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Cho, S. J., G. H. S. Singer, and M. Brenner. 2000. "Adaptation and Accommodation to Young Children with Disabilities: A Comparison of Korean and Korean American Parents." Topics in Early Childhood Special Education vol. 20, pp. 236-249.
Abstract: This article presents a comparative study of the adaptation of Korean and Korean American parents to their children with developmental disabilities. Repeated interviews with 16 mothers in each group were designed to elicit parental descriptions of the major chronological events concerning their children, process of adaptation and accommodation, sources of stress and support, and perceived benefits and contributions to their lives. The interviews were conducted in Korean, transcribed, translated, and analyzed in a structured procedure in keeping with one major tradition of qualitative research. Comparative cross- cultural research allows investigators to see taken-for-granted phenomena that might otherwise go unseen. The study revealed that both Korean and Korean American parents experienced a process of transformation in regard to their beliefs and feelings about their exceptional children. Religion played an important role in this process. Public policy, social services, and available resources were dramatically different in the two nations, and these differences suffused parental accounts of their individual experiences. The similarities and differences between the two groups are presented thematically. The findings are further discussed in relation to major theories about adaptation in families of young children with disabilities. [Source: SC]

Neeleman, J. and G. Lewis. 1999. "Suicide, Religion, and Socioeconomic Conditions. An Ecological Study in 26 Countries, 1990." Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health vol. 53, pp. 204-210.
Abstract: STUDY OBJECTIVE: Relative risks are frequently assumed to be stable across populations but this may not apply in psychiatric epidemiology where sociocultural context may modify them. Such ecological effect modification will give curved associations between aggregated risk factor and outcome. This was examined in connection with the ecological association between suicide rates and an aggregate index of religiosity. DESIGN: Ecological study of associations between suicide rates and an index of religiosity, adjusted for socioeconomic variation. The effect of stratification of the study sample according to levels of religiosity, was examined. SETTING: 26 European and American countries. SUBJECTS: Interview data from 37,688 people aggregated by country. OUTCOME MEASURES: Age and sex specific (1986-1990) suicide rates. MAIN RESULT: Adjusted for socioeconomic variation, negative associations of male suicide rates with religiosity were apparent in the 13 least religious countries only (test for interaction F (1, 25) = 5.6; p = 0.026). Associations between religiosity and female suicide rates did not vary across countries. CONCLUSION: The bent ecological association was apparent only after adjustment for socioeconomic variation suggesting that, rather than confounding, ecological modification of individual level links between religion and male (but not female) suicide risk is the responsible mechanism. This concurs with micro-level findings suggesting that suicide acceptance depends not only on personal but also on contextual levels of religious belief, and that men are more sensitive to this phenomenon than women. In psychiatric epidemiology, relative risks vary with the exposure's prevalence. This has important implications for research and prevention. [Source: ML]

Crane, Ken R. 1998. "Religious Adaptation among Second Generation Latino/a Adventists: Finding from 'Avance'." Latino Studies Journal vol. 9, p. 74.
Abstract: Examines religious adaptation among second generation Latin American Adventists in the United States. Role of religion in the immigrant adaptation process; Comparison with United States-born and foreign born youth; Factors influencing departure from conservative Latino Adventism in the area of youth culture involvement. [Source: AS]

Simmons, Cyril. 1998. "Cultural Determinants of Adolescent Attitudes." Research in Education vol. 60, pp. 69-70.
Abstract: A study examined the cultural determinants of adolescent attitudes in Saudi Arabia, England, and the U.S. An open-ended questionnaire was completed by 89 Saudi Arabian students at private junior or senior high schools, 96 English students at a suburban comprehensive school, and 126 U.S. students at a private school in Virginia. Results revealed that a society with a dominant religious ideology determines the expressed attitudes of its young people to a significant degree. [Source: EA]

Bagley, Christopher and Kanka Mallick. 1997. "Self-Esteem and Religiosity: Comparison of 13- to 15-Year-Old Students in Catholic and Public Junior High Schools." Canadian Journal of Education vol. 22, pp. 89-92.
Abstract: Reports on a cross-cultural program comparing adolescent stress and various indicators of adjustment (including self esteem) in junior high students in Canada, Britain, Hong Kong, and the Philippines (C. Bagley and K. Mallick, 1995). Findings reported here are for the Canadian study only. Self-esteem scales were completed by 410 public school (PS) students and 494 Catholic (RC) school students (aged 13-15 yrs). Ss also completed a measure of religious participation. Regardless of the actual religion Ss were affiliated with, the religious participation index had moderate but statistically significant correlations with self esteem, indicating somewhat higher levels of self-esteem in both RC and PS students who participated actively in religion. It is concluded that self esteem levels across the 2 types of schooling are largely similar; findings of North and South American and European studies have not been confirmed with this Canadian sample. [Source: PI]

