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College age and young adults

Hestick, Henrietta, S. Carroll Perrino, Warren A. Rhodes, and Kim D. Syndor. 2001. "Trial and Lifetime Smoking Risks among African American College Students." Journal of American College Health vol. 49, pp. 213-219.
Abstract: The authors surveyed 614 African American university students to determine the magnitude of cigarette use, identify risk factors, and develop models to predict smoking. More than half (58.3%) of the participants had smoked at least once, and 9.3% of that group were lifetime smokers. Among the lifetime smokers, 71.3% had smoked during the 30 days preceding the survey. More women (66.8%) than men (56.1%) had tried smoking and were classed as lifetime smokers. Residence, parental, and peer smoking (current and childhood) were associated with trying smoking; age, race/ethnicity, and marital status were additional factors for becoming a lifetime smoker. The risk of being a lifetime smoker was reduced when neither friends nor parents of the student smoked and the student viewed spirituality as important. The results of this study add to the growing understanding of health risk behaviors among African Americans and can be useful in reducing smoking. [Source: EA]

Langer, L. M., G. J. Warheit, and L. P. McDonald. 2001. "Correlates and Predictors of Risky Sexual Practices among a Multi-Racial/Ethnic Sample of University Students." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 29, pp. 133-144.
Abstract: This research identifies the correlates and predictors of risky sexual behaviors among an ethnically diverse multiethnic sample of college students attending a large state university in the southeastern U.S. (N=338). Nine risk and five protective factors served as independent/predictive factors in the analyses. The dependent variable was scores on a risky sexual behaviors scale. Six of the nine risk factors and four of the five protective factors were significantly correlated with scores on the risky sexual behaviors scale. Regression analyses identified six significant predictors of risky sexual practices: number of partners in last six months; religious values; condom attitudes; age at first sex; hinging on alcohol; and residential locus. These terms explained 29.4% of the total variance in risky sexual behavior scores. Implications for prevention programs and future research are noted. [Source: SC]

Merrill, R. M., R. D. Salazar, and N. W. Gardner. 2001. "Relationship between Family Religiosity and Drug Use Behavior among Youth." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 29, pp. 347-357.
Abstract: This study evaluated the relationship between several dimensions of parental and family religiosity with adolescent drug use behavior. Analysis was based on self-reported responses to a questionnaire administered to 1,036 undergraduate college students at Brigham Young University of which 99.1% are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS). About 86% reported having never used drugs. The most commonly reported reasons for abstention from drugs were that drug use violates the participants' religious beliefs and their personal moral code. In contrast, concern about legal consequences, harming family reputation, and avoiding dishonest behavior were among the least common reasons for abstaining from drugs. Children of parents who were neutral, versus critical, about religion - or who considered religion of minor importance - were more likely to have a history of drug use. Protective factors against drug behavior included also parental positions of responsibility in the church and frequent family discussions involving religion and Christian conduct. The mother's view of religion was a stronger indicator of previous drug use behavior than either the father's view of religion, positions of church responsibility held by the parents, or arguments about religious teachings with parents. Discussion on topics of Christian conduct was a stronger indicator of previous drug use behavior than were either church attendance or discussions on topics of religious doctrine. [Source: SC]

Piedmont, R. L. 2001. "Spiritual Transcendence and the Scientific Study of Spirituality." Journal of Rehabilitation vol. 67, pp. 4-14.
Abstract: This study over-viewed the basic scientific issues pertaining to the measurement of spirituality. An empirical framework, based on the five-factor model of personality (FFM), was presented for use in the development and validation of spiritual constructs. The utility of the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS) as a psychometrically sound measure was evaluated. Using a sample of undergraduate students that included both self-report (N = 322) and observer data (N = 188), it was shown that the STS: (a) demonstrated its putative second-order factor structure; (b) was independent of measures of the FFM; (c) evidenced good cross-observer convergence; and (d) predicted a wide range of psychologically salient outcomes, even after controlling for the predictive effects of personality. It was argued that spiritual constructs can be most efficacious when incorporated as part of a multidimensional assessment battery that includes other personality domains. [Source: CI]

