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Civic Involvement and Politics

Roehlkepartain, Eugene C., Elanah Dalyah Naftali, and Laura Musegades. 2000. Growing up Generous: Engaging Youth in Giving and Serving. Bethesda, MD: The Alban Institute.

Saxby, Erica Denise. 2000. "Understanding Adolescent Community Service Involvement." Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the contributions of selected individual and microsystem characteristics to adolescent community service involvement. Individual adolescent characteristics entered into the equation were age, gender, and race. Family variables included family type, family rules and involvement, modeling, and religious participation. Program features included duration, frequency, and availability of reflection activities. Size of community and type of school were selected as key microsystemic variables, respectively. A random sample of adolescents in grades 9 through 12 ( n = 42-74) was obtained using the National Household Education Survey 96: Youth Civic Involvement and Parent/Family Involvement Components. Regression analyses were used to predict duration and frequency of service and future service involvement. Older adolescents reported service of longer duration than younger adolescents. Adolescents from two parent families, of higher socioeconomic, and those having had a chance to talk about their service experience reported significantly longer duration in community service activities. Adolescents having either one or both parents who participated in any ongoing community service activity, compared to those with parents who were not involved in service, predictive value. While older adolescents reported service of longer duration than younger adolescents, younger adolescents reported higher expectations of performing service next year. Children from families in which parents themselves were involved in service reported service of longer duration and expressed greater intent to perform future service than adolescents whose parents did not engage in service. Adolescents from families with two-parents and of a higher socioeconomic status reported service of longer duration than adolescents from one-parent, lower socioeconomic homes. Finally, adolescents participating in service programs which included the opportunity to talk about service reported service of longer duration than students without the opportunity for reflection. While only a small percentage of the variance was explained by the models for duration and future service participation, the usefulness of the bioecological theory for design of future research of adolescent community service has been demonstrated. Investigation within microsystems of patterns of activities, roles, interpersonal relations, time and objects and symbols; recognition of the dynamics of the microsystems to promote, sustain, or weaken these reciprocal patterns of interaction; and examination of the cumulative developmental effects over time are recommended. [Source: DA]

Pancer, S. Mark and Michael W. Pratt. 1999. "Social and Family Determinants of Community Service Involvement in Canadian Youth." Pp. 32-55 in Roots of Civic Identity: International Perspectives on Community Service and Activism in Youth, edited by Miranda Yates and James Youniss. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Abstract: This chapter describes the history of volunteerism in Canada and presents data on the social and family determinants of volunteering among Canadian adolescents in 2 studies. The results of these studies suggest a number of ways in which to initiate young people into the world of community service and to foster the development of a "socially responsible" identity that will carry on into adult life. Both of the studies point to the importance of the family in the adoption of socially responsible thinking and behavior. Parents can influence their children by serving as models of altruistic behavior, transmitting moral values and goals, and providing opportunities to care for others. Social milieus other than the family, such as schools and religious institutions, also appear to be important in initiating youth into volunteer activity and in sustaining these activities once they begin. Programs offered through schools and religious institutions often provide opportunities for youth to gain their first experiences as volunteers. In addition, because youth are working alongside their peers, these programs provide for a supportive social milieu. [Source: PI]

Smith, E. S. 1999a. "The Effects of Investments in the Social Capital of Youth on Political and Civic Behavior in Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Analysis." Political Psychology vol. 20, pp. 553-580.
Abstract: This paper uses the National Education Longitudinal Study to examine whether early investments in the social capital of young people produce greater political involvement and civic virtue in young adulthood. parental involvement in a young person's life, youth religious involvement, and voluntary association participation were some of the forms of social capital hypothesized to influence adult political behavior. Structural equations modeling was used to trace the effects of the presence of social capital as early as the 8th grade year in shaping young adult political and civic behavior. The analysis shows that early extensive connections to others, close familial relationships, religious participation, and participation in extracurricular activities in one's youth are significant predictors Of greater political and civic involvement in young adulthood. [Source: SC]