Feldman, Linda, Philippa Holowaty, Bart Harvey, Katherine Rannie, Linda Shortt, and Alykhan Jamal. 1997. "A Comparison of the Demographic, Lifestyle, and Sexual Behaviour Characteristics of Virgin and Non-Virgin Adolescents." Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality vol. 6, pp. 197-209.
Abstract: Compares the demographic, lifestyle, & sexual behavior characteristics of 605 virgin & 321 nonvirgin adolescents, drawing on 1994 self-administered questionnaire data from students, grades 9-13, living near Toronto, Ontario. A Multiple logistic regression model showed that variables significantly associated with being a virgin were being in grades 9-11, being female, doing 14+ hours a week of homework, & stating ethnicity as Asian, while those significantly associated with nonvirginity were involvement in a serious relationship in the previous 12 months, masturbation or oral sex of or by a partner, heavy drinking, drinking & driving, daily smoking, & doing 5 or fewer hours of homework per week. Parent education, birthplace, religious attendance, TV/computer/telephone use, physical activity, feelings of happiness, family functioning, & satisfaction with serious relationship were not significantly associated with virginity status. In addition, nonvirgins who had had a serious relationship in the previous 12 months were significantly less likely to state that they were very likely to use condoms than those who had not been in a serious relationship. Some 19% of virgins had engaged in either masturbation or oral sex of or by a partner. Among nonvirgins, 46% used condoms every time during the previous five times they had vaginal or anal intercourse, & 16% of nonvirgins had experienced anal intercourse. Findings are discussed in relation to the sexual health education needs of adolescents. [Source: SA]

Kelley, Jonathan and Nan Dirk De Graaf. 1997. "National Context, Parental Socialization, and Religious Belief: Results from 15 Nations." American Sociological Review vol. 62, pp. 639-659.
Abstract: How much does a nation's religious environment affect the religious beliefs of its citizens? Do religious nations differ from secular nations in how beliefs are passed on from generation to generation? To find out, we use data from the 1991 International Social Survey Programme collected in 15 nations from 19,815 respondents. We use diagonal reference models estimated by nonlinear regression to control for a nation's level of economic development and exposure to Communism, and for the individual's denomination, age, gender, and education. We find that (1) people living in religious nations will, in proportion to the religiosity of their fellow- citizens, acquire more orthodox beliefs than otherwise similar people living in secular nations; (2) in relatively secular nations, family religiosity strongly shapes children's religious beliefs, while the influence of national religious context is small; (3) in relatively religious nations family religiosity, although important, has less effect on children's beliefs than does national context. These three patterns hold in rich nations and in poor nations, in formerly Communist nations and in established democracies, and among old and young, men and women, the well-educated and the poorly educated, and for Catholics and Protestants. Findings on the link between belief and church attendance are inconsistent with the influential "supply-side" analysis of differences between nations. [Source: SS]

Powell, Lawrence A., Cherylon Robinson, and Paul Nesbitt Larking. 1996. "Perceptions of Intergenerational Equity in the U.S. And Canada: Crossnational Variations, Policy Implications." Paper presented at Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP).
Abstract: Differences in perceptions of intergenerational equity between youth in Canada & the US are examined. Specifically, attitudinal items include ratings of contributions made to & rewards received from society, of perceived fairness of taxing the young to support the elderly, & of the relative interests of different age groups. Structural correlates examined include gender, race, religion, income, education & political interest, activity, & ideology. [Source: SA]

Chia, Edmund K. F. and Chwan Shyang Jih. 1994. "The Effects of Stereotyping on Impression Formation: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Viewing Religious Persons." Journal of Psychology vol. 128, pp. 559-565.
Abstract: Examined the effects of stereotyping on impression formation when encountering people dressed to represent a religious faith. Stimulus photographs portrayed 8 male and female models dressed casually and 1 male and 1 female model in religious attire. From each set of photos, Ss (82 students from a US Catholic high school, 68 from a US public high school, and 84 from a Malaysian Muslim secondary school) selected a photo of the person with whom they would associate the positive personality traits suggested by stimulus questions. All Ss attributed more positive traits to photos of the models who were religiously attired than to the control photos, but Ss from the US schools attributed more positive traits to the photos of religiously dressed models than did Ss from the Malaysian school. [Source: PI]