Storch, E. A. and J. B. Storch. 2001. "Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic Religiosity and Academic Dishonesty." Psychological Reports vol. 88, pp. 548-552.
Abstract: The present study was a preliminary examination of the relations among the Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic dimensions of religiosity and academic dishonesty. 244 college students completed the Duke Religion Index and nine questions assessing academic dishonesty. Analysis indicated that (1) regardless of sex, High Nonorganizational and Intrinsic religiosity was associated with lower reported rates of academic dishonesty, and (2) there was an interaction between Organizational religiosity and sex, with High Organizational women;Ind men reporting similar rates of academic dishonest. Furthermore, the Frequency of academic dishonesty reported by High Organizational women was higher than the rates reported by Moderate and Minimal Organizational women. [Source: SC]

Lindsey, Elizabeth W., P. David Kurtz, Sara Jarvis, Nancy R. Williams, and Larry Nackerud. 2000. "How Runaway and Homeless Youth Navigate Troubled Waters: Personal Strengths and Resources." Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal vol. 17, pp. 115-140.
Abstract: Little attention has been paid to how runaway or homeless adolescents are able to make successful transitions into adulthood. This article reports on partial findings from an exploratory study of the research question, "How do former runaway and homeless adolescents navigate the troubled waters of leaving home, living in high-risk environments, and engaging in dangerous behaviors, to make successful developmental transitions into young adulthood?" This qualitative study involved interviews with 12 former runaway or homeless youth (aged 18-25 yrs). All youth had stayed in a youth shelter, group home, or other alternative living arrangements as an adolescent. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings related to the personal strengths and resources that enabled youth to make successful transitions: learning new attitudes and behaviors, personal attributes, and spirituality. Recommendations for program development and intervention with homeless or at-risk youth are discussed. [Source: PI]

Lopez Viets, Vanessa C. 2000. "Psychosocial Variables and College Student Gambling." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of New Mexico.
Abstract: Given the tremendous rise in the acceptability and the availability of gambling in contemporary society, it is not surprising that many youth are not only participating in gambling activities, but are also showing problematic patterns of use. College students are particularly vulnerable to problem gambling given their increased freedom and concomitant participation in various high-risk activities. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to college gambling and its associated factors. The Purpose of the present study was to examine two theoretical models in relation to gambling among college students. The first theoretical model was self-regulation theory, and it was hypothesized that individual risk factors subsumed under self-regulation would be associated with and predictive of problem gambling. The second tested model was social learning theory, and it was hypothesized that social support for gambling would be associated with and predictive of non-problem gambling behaviors. Another aim of the study was to investigate the influence of substance abuse on gambling. Background variables were included to control for their potential effects on gambling.. The self-reported gambling practices of 115 college students were obtained along with background (demographic, religiosity), substance use, personality (impulsivity, attention, self-regulation), and mood information (depression, anxiety, self-esteem). Additional data on gambling behaviors and social support for gambling were collected via structured, combined quantitative and qualitative interviews with the participants. Social support for gambling was a significant overall predictor of both gambling behaviors and problem gambling. Gambling behaviors were especially predictable in females as a result of the influence of social support for gambling and cigarette use. Deficits in self-regulation were predictive of problem gambling in males only. These results suggest that heterogeneous pathways may lead to the development of gambling behavior versus problem gambling, with behaviors being more predictable in females and problems being more predictable in males. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. [Source: DA]

Perrin, R. D. 2000. "Religiosity and Honesty: Continuing the Search for the Consequential Dimension." Review of Religious Research vol. 41, pp. 534-544.
Abstract: Despite the fact that it is theologically, psychologically, and sociologically sound to assume that religious commitment should make a difference in the day-to-day life of the individual, research on the behavioral consequences of religious commitment has been somewhat inconsistent This inconsistency has made questions about, for example, the honesty of Christians versus non-Christians very difficult to answer. This study examined data from 130 college students of varying degrees of religious commitment who were presented with an opportunity to be dishonest. Students who report that they attend church and other religious activities, believe in life after death, and consider themselves born again Christians were more likely to be honest. The implications of the findings, especially in light of the generally inconsistent research on the consequential dimension of religion, are discussed. [Source: SC]

Trockel, M. T., M. D. Barnes, and D. L. Egget. 2000. "Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First- Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors." Journal of American College Health vol. 49, pp. 125-131.
Abstract: The authors analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on grade point averages of a random sample of 200 students living in on-campus residence halls at a large private university. The set of variables included exercise, eating, and sleep habits; mood states; perceived stress; time management; social support; spiritual or religious habits; number of hours worked per week; gender; and age. Of all the variables considered, sleep habits, particularly wake- up times, accounted for the largest amount of variance in grade point averages. Later wakeup times were associated with lower average grades. Variables associated with the Ist-year students' higher grade point averages were strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. The number of paid or volunteer hours worked per week was associated with lower average grades. [Source: SC]

