development in a child and a list of the stories, etc., which are needed to develop it. There is a section devoted to each of the following development phases in a child: physical, mental, social, moral and spiritual. [Source: PI]

Crampton, C. Ward, et al. 1910. Applied Ideals in Work with Boys. New York: YMCA Press.
Abstract: Physiological grouping, by C. W. Crampton.--Adolescent psychology, by W. S. Hall.--Self-government, by G. W. Fiske.--Instruction regarding sex, by W. S. Hall.--The altruistic, by E. M. Robinson.--A boy's religion, by G. W. Fiske. --The Bible made real, by T. G. Soares.--The outreach in the community, by W. M. Wood.--The Boy scouts, by E. T. Seton.--Summer activities, by M. D. Crackel.- -Helping unfortunate boys, by G. S. Addams.--The boy of foreign parentage, by E. E. Bohner.--The employer of boys, by C. R. Towson. [Source: HA]

National Study of Youth and Religion

The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.