Smith, Elizabeth Sue. 1999b. "The Making of Citizens: Social Capital and the Political Socialization of Youth." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Minnesota.
Abstract: In this thesis, the role of social capital resources, social relationships and networks, in helping to develop in young people the attitudes and orientations conducive to participation in civic and political life is examined. A national data set, the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), and a regional panel data set are used to assess how pre-adults are shaped and socialized by their parents, peers, schools and religious and extracurricular organizations. Using the NELS data and structural equation modeling, I found several key social capital resource variables present in adolescence to have important effect on young adult political behavior. Parental involvement in the young person's life was a good predictor of greater participation in extracurricular activities at school and was influential in motivating greater political and civic, participation in adulthood. Participation in religious activities at a young age was influential at promoting greater civic virtue in the form of commitment to and participation in community service activities. Finally, and most significantly, the analysis of the longitudinal data showed that extracurricular activities, the voluntary associations of youth, as early as the eighth grade year were particularly influential in motivating greater civic virtue and greater political participation in young adulthood. Analysis of the regional panel data provided further insight into the causal connection between social capital resources and politically relevant behavior. These social capital resources were shown to affect good citizenship orientations and behavior, including civility, civic virtue, political tolerance and political participation. In addition, extracurricular participation was found to have a causal effect on the development of important resources and skills, political trust and civic duty conducive to greater political involvement in adulthood. The findings of this study suggest much more attention needs to be paid to how young people are being socialized. [Source: DA]

Youniss, J. and M. Yates. 1999. "Youth Service and Moral-Civic Identity: A Case for Everyday Morality." Educational Psychology Review vol. 11, pp. 361-376.
Abstract: Mature moral and civic life is distinguished by respect for common humanity which develops through participation in community service. This proposition is illustrated by studies of adults who rescued Jews during World War II and contemporary adults who lead lives of moral commitment. These individuals do not view themselves as heroic but believe that their moral sense and actions simply express their identity. A putative developmental process is described by studies that longitudinally track youth activism to adult moral-civic behavior 10 to 30 years later and that detail changes in adolescents' thinking during a course on Christian social justice that required community service. Everyday morality seems to be rooted in an essential identity rather than being mediated by calculated reason. It follows that educators who seek to justify service learning can emphasize the identity process while pointing to the life-long linkage between youth participation and adult moral-civic activism. [Source: SC]

Youniss, James, Jeffrey A. McLellan, Yang Su, and Miranda Yates. 1999. "The Role of Community Service in Identity Development: Normative, Unconventional, and Deviant Orientations." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 14, pp. 248-261.
Abstract: Responses from a nationally representative sample of 13,000 high school seniors were analyzed to identify predictors of normative, unconventional, and deviant orientations among youth. Normative orientation was indexed using indicators of conventional political involvement (e.g., voting), religious attendance, and importance of religion. Unconventional orientation was indexed with unconventional political involvement (e.g., boycotting). Deviance was measured through marijuana use. Frequency of community service substantially increased predictability of these variables over and above background characteristics and part-time work involvement. Involvement in most types of school-based extracurricular activities was positively associated with doing service, as was moderate part-time work. Background characteristics of attending Catholic school, being female, having high socioeconomic status, and coming from an intact family also predicted service involvement. Results are discussed in terms of a theory of social-historical identity development, suggesting that community service affords youth a developmental opportunity to partake of traditions that transcend the material moment and existential present. [Source: PI]

Youniss, James, Jeffrey A. McLellan, and Miranda Yates. 1999. "Religion, Community Service, and Identity in American Youth." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 243-253.
Abstract: The role of religion in identity development has, for many years, been a relatively neglected topic in psychology. To demonstrate the importance of religion to the formation of identity, this paper presents evidence connecting community service and religiousness in American adolescents. Data are reviewed that show (1) youth are heavily involved in volunteer service; (2) many youth view religion as important and those who do so are more likely to do service than youth who do not believe that religion is important in their lives; (3) involvement in church-sponsored service makes it more likely that youth will adopt the religious rationale in which service is couched; and (4) youth who do church-sponsored service are neither service "nerds" nor single-issue tunnel-visioned adolescents. These data from nationally representative samples strengthen the case that the many contemporary youth who take religion seriously are vibrantly engaged in their schooling, in the betterment of communities, and the development of identities which presage healthy lives. [Source: PI]