Zaleski, E. H. and K. M. Schiaffino. 2000. "Religiosity and Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior During the Transition to College." Journal of Adolescence vol. 23, pp. 223-227.
Abstract: The degree to which religious identity acts as a protective buffer against sexual risk-taking in late adolescence was investigated in 230 first-year college students. Allport and Ross' Religious Orientation Scale was used to examine the relationship between religiosity, and sexual activity and condom use. Results indicate that greater intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity were associated with less sexual activity and condom use. Therefore religious identification may protect against initiating sexual activity among late adolescents, but may fail to protect against practicing unsafe sex among students who are already sexually active. [Source: SC]

Cannister, Mark W. 1999. "Mentoring and the Spiritual Well-Being of Late Adolescents." Adolescence vol. 34, pp. 769-779.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible impact of faculty mentoring on the spiritual well-being of late adolescents. The sample consisted of randomly chosen students in their first year at a Christian liberal arts college in New England. Students in the experimental group participated in the freshman seminar program (small classes with seminar leaders/mentors), while those in the control group did not have the freshman seminar experience. Students in both groups were administered a self-assessment survey in September of their freshman year and again in May to determine if there was any change in their spiritual well-being and to explore their perceptions of mentor-student interactions. The findings revealed significant differences between the 2 groups. In addition, the three aspects of mentoring were positively correlated with the 2 components of spiritual well-being. [Source: PI]

Forthun, L., N. Bell, and C. Peek. 1999. "Religiosity, Sensation Seeking, and Alcohol/Drug Use in Denominational and Gender Contexts." Journal of Drug Issues vol. 29, pp. 75-90.
Abstract: A study was conducted to examine religiosity, sensation- seeking, and alcohol/drug use in denominational and gender contexts. Data were gathered from a sample of 526 university students anonymously completed an assessment packet. The results failed to indicate support for arousal theory predictions or for moderating effects of denominational and gender contexts. Religiosity, sensation seeking, denominational affiliation, and gender were found to be relatively independent predictors of substance use, and their importance was found to vary according to the type of substance and specific indicator of use. [Source: SS]

Lindsey, B. J. and C. M. Saunders. 1999. "College Students' Health Interests: A Comparison by Ethnicity, Gender, and Other Demographic Variables." Journal of Health Education vol. 30, pp. 36-41.
Abstract: Using the social marketing principle of audience segmentation, a random sample of university undergraduate students, stratified by ethnicity, gender, year in school, and undergraduate college, was selected to respond to the College Health Interest Inventory via a telephone survey. This survey assessed level of interest (strong, some, or none) in 35 health topics. Three hundred forty-two students responded to the survey, achieving a response rate of 81.4%. A factor analysis resulted in a seven-factor solution of the 35 health topics: Sexual Health, Physical Health, Relationships, Mental Health, Environmental Health, Alternatives, and Alcohol-Related Issues. Analysis of variance found significant explanatory variables for various factors, including gender, ethnicity, year in school, political ideology, and/or religion. The findings of this study can aid college and university health educators to plan, market, and implement more responsive health education programs and services. Providing health programs that are of high interest to different groups of students may result in better utilization of resources, increased participation rates in health education programs, and a healthier campus. [Source: CI]

McKinney, John Paul and Kathleen G. McKinney. 1999. "Prayer in the Lives of Late Adolescents." Journal of Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 279-290.
Abstract: Prayer is a behavior that is performed by most people at least at some time, and yet social scientists appear to have neglected this topic. 77 college students (aged 18-32 yrs) were interviewed, given the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, and asked to keep 7-day diaries about their prayer activities, whether spontaneous or formal. Correlational analyses revealed a relationship between identity status and frequency of praying, as well as between identity status and commitment to religion. A qualitative analysis of the diary data suggested that prayer may be a revealing approach to the psychosocial lives of late adolescents, including their central concerns, temporal orientation, and the social bounds of their definition of self. [Source: PI]