Zhang, Jie and Darwin L. Thomas. 1994. "Modernization Theory Revisited: A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Conformity to Significant Others in Mainland China, Taiwan, and the USA." Adolescence vol. 29, pp. 885-903.
Abstract: Tests the viability of modernization theory's explanation of adolescent conformity behavior across 3 different cultural settings. Analysis of questionnaire survey data from college students in mainland China, Taiwan, & the US (total N = 1,026) does not support modernization theory. Contrary to modernization theory's predictions, the social institution of education is less important, but religion is highly valued in US society, while the reverse is true of the 2 Chinese societies. It is concluded that modernization theory tests with cross-cultural data should take into consideration cultural characteristics. [Source: SA]

Dodrill, Mark Andrew. 1991. "Christian Youth Ministry in Hispanic Chicago and Barcelona: An Inquiry into Similarities, Dissimilarities and Cross-Cultural Themes." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: The study seeks to describe, compare, and contrast the purposes and procedures of volunteer-led, Christian youth ministries in evangelical churches of Hispanic Chicago and Barcelona, Spain. Three cases were selected from each setting on the basis of their reputation for effectiveness in volunteer-led youth ministry and maximum diversity in such areas as denominational affiliations, levels of acculturation, and socioeconomic status. Data was gathered through observation of youth group activities, a sentence completion survey of group members, any available documents, and semi-structured interviews of various leaders. The small size of the sample precludes statistical generalizations to the larger populations. Nevertheless, the following tentative conclusions were advanced as topics for further research: (1) Some Christian youth groups are able to use their social power to help raise the socioeconomic levels of lower-class youth. (2) The effectiveness of volunteer-led youth groups is correlated with that of their sponsoring congregation. (3) The goals of youth ministry are quite similar among evangelical churches across a variety of Hispanic cultural settings. (4) Differing emphases within this set of goals may be related to different stages of group development. (5) The combination of different ministry strategies increases their effectiveness in reaching group goals. (6) These strategies can be grouped under the headings of specialized youth activities, whole church activities, and personal ministry. (7) The number of specialized youth activities in a given program may be related to factors such as the size of the congregation, the level of acculturation to dominant societal values, and the relationships between youth and adults within the congregation. (8) Both acceptance by the group members and recognition by the church as a whole are prerequisites for effective youth leaders. (9) The leadership styles of youth leaders tend to mirror the styles of their pastors. (10) A congregational model seems to be the most effective leadership structure for volunteer-led youth ministry. (11) Effective leaders demonstrate their concern for youth through their commitment of time, energy and resources. (12) A variety of leadership development activities are necessary for the continuity of volunteer-led youth ministries. [Source: DA]

McNamara, Patrick H. 1990. "Peer-Constructed Moral Attitudes: Cross-Cultural Findings among American and British Adolescents." Paper presented at International Sociological Association (ISA).
Abstract: Previous research by S. Dornbush has underlined the importance of peer evaluative pressure in predicting adolescent moral choices when presented with written moral dilemmas, & raised questions about the internalization of moral standards in a modern society characterized by a diversity of standards & by considerable geographic mobility, both of which free individuals from constant observation & adult social controls. The effects of parents' strength of convictions & the time & attention they give to the discussion of moral issues with adolescent children have not been investigated. It is suspected here that, since baby-boom generation parents in the US grew up in a climate of challenge to & uncertainty concerning traditional values, & are likely to both be in the full-time paid labor force, they may spend less time with their children, thus reducing their moral influence on them. Proposed research focusing on Catholic adolescents in GB is described that will explore Ss' perceptions of their parents' values & the extent of communication between parents & children. It is expected that peer influence on moral choices will be significantly diminished within a cultural setting of greater consensus regarding tradition & in which fewer parents are both in the full-time paid labor force. [Source: SA]