Mieras, Emily. 1998. "A More Perfect Sympathy: College Students and Social Service, 1889-1914." Ph.D. Thesis, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg.
Abstract: This dissertation examines the rise of social service work among college students between 1889 and 1914, arguing that such service was a new phenomenon that both defined a distinct youth culture based on social responsibility and redefined the American middle class. Advocates of student service believed that educated young women and men had unique qualifications for helping others, that they could bridge the gap between economic and social classes, that service would help develop student character, and that reform work would enhance the practical value of a college education. For the predominantly white middle-class students who answered the call for social consciousness, service among immigrants and the urban poor became a rite of passage. In their interactions with the "other half," these young people both tested and reasserted prevailing notions of what it meant to be young, white, educated women or men. While students challenged traditional gender identities for themselves, they reinforced them among the working-class and immigrant populations they encountered. Student service work emerged from three different, interrelated venues of social reform: Protestant Evangelical religious groups, the women's academic community and research universities. The dissertation investigates these different strands through case studies of three settlement houses where college students worked: the first run by University of Pennsylvania Christian Association members in Philadelphia; the second sponsored by women college alumnae in Boston; and the third, in Chicago, associated with Northwestern University. These examples demonstrate the interplay between changing conceptions of gender, the growing connection between universities and social welfare, and the Protestant impulses that motivated many reformers. In all these cases, those who promoted reform were as concerned with training college women and men to be socially conscious citizens as with reforming the immigrant, working-class people those students encountered in the cities. Their efforts helped create an intuitive association between youth and social responsibility that underlies modern-day community service programs on college campuses. [Source: DA]

Raskoff, Sally and Richard A. Sundeen. 1998. "Youth Socialization and Civic Participation: The Role of Secondary Schools in Promoting Community Service in Southern California." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly vol. 27, pp. 66-87.
Abstract: Attempting to illuminate high schools' roles in encouraging volunteer community service, four questions are addressed: (1) What are the extent & distribution of secondary schools that sponsor or provide volunteer service programs? (2) How do secondary schools promote or support volunteering among students? (3) What is the rationale for offering community service? (4) What is the conceptual relationship between school auspices & community service offerings? Findings of a mail survey of students in 286 public or private high schools in Los Angeles County, CA, & subsequent interviews with some of these generally support the expected differences between public & private schools; eg, private religious schools are most likely to mandate service experiences for their students. However, the differences between religious & nonsectarian schools need further elaboration. To the extent that civic participation is based on social interdependence & a sense of community responsibility or ownership, high school community service remains problematic as a means of socializing students into the role of civic participation. [Source: SA]

De Haan, Laura G. and John Schulenberg. 1997. "The Covariation of Religion and Politics During the Transition to Young Adulthood: Challenging Global Identity Assumptions." Journal of Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 537-552.
Abstract: Draws on survey data from 209 students at a large midwestern university to investigate the relationship between religious & political beliefs & their combined influence during transition to young adulthood. Findings showed that the most religious individuals had experienced some belief exploration before making a commitment. Those who had not engaged in exploration & had no firm commitment were the least religious. Faith in government proved unrelated to identity development, but high political interest did correlate with high identity achievement scores. No relationship between religious & political identity was apparent, suggesting that components of ideological identity should be considered separately. [Source: SA]

Pastorino, Ellen, Richard M. Dunham, Jeannie Kidwell, Roderick Bacho, and Susie D. Lamborn. 1997. "Domain-Specific Gender Comparisons in Identity Development among College Youth: Ideology and Relationships." Adolescence vol. 32, pp. 559-577.
Abstract: Gender comparisons were conducted in six social domains of identity development on 210 college students: occupation, religion, politics, dating, sex roles, and friendship. The identity research literature often combines domains to create more global estimates of identity development. Such an approach may obscure differences among the domains, each of which may have different implications for different societal contexts, and for males and females. Analyses were made for each domain, and for the combined ideological, interpersonal, and overall domain scores. Several gender differences were apparent when domain-specific analyses were examined. Males were more likely to explore and commit in politics, whereas females were more likely to explore in sex roles and to commit in religion and dating. In politics, fewer males were in the diffused status; in contrast, for dating and sex roles, there were fewer females in the diffused status. However, when combined scores were examined, there were no gender differences in identity status. The results suggest that some gender differences still remain in specific domains. The utility of including domain-specific analyses is suggested when gender comparisons are examined. Regardless of gender, more youth were diffused in political identity than in any other domain, suggesting political apathy among today's college youth. [Source: EA]