Morrison, T. G., A. V. Parriag, and M. A. Morrison. 1999. "The Psychometric Properties of the Homonegativity Scale." Journal of Homosexuality vol. 37, pp. 111-126.
Abstract: This research details the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians (the Homonegativity Scale-HS). Four studies were conducted using adolescents (N = 1078), university students (N = 343), and members of the general population (N = 146). Results suggest that the HS possesses a unidimensional factor structure and a high degree of internal consistency for both male and female participants. As predicted, scores on the HS were positively correlated with machismo, authoritarianism, political conservatism, religiosity, and modern sexism. In addition, responses on the HS did not appear to be contaminated by social desirability bias. The usefulness of this measure in survey research is discussed. [Source: ML]

Okagaki, Lynn and Claudia Bevis. 1999. "Transmission of Religious Values: Relations between Parents' and Daughters' Beliefs." The Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 160, pp. 303-318 bibl.
Abstract: A study on the transmission of religious beliefs was conducted among 62 white, middle-class, undergraduate women and their parents. It was found that accuracy of daughters' perceptions of their parents' beliefs was associated with how frequently parents talked about their beliefs and to mother-father agreement on beliefs. In addition, the findings revealed that daughters' perceptions of the warmth of the parent-child relationship was associated with the agreement between daughters' beliefs and their perceptions of parents' beliefs. Furthermore, it was argued that the relation between parents' beliefs and daughters' beliefs was mediated by daughters' perceptions of their parents' beliefs. [Source: SS]

Roman, R. E. and D. Lester. 1999. "Religiosity and Mental Health." Psychological Reports vol. 85, p. 1088.
Abstract: In a sample of 99 undergraduates, religiosity and psychoticism scores were negatively associated (r = -.34). [Source: ML]

Saunders, Gary Paul. 1999. "The Relationship of Spirituality to Adolescents' Responses to Loss." Thesis, Wisconsin School of Professional Psychology, Milwaukee.
Abstract: The relationship of spirituality to styles of reacting to major life events was explored. A total of 183 volunteer subjects ranging in age from 16 to 21 years old completed the Spiritual Orientation Inventory (SOI) and indicated their manner of reacting to major life losses as represented in achievement and affiliation scenarios on the Responses to Loss Questionnaire (RLQ). Factor analysis was used as a means of data reduction on the RLQ. A coefficient of correlation was calculated for composite scores for the Spiritual Orientation Inventory and each RLQ factor and unfactored items. Data were also analyzed by gender and the scenario themes of achievement and affiliation. Results suggested that adolescents who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to be more likely to report healthy ways of coping with crisis situations by being proactive, hopeful, introspective, and undertaking mental, physical, and religious activity while not engaging in self-destructive behavior. Females who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to report being proactive in their coping with crisis situations, particularly in achievement situations. Males who scored high in spirituality as measured by the SOI tended to report coping with affiliation crises through mental activity. [Source: PI]

Winings, Kathy. 1999. "Campus Ministries and New Paradigms for Educating Religiously." Religious Education vol. 94, p. 329.
Abstract: This article summarizes a study of campus ministries and religious groups that asked how faith is expressed today, if college students view faith as irrelevant, and what programs are effective and needed. The survey encompassed public and private universities, four major faith groups--Jewish, Catholic, evangelical, and mainline Protestant--and each region of the United States. The article discusses marginality and relevance as well as effectiveness of the religious education programs, and concludes with a study of one project, the Religious Youth Service, which appears to be effective. The RYS draws on service-learning and interfaith dialogue and could become an effective paradigm for educating religiously in a religiously plural world. [Source: AS]