Wilson, Jeannette D. 1989. "The Relationship between Parental Behavior and Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Study in the U.S. And Brazil." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Tennessee.
Abstract: Cultural variation in the relationship of parental behaviors to adolescent self-esteem was tested through secondary analysis of a cross-cultural data set (Ferreria & Thomas, 1984). The sample, 393 urban middle class students from two Catholic high schools in the U.S. and Brazil, was split evenly by gender and culture. Cross-cultural comparability was assured. Varimax rotated factor analysis was performed on 75 parental behavior items selected from three standard instruments (Heilbrun, 1964; Devereaux, et al., 1969; Schaefer, 1965), and 21 items measuring self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965; Openshaw, et al, 1981). The factor structures of the dependent and independent variables in each culture were found to be very similar across cultures. Models of adolescent socialization in the family context were tested in both cultures in two specific ways: (1) four dimensions of self-esteem were identified (Social Worth and Self-Derogation from Rosenberg, Positive Self-esteem and Self-Esteem Power from a Semantic Differential scale), (2) the relationships between these four dimensions of self-esteem were tested with seven similarly identified parental behavior scales (General Support, Companionship, Physical Affection, Induction, Coercion, Love Withdrawal and Inconsistent Control) employing regression analysis cross-culturally. Our hypotheses of significant influence between adolescent perceptions of parental behaviors (Induction, Coercion, Physical Affection, Companionship) and adolescent Self-Derogation and Social Worth were not supported. General support from both parents in the U.S., and fathers in Brazil, were influential with adolescent Self-Derogation and Social Worth. Significant cultural differences were found only for mothers. U.S. parental behaviors were more influential. Parental support was found to be more important than control in both cultures, especially for fathers in Brazil. Mother control was found to be more influential than father control in both cultures. Overall, more similarities than differences were noted. [Source: DA]

Nelsen, Hart M. and Arshad Rizvi. 1984. "Gender and Religious Socialization: Comparisons from Pakistan and the United States." Journal of Comparative Family Studies vol. 15, pp. 281-290.
Abstract: Interviewed 348 11-28 yr old Pakistani Christians attending Catholic schools in Karachi in 1980 and used data collected from 3,000 US youths attending Catholic and public schools in 1975 to compare the impact of mothers and fathers on youth's religious orientation. Results show that parental religiosity (PR) significantly predicted religiosity for Pakistani males, while parental support (PS) significantly predicted religiosity for Pakistani females. For US Catholic males, both PS and PR were significantly related to their own religiosity, while for US Catholic females, only PR was significantly related to their own religiosity. For US Protestant Ss, PR rather than PS significantly predicted their own religiosity. For Catholic Ss attending public schools in the US, PR was a better predictor than PS of youth religiosity. It is suggested that the PS variable taps identification with or dependence on parents, so that Ss who have moved into secular settings are more affected by PR. (Spanish & French abstracts) [Source: PI]

Tzuriel, David. 1984. "Sex Role Typing and Ego Identity in Israeli, Oriental, and Western Adolescents." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol. 46, pp. 440-457.
Abstract: 1,129 Oriental and Western Israeli students from religious and secular high schools participated in a study to investigate (a) the relation between sex-role typing and ego identity, (b) the distribution of sex-role typing within different cultural groups, and (c) the relative contribution of masculinity (M), femininity (F), religiousness, sex, and ethnic origin to prediction of ego identity variables. Ss completed the Bar-Ilan Sex Role Inventory and the Adolescent Ego Identity Scale, which measures 3 factors: commitment and purposefulness, solidity and continuity, and social recognition. More androgynous, less sex-typed, and less undifferentiated Ss were found among Orientals than among Westerners. Sex-role type was significantly related to each of the ego identity variables, indicating that androgynous Ss were highest followed by masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated Ss. Boys were higher than girls on Solidity and Continuity, but lower on Social Recognition. Westerners were higher than Orientals on Commitment and Purposefulness and on Total Ego Identity. Religious Ss were higher than secular Ss on Commitment and Purposefulness. Regression analyses revealed high prediction of ego identity variables with greater prediction power for M than for F in both ethnic groups. Ego identity was predicted by M among boys, whereas both M and F predicted ego identity with greater prediction power for M than for F. [Source: PI]

Rodman, Iris J. 1980. "A Comparison of Attitudes toward Religion, Ethnic Groups, and Racial Prejudice of High School Students in the American Cooperative School in La Paz, Bolivia, to Those High School Students in the Columbus High School in Columbus, Georgia." Thesis, University of Alabama.