Wilson, John and Marc Musick. 1997. "Who Cares? Toward an Integrated Theory of Volunteer Work." American Sociological Review vol. 62, pp. 694-713.
Abstract: We construct an integrated theory of formal and informal volunteer work based on the premises that volunteer work is (1) productive work that requires human capital, (2) collective behavior that requires social capital, and (3) ethically guided work that requires cultural capital. Using education, income, and functional health to measure human capital, we estimate a model in which formal volunteering and informal helping are reciprocally related but connected in different ways to different forms of capital. Using two-wave data from the Americans' Changing Lives panel study, we find that formal volunteering is positively related to human capital, number of children in the household, informal social interaction, and religiousity. Informal helping, such as helping a neighbor, is primarily determined by gender, age, and health. Estimation of reciprocal effects reveals that formal volunteering has a positive effect on helping, but helping does not effect formal volunteering. [Source: NS]

Powell, Lawrence A., Cherylon Robinson, and Paul Nesbitt Larking. 1996. "Perceptions of Intergenerational Equity in the U.S. And Canada: Crossnational Variations, Policy Implications." Paper presented at Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP).
Abstract: Differences in perceptions of intergenerational equity between youth in Canada & the US are examined. Specifically, attitudinal items include ratings of contributions made to & rewards received from society, of perceived fairness of taxing the young to support the elderly, & of the relative interests of different age groups. Structural correlates examined include gender, race, religion, income, education & political interest, activity, & ideology. [Source: SA]

Power, Ann Marie R. and Vladimir Khmelkov. 1996. "The Effects of Community Service Participation on High School Students' Social Responsibility." Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: Investigates claims that participation in service projects leads to high school students' social responsibility at two levels: the immediate community & the broader geopolitical arena. In addition, the effects of school community & curriculum are examined using data from the 1988 National Education Longitudinal Study. Comparisons of means & multiple regressions support the hypothesis that service participation promotes social responsibility. Specifically, church & community group projects influence responsibility at the social structural level. Results also suggest that inschool communities indirectly affect social responsibility through the generation of social capital (in the form of proschool norms) among students & their peers. The largest proportions of students reporting service participation come from Catholic & other private schools & from academic programs. Creating opportunities for service participation appears to be an effective way to teach students about the needs of society & about possibilities for social change. [Source: SA]

Janoski, Thomas and John Wilson. 1995. "Pathways to Voluntarism: Family Socialization and Status Transmission Models." Social Forces vol. 74, pp. 271-292.
Abstract: Participation in voluntary associations is usually explained by a Weberian theory that uses human capital variables; however, Durkheimian theory suggests the importance of parental socialization and family status variables (socioeconomic, educational, and professional). Using data from the three-wave Youth-Parent Socialization Panel Study (M. K. Jennings and R. Niemi, 1981), this article models the changes in social participation that people experience while moving from high school to parenthood. Data from 924 youths first interviewed as high school seniors and a randomly selected parent of each student were interviewed. Results show that voluntary participation was accounted for in part by the transmission of socioeconomic status, but family socialization through example and value modeling were often more important. When self-oriented (occupation and profession) and community-oriented (service, church, community, fraternal, and neighborhood) types of participation were distinguished, the status transmission theory explains self-oriented but not community-oriented participation. Family socialization explained community-oriented but not self-oriented participation. Thus, theories of voluntarism must be differentiated according to the type of voluntary association concerned. [Source: PI]

Sundeen, R. A. and S. A. Raskoff. 1995. "Teenage Volunteers and Their Values." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly vol. 24, pp. 337-357.
Abstract: This article analyzes national survey data sponsored by the INDEPENDENT SECTOR and collected by the Gallup organization in 1991. The survey shows that values that favor charity and eschew material goals encourage volunteering, and also that youths from higher social classes are more likely to volunteer than those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Participation in religious activities and spiritual values ave not related to the likelihood of volunteering. Although these findings help us to understand who volunteers, they also suggest strategies volunteer organizers may use to attract volunteers from underrepresented groups. [Source: SC]