Zacharioudakis, Manos Antonis. 1999. "Problem Behaviors of Greek-American Adolescents: The Relationship of Ethnic Identification to Risks and Protective Factors." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John's University (New York).
Abstract:In a cross-sectional study of 257 Greek-American (GA) adolescents from across the US (ages 16-19, 72% female, 93% USA born) the incidence and psychosocial corrlates of problem behaviors (PB) (i.e. smoking, drinking, marijuana, heavy drugs, sexual intercourse, deviant behaviors) were explored. Jessor and Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory's (PBT) generalizability in this population were examined. Differences in PB incidence, risks, and predictors, explored through correlational and multiple regression analyses, across GA ethnic identification, gender, and school status (i.e. high school-college) were found. The findings generally supported PBT. Strong positive intercorrelations among all PB, all (but one) positive intercorrelations among prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behavior, and all negative correlations of PB with prosocial behaviors were documented, as hypothesized. The "one latent factor of general deviance" hypothesis found support for males, but not for females or the total sample. Higher Greek-identified youth showed higher drinking, smoking, and deviance, and lower marijuana/drug use and sexual experience scores, compared to lower Greek-identified youth, but these differences were due to SES differences and disappeared when SES factors were partialled out. Family cohesiveness showed protective main effects for most PB but no interaction with ethnicity effects. Family adaptability failed to show any significant effects. Significant gender differences were found: males showed higher marijuana, alcohol use, deviance scores, and sexual promiscuity and less diet/laxative pill use that females (no smoking or heavier drug use gender differences were found). Females showe higher levels of religiosity, stressful events and psychopathology (i.e. anxiety and general symptomatology, but not depression). College students showed higher scores for most PB (except heavy drugs or deviance). Youth from non-intact parental marriages showed significantly higher levels of all PB while intact family incidence showed a positive correlation to Greek ethnic identity. In predicting the total sample's PBindex, in decreasing order, friends' regular engagement In smoking/drinking/marjuana use/sex, time going to bed on weekends, stressful life events, relative parent-friend influence, non-acceptance of premarital sex by youth, intolerance of deviance, parental approval of PB, and age, were the significant predictors. Significant differences in predictors were found among ethnic, gender, and college-status subgroups (e.g. a high contribution of PBT "personality" variables only for high Greek identifiers, of family cohesion for females, and of "perceived environment" factors--i.e. friends models and parental controls--for males). [Source: DA]

Clark, Jeremiah K. 1998. ">Religious Education in Adolescent and Young Adult Religiosity." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This dissertation contains three articles which address religious education and adolescent development. Each study was longitudinal in nature and employed an original sample of more than 3,000 adolescents and young-adults in the United States. In the first article, direct affects of home religious discussion and home religious ritual on adolescent religious identity, peer religiousness, and deviant behavior, and their indirect effects on the perceived effectiveness of religious education are shown. The second article demonstrates that religious education is best conceptualized multi-dimensionally and distinct from public religiosity. Religious education attendance affected future public religiosity and the perceived effectiveness of religious education influenced young adult religious belief and experience. Adolescent private religiosity was a robust influence on young-adult religiosity in general, which supported previous theory and research. The third article discusses the interrelations of home religious observance, public religiosity, private religiosity, peers, religious education attendance, and the perceived effectiveness of religious education on young adult religious plans. Adolescent private religiosity was strongly predictive of young adult religiosity. Public religiosity emerged as an important antecedent to religious education. Religious education attendance moderately affected religious plans. [Source: DA]

Crawford, David Wayne. 1998. "The Relation of Religious Family Background and Ego Identity Development in Late Adolescence." Thesis, University of Houston.
Abstract: This study was designed to extend the literature relative to adolescent ego identity development in family context, looking specifically at how significant religious family background interacts with identity development. Results of this study were based on responses to the Family Environment Scale and the Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status. The study sample comprised 304 highly religious adolescents from a fundamentalist Christian college. Data analysis was accomplished in two main ways. First, the continuous scores from the religious sample were compared to norm scores provided by the test manuals for the OMEIS and the FES. Second, without reference to the norm groups, scores from the OMEIS and the FES were correlated. The groups differed significantly on both measures, and canonical correlation facilitated identification of potential relations among family characteristics and identity statuses. Overall results indicated that the religious subjects were characterized by high levels of commitment and conviction, leading very directed and purposeful lives. At times, this commitment is balanced and genuinely individual, being preceded by personal search and introspective consideration of alternative commitments. There was also evidence that the religious subjects are often characterized by unreflective commitment typical of the Foreclosure identity status. They perceived their families as highly religious and morally directed, and tending to be very structured, organized and controlled. Very little conflict is experienced, such that expressiveness is also relatively low in this family environment. The numerous significant relations that emerged from the canonical correlations indicate that the religious structure, control and organization is associated with identity low in emptiness and aimlessness (i.e. identity diffusion) and high in identity direction and commitment. However, a relatively unreflective commitment style was found in frequent association with this family environment. Importantly, when independence contributed significantly to family style, more advanced identity functioning was related. In general, it appears that supported individuality and balanced religiosity are most conducive to more advanced identity functioning while highly structure religious control which minimizes expressiveness tends to be associated with less mature identity development. [Source: PI]

Kujawa, Sheryl A. 1998. Disorganized Religion: The Evangelization of Youth and Young Adults. Cambridge, Mass.: Cowley Publications.

Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco. 1998. "Barriers to Access and Succeeding in College: Perceptions of a Group of Midwestern Urban Latino Youth." Journal of Poverty vol. 2, pp. 69-82.
Abstract: To explore Latino youths' perceptions of their chances of entering & succeeding in college, participant observation & survey data were gathered from 64 Hispanic youths in a community college or a church youth group in a major midwestern city. Respondents (Rs) had a shared perception that Latino students were not welcome at area colleges; they identified a series of logistic, culture-specific, & self-efficacy barriers that impeded them from fully benefiting from a college education. Rs who had not yet experienced college life were positive about pursuing a postsecondary education, but Rs who were already enrolled in college held negative views of their experiences & chances of success. Rs' recommendations for improvement ranged from language & culturally specific information campaigns directed toward the whole Latino family to cultural awareness training for faculty & other college personnel, whom they identified as gatekeepers. [Source: SA]

Mieras, Emily. 1998. "A More Perfect Sympathy: College Students and Social Service, 1889-1914." Ph.D. Thesis, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg.
Abstract: This dissertation examines the rise of social service work among college students between 1889 and 1914, arguing that such service was a new phenomenon that both defined a distinct youth culture based on social responsibility and redefined the American middle class. Advocates of student service believed that educated young women and men had unique qualifications for helping others, that they could bridge the gap between economic and social classes, that service would help develop student character, and that reform work would enhance the practical value of a college education. For the predominantly white middle-class students who answered the call for social consciousness, service among immigrants and the urban poor became a rite of passage. In their interactions with the "other half," these young people both tested and reasserted prevailing notions of what it meant to be young, white, educated women or men. While students challenged traditional gender identities for themselves, they reinforced them among the working-class and immigrant populations they encountered. Student service work emerged from three different, interrelated venues of social reform: Protestant Evangelical religious groups, the women's academic community and research universities. The dissertation investigates these different strands through case studies of three settlement houses where college students worked: the first run by University of Pennsylvania Christian Association members in Philadelphia; the second sponsored by women college alumnae in Boston; and the third, in Chicago, associated with Northwestern University. These examples demonstrate the interplay between changing conceptions of gender, the growing connection between universities and social welfare, and the Protestant impulses that motivated many reformers. In all these cases, those who promoted reform were as concerned with training college women and men to be socially conscious citizens as with reforming the immigrant, working-class people those students encountered in the cities. Their efforts helped create an intuitive association between youth and social responsibility that underlies modern-day community service programs on college campuses. [Source: DA]

Poulson, Ronald L., Marion A. Eppler, Tammy N. Satterwhite, Karl L. Wuensch, and Lessie A. Bass. 1998. "Alcohol Consumption, Strength of Religious Beliefs, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Students." Journal of American College Health vol. 46, pp. 227-232.

Tung, John Pu Chiang. 1998. "Discipling Chinese-American Young Adults." Thesis, Westminster Theological Seminary.
Abstract: This project proposes and prepares a 13-week discipling curriculum to meet the perceived needs of Chinese American young adults in the "Generation X" age group (18-28) for meaning, security, and community. Surveys conducted with 80 Chinese young adults reveal significant differences between them and other members of their generation in the US as they search for their own identity between two cultures. Historical research in the Chinese churches in America and biblical study of discipling inform the curriculum's approach to these young Chinese Americans. [Source: RI]

De Haan, Laura G. and John Schulenberg. 1997. "The Covariation of Religion and Politics During the Transition to Young Adulthood: Challenging Global Identity Assumptions." Journal of Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 537-552.
Abstract: Draws on survey data from 209 students at a large midwestern university to investigate the relationship between religious & political beliefs & their combined influence during transition to young adulthood. Findings showed that the most religious individuals had experienced some belief exploration before making a commitment. Those who had not engaged in exploration & had no firm commitment were the least religious. Faith in government proved unrelated to identity development, but high political interest did correlate with high identity achievement scores. No relationship between religious & political identity was apparent, suggesting that components of ideological identity should be considered separately. [Source: SA]

Fulton, Aubyn S. 1997. "Identity Status, Religious Orientation, and Prejudice." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 26, pp. 1-11.
Abstract: Investigated hypothesized relationships between identity status and religious orientation and anti-Black and anti-homosexual prejudice. 176 Christian undergraduate students were administered measures of ego identity, religious orientation, and prejudice. Significant mean differences and correlations were found, mostly in the expected directions, for the relationship between identity status and religious orientation. Expected relationships between identity status and prejudice were not found, with the exception of the relationship between foreclosure and both types of prejudice. These results are discussed in light of recent theoretical developments in the identity status paradigm. [Source: PI]