Smith, Christopher B., Andrew J. Weigert, and Darwin L. Thomas. 1979. "Self-Esteem and Religiosity: An Analysis of Catholic Adolescents from Five Cultures." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 18, pp. 51-60.
Abstract: Hypothesized (a) a positive relationship between adolescent self-esteem and religiosity across 12 purposive, middle-class, Catholic samples from cities in 5 cultures: New York and St. Paul in the US; Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); San Juan, Puerto Rico; Seville, Spain; and Bonn, West Germany; and (b) a stronger relationship between the 2 variables for females than for males. Findings yield consistent support for the 1st hypothesis, and mild support for the 2nd in the Latin samples only. [Source: PI]

Becker, Tamar. 1978. "Inter-Faith and Inter-Nationality Attitudinal Variations among Youth toward Self, Family and the Collective." Review of Religious Research vol. 20, pp. 68-81.
Abstract: Two groups of American high school students, the first drawn from Catholic parochial schools and the second from public schools in the same community, are compared with regard to their attitudes to self, family, community, and nation. A third group, Israeli public high schoolers, is employed as an external standard of evaluation. Some intra-American differences were found, but their number and magnitude were much less significant than the inter-nationality differences. It is suggested that American youth culture, with its emphasis on the self and its anti-collectivity orientation, is the most potent determinant of attitudes among seventeen-year-olds and that it embraces at least those segments of American youth belonging to the "majority culture". The impact of the religious factor on the lives of Americans may be intimately related to the life cycle. [Source: RI]

Shirakashi, Sanshiro. 1976. "Religious Attitudes and Ways of Life of the World's Youth: The 1972 International Youth Survey of the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan." Journal of Church and State vol. 18, pp. 523-536.
Abstract: In 1972 The Adolescence Policy Headquarters of the Prime Minister's Office in Japan surveyed the opinions, attitudes, and behavior of the youth of Japan, the U.S.A., the United Kingdom, West Germany France, Switzerland, Sweden, Yugoslavia, India, the Philippines, and Brazil. The author has selected data from the survey which are relevant to attitudes toward religion, human nature, sex, the purpose of life, human relations with friends, etc. He points to some similarities and differences among these national samples. [Source: RI]

Weigert, Andrew J. and Darwin L. Thomas. 1974. "Secularization and Religiosity: A Cross-National Study of Catholic Adolescents in Five Societies." Sociological Analysis vol. 35, pp. 1-23.
Abstract: A discussion of a study testing the hyp that: The more Ur'ized & industr'ized the society & the lower the cultural importance of religion, the lower the degree of member's traditional religiosity, with the exception of religious knowledge which is expected to be higher. Data were obtained from 12 purposive samples of 1,071 M & 94 F adolescents, Mc & Catholic, attending HSch's in each of 6 cities: Bonn, Germany; New York; St. Paul, Minn.; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Merida, Yucatan; & Seville, Spain. 5 dimensions of religiosity measured were: (1) traditional belief, (2) religious experience, (3) religious practice, (4) religious knowledge, & (5) religious consequences. Results tend to corroborate secularization theorizing, but with important diff's, eg, on the belief & practice dimensions if compared with adult samples, & the knowledge & experience dimensions if compared with the a priori continuum. Alongside cross-nat'l variations in the degree of religiosity, a consistent ranking of the associations between pairs of dimensions suggests a similar structure with belief as the keystone within individual religiosity across societies. In light of the similar structure, the weakening of traditional belief in the more modernized societies presages powerful changes in the entire configuration of traditional individual religiosity within Catholicism. [Source: SA]

Barron, Frank and Harben B. Young. 1970. "Rome and Boston: A Tale of Two Cities and Their Differing Impact on the Creativity and Personal Philosophy of Southern Italian Immigrants." Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology vol. 1, pp. 91-114.
Abstract: Various psychological tests and questionnaires were administered to 95 Boston adolescents whose grandparents had migrated from Southern Italy around 1900 and 125 similar adolescents in Rome. The Boston Ss were found to be more religiously orthodox and socially conservative. The Rome group was also higher in ideational fluency, originality, and flexibility, though not in intelligence. [Source: PI]

Weigert, Andrew J. and Darwin L. Thomas. 1970. "Socialization and Religiosity: A Cross-National Analysis of Catholic Adolescents." Sociometry vol. 33, pp. 305-326.

Bahador, Darius and Addison W. Somerville. 1969. "Youth at the Crossroads: A Comparison of American and Iranian Adolescence." Adolescence vol. 4, pp. 1-18.
Abstract: The most conspicuous differences between American and Iranian cultures are due to the more rigid religious traditions in Iran . . . . Prohibited heterosexual relationship before marriage, class differences, financial barriers, scarcity of universities and job opportunities, are the main sources of frustration for Iranian adolescents . . . . The Iranian adolescent has the advantage of having learned greater self-discipline, and having a firmer relationship with his parents and family members on whom he can rely when in need. [Source: PI]

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.