Rossinow, Douglas Charles. 1994. "Breakthrough: White Youth Radicalism in Austin, Texas 1956-1973." Ph.D. Thesis, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
Abstract: This dissertation examines the origins and development of the new left, the white youth movement against racism and imperialism and for radical democracy, in one local environment--Austin, Texas, home of the University of Texas. By providing a grass-roots view of the development of radicalism in this locale, this dissertation balances the focus on northern environments and the emphasis on national leadership cadres that have characterized previous accounts of the new left. I combine political narrative, cultural analysis and a social history of politics throughout this dissertation. I make extensive use of local documentary sources and over fifty oral histories that I have conducted, also analyzing key primary texts. Contrary to accounts that root the new left in the legacy of previous radical movements ar solely in the inspiration of powerful thinkers, I trace the new left to white youth participation in the civil rights movement. The first half of this dissertation discusses the three forces that led white youth in Austin into civil rights protest: secular liberalism, Christian liberalism and Christian existentialism. Then I offer a detailed account of student civil rights protest in Austin in the 1960-1963 period, documenting how this experience moved a group of liberal activists leftward. The second half of this dissertation examines the self- conscious new left in Austin between 1963 and 1973. I provide an account of radical organizations and protest activities in this period, including free speech, university reform and antiwar protest. Furthermore, I analyze specific themes, such as the search for "authenticity" in life and the search for a "human" way of life, that stretched from the activism of the 1950s through the new left of the 1960s. I document the deepening involvement of the Austin left in the local counterculture, exploring a relationship that previous accounts of the new left have neglected. Finally I examine the feminist left that emerged locally between 1969 and 1972. This dissertation treats the new left as a movement with both personal and political dimensions, and demonstrates that personal concerns and desires acted as politicizing, radicalizing forces among privileged youth during this period. [Source: DA]

Sherkat, Darren E. and T. Jean Blocker. 1994. "The Political Development of Sixties' Activists: Identifying the Influence of Class, Gender, and Socialization on Protest Participation." Social Forces vol. 72, pp. 821-842.
Abstract: Compared 181 high school students who participated in the antiwar, student, and civil rights protests of the 1960s with 1,111 nonactivists, using data from the Youth-Parent Socialization Panel Study. The authors explored how political and religious socialization, social psychological orientations, and class origins affected the Ss' involvement in the protests. Interrelationships between SES, gender, social psychological orientations, and political and religious socialization were examined. Data indicate that socialization processes and social psychological dispositions were strongly linked to protest participation and that social class spurred protest both directly and through its effects on these factors. Gender differences in social movement participation were largely a function of socialization, social psychological differences, and women's lower rates of college attendance. [Source: PI]

Smith, R. Drew. 1994. "Black Religion-Based Politics, Cultural Popularization, and Youth Allegiance." Western Journal of Black Studies vol. 18, pp. 115-120.
Abstract: Traditional political divisions within African-American religion among groups favoring either exclusionist cultural nationalism, direct-action racial protest, or electoral participation have recently been aggravated by class & generational antagonisms. Blacks in higher age & income brackets have focused on consolidating institutional gains while younger & poorer blacks have been more vocal & radical, gathering increased attention. However, communication barriers between these two groups reflect stylistic rather than ideological differences. Ways to achieve greater political cooperation between the two groups in terms of the development of a broader religion-based political culture are explored within this context. R. Jaramillo [Source: SA]

Rashid, Hakim M. 1992. "Secular Education and the Political Socialization of Muslim Children." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences vol. 9, pp. 387-396.

Serow, Robert C. and Julia I. Dreyden. 1990. "Community Service among College and University Students: Individual and Institutional Relationships." Adolescence vol. 25, pp. 553-566.
Abstract: Examined whether 1,960 college students' frequency of community service is associated with sociodemographic background; institutional type (public, private with church affiliation, and private with church affiliation and strong emphasis on religion); personal value patterns; and involvement in campus activities. Two personal variables showed significant relationships to community service in each of the institutional categories: Spiritual/religious values were positively associated with service, while an emphasis on professional success showed a negative relationship. Findings offer evidence of the importance of human values in the development of prosocial behavior. [Source: PI]

Serow, Robert C. 1989. "Community Service, Religious Commitment, and Campus Climate." Youth and Society vol. 21, pp. 105-119.
Abstract: Current debates over a national service policy have focused attention on voluntary action by US youth. Analysis of questionnaire data collected from 2,100 college students in a southeastern state reveals that participation in community service is related to individual religious commitment & to the moral climate of the campus. The finding that campus climate is most important among students with relatively weak religious commitments suggests that institutions can take steps to encourage pro bono efforts by young people. [Source: SA]