Maher, Michael Joseph S. Jr. 1997. "The Dis-Integration of a Child: Gay and Lesbian Youth in Catholic Education." Ph.D. Thesis, Saint Louis University.
Abstract: This dissertation involved four studies: a document analysis of contemporary Catholic magisterial teaching on the philosophy of Catholic education as it pertains to the topic of homosexuality, a survey of incoming freshman at a Midwestern Catholic university on their level of agreement with 16 points of Catholic teaching on the topic of homosexuality, a study using in-depth interviews with 25 (13 male and 12 female) gay and lesbian adults who attended Catholic high schools and graduated in the 1980s and 1990s, a study using in-depth interviews with 12 counselors currently working in Catholic high schools. The document analysis yielded the conclusion that Catholic education must discuss the topic of homosexuality, must reduce homophobia in its students, parents, and teachers through education, and must provide support services for gay and lesbian students. The survey (N = 103) demonstrated that students graduating from Catholic high schools generally had more positive attitudes toward homosexuality and gay and lesbian people than those graduating from non-Catholic high schools. Females generally had more positive attitudes than males. Among Catholic school graduates, those graduating from coeducational schools generally had more positive attitudes than those graduating from unisex schools. Agreement levels in terms of the Church's responsibilities to gay and lesbian people and the unacceptability of verbal harassment of gay and lesbian people were disturbingly low. The study of gay and lesbian alumni of Catholic high schools demonstrated a theme of "Dis- integration." Subjects were dis-integrated socially, institutionally, spiritually, and in a terms of sexual identity. This is particularly important because integration at all these levels is a goal of Catholic education. The study of Counselors yielded the conclusion that Catholic schools generally are not doing enough to help this population. [Source: DA]

McLaughlin, Caitlin S., Chuansheng Chen, Ellen Greenberger, and Cornelia Biermeier. 1997. "Family, Peer, and Individual Correlates of Sexual Experience among Caucasian and Asian-American Late Adolescents." Journal of Research on Adolescence vol. 7, pp. 33-53.
Abstract: Explores ethnic & gender differences in sexual behavior among Caucasian & Asian-American state university students in CA (total N = 350), drawing on survey data. Consistent with previous studies, Caucasians reported having more sexual partners than did Asian-Americans, & males reported having more sexual partners than females. Peer interactions & attitudinal & dispositional factors were consistently related with number of sexual partners, while family factors were not. Discriminant analysis of five variables (eg, risky behaviors, casual sex endorsement, & religiosity) yielded two functions capable of predicting levels of sexual experience for 61%-92% of participants. [Source: SA]

Pastorino, Ellen, Richard M. Dunham, Jeannie Kidwell, Roderick Bacho, and Susie D. Lamborn. 1997. "Domain-Specific Gender Comparisons in Identity Development among College Youth: Ideology and Relationships." Adolescence vol. 32, pp. 559-577.
Abstract: Gender comparisons were conducted in six social domains of identity development on 210 college students: occupation, religion, politics, dating, sex roles, and friendship. The identity research literature often combines domains to create more global estimates of identity development. Such an approach may obscure differences among the domains, each of which may have different implications for different societal contexts, and for males and females. Analyses were made for each domain, and for the combined ideological, interpersonal, and overall domain scores. Several gender differences were apparent when domain-specific analyses were examined. Males were more likely to explore and commit in politics, whereas females were more likely to explore in sex roles and to commit in religion and dating. In politics, fewer males were in the diffused status; in contrast, for dating and sex roles, there were fewer females in the diffused status. However, when combined scores were examined, there were no gender differences in identity status. The results suggest that some gender differences still remain in specific domains. The utility of including domain-specific analyses is suggested when gender comparisons are examined. Regardless of gender, more youth were diffused in political identity than in any other domain, suggesting political apathy among today's college youth. [Source: EA]