Fahey, Maureen. 1986. "Lay Volunteers within an American Catholic Parish: Personality and Social Factors." Ed.D. Thesis, University of San Francisco.
Abstract: This descriptive research examined the personality, social characteristics and motivation for service of lay volunteers in an American Catholic parish. Questionnaires and the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) were employed to discriminate among three groups of volunteers and between volunteers and nonvolunteers. A panel of judges reviewed criteria for classifying volunteers from the 850 parish families. Three categories of 100 each resulted: the leaders assumed decision-making positions; team members were loyal parishioners who devoted unlimited time on any assigned tasks; and general volunteers served for limited times on specific services. A group of nonvolunteers was randomly selected for comparison purposes only. The rate of response to the questionnaires ranged from 52% among team members to 75% for the leaders. Statistical procedures used were analysis of variance with unplanned comparisons, cross-tabulations with the Chi Square test for independence, and multiple regression. The most significant findings applied to the leaders whose profile showed the highest scores on all POI scales. Team members showed an unflappable devotion to service. The general volunteers showed a balanced motivation of personal, social, and religious reasons for serving. The more personal and direct the experience of a respondent with a given ministry, the higher the assigned value. The nonvolunteers, often self-labeled as inactive Catholics, scored impressively high on religious practice and expressed the most positive viewpoint on the clergy. While volunteers were clear about their own identity as lay ministers, they reported less clarity about the role of clerical leadership and their relationship with the clergy. More development is needed in forging a genuine partnership between the traditional clerical hierarchy and an emerging Catholic laity. The young adults should be examined separately since they presented themselves as a vital group even as the study uncovered a disregard for specific ministry to youth: the age group identified as the forgotten parish component. The study included a diversity of experiences, viewpoints and religious practices. The doors need to be opened more widely for all the laity and especially for youth and inactive Catholics. The challenge to the Church today is to be responsive to its diversity in fashioning new forms of religious expression and community. [Source: DA]

Funderburk, Charles. 1986. "Religion, Political Legitimacy and Civil Violence: A Survey of Children and Adolescents." Sociological Focus vol. 19, pp. 289-298.
Abstract: Religious institutions are an agent of childhood socialization with consequences for political learning. The results of a questionnaire survey (N = 736 children & adolescents) in Key Largo, Fla, indicate that religious beliefs are associated with support for the political system, its symbols & laws, &, to a lesser extent, political authority figures. Conversely, strength of religious commitment is negatively associated with approval of political violence. The strength of these associations increases with age, suggesting that the longer & more intensely religious beliefs are held the more likely they are to influence political attitudes. [Source: SA]

Glass, Jennifer, Vern L. Bengtson, and Charlotte Chorn Dunham. 1986. "Attitude Similarity in Three-Generation Families: Socialization, Status Inheritance, or Reciprocal Influence?" American Sociological Review vol. 51, pp. 685-698.
Abstract: The hypotheses of attitude transmission across three ideological domains (gender roles, politics, religion) are examined to access the adequacy of direct socialization, status inheritance, & reciprocal influence models in a developmental aging perspective. Data are from mailed questionnaires completed by 2,044 members of 3-generation families, grouped to form parent-youth (G2-G3) & grandparent-parent (G1-G2) dyads. Results suggest that: there is little convergence of parent-child attitudes with age when viewed cross-sectionally; status inheritance processes account for a substantial amount of observed parent-child similarity, but parental attitudes continue to significantly predict children's orientations after childhood; & child influences on parental attitudes are relatively strong & stable across age groups, while parental influence decreases with age, although the exact pattern of influence varies by attitude domain. [Source: SA]

Mitchell Mckee, Leila Gay. 1983. "Voluntary Youth Organizations in Toronto, 1880-1930." Ph.D. Thesis, York University (Canada).
Abstract: This study examines the historical development, organizational structure and programme content of several voluntary youth organizations in Toronto in the period 1880-1930. Denominational, interdenominational and secular groups were selected for analysis. The following groups generated sufficient manuscript and printed sources to be included in this dissertation: The Anglican, Methodist and Presbyterian Sunday Schools, the Methodist Epworth Leagues, the Methodist Young People's Forward Movement for Missions, the Anglican Young People's Association, the Canadian Standard Efficiency Training and Canadian Girls in Training clubs, the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations and the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. Little material was available regarding Catholic or Jewish youth groups and therefore the emphasis was on the activities of Protestant young people. Several chapters evaluate the development, organization and curricula of the groups in the context of an evolving urban-industrial society: Chapter III concentrates on the social philosophies of the leadership and the interlocking nature of the local elites involved in youth work; Chapter IV describes the manner in which the programme content of the groups reflected contemporary attitudes to nationalism, internationalism, imperialism and militarism; Chapter V chronicles the impact of the back-to-nature and sports crazes on youth work; Chapter VI analyzes the religious philosophies of the groups. The impact of changing attitudes to childhood and adolescence on the work of Toronto's youth organizations is explored in Chapters II and VII. Sources included the extensive collections of materials generated by the organizations themselves which provided ample evidence of the attitudes, values and objectives of the sponsors and of their impact on programme content. Unfortunately, very little information was available concerning the membership of the groups and, as a result, a social profile of the membership could not be assembled. This study concludes that the historical development, organizational structure and programme content of many youth organizations in Toronto reflected the broader political, economic, social and intellectual contexts in which they operated. The youth organizations functioned as sensitive barometers of public attitudes and, as such, can claim the attention of students of this crucial period in Canadian history. [Source: DA]

Archer, Sally L. 1982. "The Lower Age Boundaries of Identity Development." Child Development vol. 53, pp. 1551-1556.
Abstract: 80 female and 80 male early and midadolescent 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th graders were interviewed to document the lower age boundaries of ego identity development in the content areas of vocational choice, religious beliefs, political philosophies, and sex-role preferences. Frequency of the identity achievement status increased significantly with increase in grade level. The diffusion and foreclosure statuses were most evident at all grade levels. Frequency of identity status differed by content area, with the majority of instances of identity achievement in the vocational choice and religious beliefs content areas, moratorium in vocational choice, foreclosure in sex-role preferences, and identity diffusion in political philosophies. Similar patterns of development were found for both sexes. [Source: PI]

Maibaum, Matthew. 1980. "The New Student and Youth Movements, 1965-1972: A Perspective View on Some Social and Political Developments in American Jews as a Religio-National Group." Ph.D. Thesis, Claremont Graduate School.
Abstract: This study traces the growth, development and ontogenesis of student and youth groups on the "radical" model in Jewish American society in 1965-1972. Chapter One presents five hypotheses concerning the relationships of origin, structure, and behavior in these groups towards which the discussion is addressed. Chapter Two discusses the general surrounding environment of American Jewish college youth. The primacy of college as shaper of attitude, interest, and political socialization is stressed. The academic achievements of youth are discussed. The cross pressures he had to resolve with adult society are analyzed: as a radical he had to resolve relations with the Jewish adult world as a radical and with general radical youth as "a Jew." Chapter Three gives a political and social history of religious developments. Jewish religious groups grew because cultural pluralism on the back model became acceptable, and also from increased dissatisfaction by youth with the mode of worship and sparse ideology of parents. Most attended intensively to Orthodox Jewish guidelines, seen as more authentic, older, and more comprehensive. Chapter Four discusses "general" cultural developments. Communal living groups developed after 1965, owing origins to "Hippie" communes and to the autonomous community concept on the Amish, Essene, and ancient Jewish pietist models. New interest in Jewish science and sociology grew, an outgrowth of academic interests of youth desiring to discover the intricacies of Jewish life and problems. A Jewish youth press also arose producing up to fifty periodicals. Chapter Five discusses the broad range of "political" groups. There arose out of dissatisfaction with middle-class intrasigence, desire to infuse Jewish identity into "radical" positions, and modelling the cultural pluralist position in Black American society. They combined a radical leftist political jargon, centrist lifestyle, maintenance of historic middle-class values including law, absence of acrimony, and academic pursuits. Members attempted an integrated cultural model of "radical" Jew both religiously and politically focused in interest. Chapter Six discusses developmental and relations problems. The role of religious youth in leadership posed problems; women found their roles still unchanged in some ways; relations with the "Hippie," "liberated" and middle-class youth had to be rectified; diffuseness of types of interest members had had to be dealt with, antisemitism had to be combatted; and the future place of Jewish youth approaching adult roles within Jewish communities and organizations becoming increasingly professionalized posed problems of access to leadership. Chapter Seven restates the hypotheses. For the most part all were substantiated. The relationship between individual personality, specific group environment, and broader American and world events appeared important for further inquiry. Finally, participant observations on how active Jewish youth indicated they felt about religious, cultural and political dimensions of life, and their place in it, were made. It was characterized that your developments comprised an effort by youth to construct an identity through organizations that legitimized, and articulated, their identity in their eyes and in the eyes of others. [Source: DA]

Eisenberg Berg, Nancy. 1976. "The Relation of Political Attitude to Constraint-Oriented and Prosocial Moral Reasoning." Developmental Psychology vol. 12, pp. 552-553.
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between prosocial and constraint-oriented moral reasoning and liberal and humanistic political attitudes. 76 White middle-class 7th-12th graders from a Presbyterian church and a Jewish camp completed a 41-item political questionnaire and a written objective test of moral reasoning based on L. Kohlberg's (1969) conceptualizations. Chi-square analyses revealed that older Ss were significantly more liberal and humanitarian than younger Ss, and older Ss exhibited a significantly higher level of moral reasoning. Correlations between political attitude scores and moral indices partially supported the hypothesis that higher levels of moral reasoning are associated with more liberal and humanistic attitudes: Liberalism scores were significantly related to the prosocial, constraint, and combined moral indices; humanitarian scores were significantly related to the prosocial and combined indices, but not the constraint index. Further research is needed to determine whether findings generalize to other social strata. [Source: PI]

Starr, Jerold M. 1975. "Religious Preference, Religiosity, and Opposition to War." Sociological Analysis vol. 36, pp. 323-334.
Abstract: This study finds religious preference to be significantly correlated with opposition to war among a sample of over 900 college freshmen. Even when controls are applied for frequency of religious attendance, sex, father's education and family income, those with no religious preference are most opposed to war, followed somewhat closely by Jews. Protestants and Catholics are close in their degree of opposition to war, but rank well below Jews and the non-religious. Since frequency of religious attendance fails to demonstrate a predictable linear or curvilinear relationship with opposition to war within religious categories, it is suggested that religiosity and opposition to war may represent statistically independent effects of religious preference. The findings in this study cast doubt on the linear and curvilinear hypotheses of the relationship between religiosity and outgroup hostility and also raise the question of what Jewish and non-religious youth may share which makes them significantly more opposed to war than their Protestant and Catholic peers. [Source: RI]

Maller, Allen S. 1974. "Religious Pluralism, Political Values and American Teenagers." Religious Education vol. 69, pp. 446-450.
Abstract: Presents data from a nation-wide 1971 survey of 23,000 promising 11th- and 12th-grade students who were among the top 2% of students in their high schools. Answers to questions concerning moral and social issues showed differences among Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and Black youths. Whether differences are statistically significant is not stated. Comparison of results with adult surveys reveals that adolescent responses tend to differ as much as those of adults. [Source: PI]

Jacks, Irving. 1972. "Religious Affiliation and Educational, Political and Religious Values of College Freshmen and Sophomores." Adolescence vol. 7, pp. 95-120.
Abstract: An inventory covering educ'al, pol'al & religious values & att's was admin'ed to 337 freshmen & sophomores at the Ogontz Campus of Pennsylvania State U. Responses of 4 subgroups--Protestant, Roman Catholic-parochial Sch, Roman Catholic-public Sch, & Jewish--were compared. Intergroup similarities far exceeded divergences. Coll educ was perceived as most relevent to civic & vocational area of life, least to primary interpersonal relationships. Little change in religious or pol'al outlook was acknowledged, although some tendency to pol'al liberalization was suggested. Protestants resemble most closely the total group norm. There was a noticeable diff in att's & values between the 2 Catholic subgroups, related to whether they had gone to public or parochial secondary Sch's. Jews were most occup'ly oriented, most liberal pol'ly, most rejecting of formal religion, but most adhering to their own religious affiliation. [Source: SA]

Banner, Lois W. 1971. "Religion and Reform in the Early Republic: The Role of Youth." American Quarterly vol. 23, pp. 677-695.

Watts, William A. and David Whittaker. 1968. "Profile of a Nonconformist Youth Culture: A Study of Berkeley Non-Students." Sociology of Education pp. 178-200.
Abstract: Compared 151 nonstudents to 56 students at Berkeley in september 1965 by questionnaire data concerning "socio-economic backgrounds, current family relationships, and social-political attitudes." Srole's scale of anomie, the personal integration scale of the omnibus personality inventory, and the Thorndike vocabulary test were also used. No major differences appeared related to geographic origin, class background, and parental education. The outstanding differences between the 2 groups are in general appearance and religious affiliation. Nonstudents are alienated from society and their families, interested in creativity and less career minded than students. Although not a conventional political group, they support civil rights and Vietnam war protests. 3 factors for SS dropping out of college are anomie, nonconformity, and the philosophy of the college. It is concluded that the SS might be divided into (1) an anomic subgroup, politically inactive, and (2) an active subgroup, not anomic. [Source: PI]

Soderberg, Margaret Ann. 1963. "The Politics of Catholic Youth: A Comparative Study of the Young Christian Workers." Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University, St. Louis.

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.