Slicker, E. K. 1997. "University Students' Reasons for Not Drinking: Relationship to Alcohol Consumption Level." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education vol. 42, pp. 83-102.
Abstract: The present study investigated the reasons university students have for not drinking on those occasions when they choose not to drink and whether those reasons differ with students' differing levels of alcohol consumption. Volunteer participants for the study were students (158 males, 245 females) from a mid-South stare university. These students anonymously answered questions about the quantity and frequency of their alcohol consumption, and on this basis, four alcohol consumption level groups were formed (80.4% of the sample) in addition to abstainers (19.6% of the sample). Each student also responded to the question, ''On those occasions when you DO NOT drink (or drink very little), what is the MAIN reason you make that decision? ''A chi- square test of independence indicated that reason for not drinking was significantly related to alcohol consumption level group, and separate chi-square tests for goodness-of-fit revealed distinctly different reasons given for not drinking depending on the group's alcohol consumption level. Light drinkers endorsed religious-moral reasons significantly More often that the other groups, moderate drinkers chose safety reasons, while heavy drinkers indicated expense as their main reason for not drinking. The results of this unique study inform social and legislative policies for alcohol abuse prevention and intervention by indicating strategies that target the beliefs of she various alcohol consumption levels. [Source: SC]

Trenton, Thomas Norman. 1997. "Generation X and Political Correctness: Ideological and Religious Transformation among Students." Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie vol. 22, pp. 417-436.
Abstract: Draws on 1983-1994 questionnaire data from 2,070 first-year sociology students ("Generation X" & "Bust Generation" members) at the U of Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown) to assess changes in students' values & attitudes. Analyses revealed two dimensions - liberalism & puritanism - that were negatively correlated every year; their cross-tabulation produced a four-fold typology labeled leftism, political correctness, traditionalism, & fundamentalism. Political correctness represented a unique blend of a liberalism that supports disadvantaged minorities while upholding institutional moral controls. The dominant ideology shifted from a religiously oriented fundamentalism to a secularly oriented political correctness. Traditionalism all but disappeared, while the secular new leftism remained constant. Political correctness, seen as a dialectic between liberalism & puritanism, is discussed in terms of the larger social context. [Source: SA]

Dunkin, James C. 1996. "The Perspective of Object Relations Theory for Listening to the Image of God in Young Adults." Thesis, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin.
Abstract: Object relations theory focuses on "relationship" as the matrix within which the "self" is formed. The most significant object in becoming a person is the image (object) of God. This project seeks to examine young adults' processes of their "image of God" formation. It offers an overview of object relations theory; a theological reflection on language used to describe "images of God"; an exploration of faith development in young adult years; a discussion of benefits of object relations theory in pastoral counseling; and a discussion on listening to young adults reflect on their "images of God". [Source: RI]

Hilliard, Donnie Ray. 1996. "Qualities of Successful Father-Child Relationships." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Alabama.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to develop an instrument (the DADS Inventory) that could be used to examine the perceptions of college students concerning the degree of success with which their fathers performed the role of fathering. A secondary purpose was to identify factors related to perceptions of successful fathering. The DADS Inventory was subjected to a factor analysis which revealed three clusters or underlying factors: communication, commitment, and religiosity. An item analysis indicated that each of the items in the DADS Inventory was significantly discriminating at the.00001 level between those respondents whose total scores fell in the top quartile and those respondents whose total scores fell in the bottom quartile. A reliability analysis indicated Cronbach Alpha values of.96 (communication),.94 (commitment), and.92 (religiosity). Six major hypotheses were examined and significant relationships were found to exist between the DADS Inventory total scores and the following variables: age of the respondent, race of the respondent, family structure, father's income, educational attainment of the father, depth of religious faith of the respondent, how much the respondent likes his/her father, the degree of closeness the respondent feels to his/her father, the degree of perceived closeness between the respondent's father and mother, the frequency with which the father read to the respondent when a child, the degree of friendship the respondent experienced with the father while growing up, the frequency with which the father played games with the respondent when he/she was a child, the degree of permissiveness/strictness of discipline which the respondent received from his/her father, whether the respondent received most of his/her discipline from father or mother, the degree to which the father used withdrawal of love, the degree to which the father used reasoning, and the degree of adolescent wellness. These findings add to a growing body of paternal health literature that may enable therapists to deal more effectively with father-child issues and that may serve as a model of paternal success for future fathers. [Source: DA]

Maton, Kenneth I., Douglas M. Teti, Kathleen M. Corns, Catherine C. Vieira Baker, and Jacqueline R. Lavine. 1996. "Cultural Specificity of Support Sources, Correlates and Contexts: Three Studies of African-American and Caucasian Youth." American Journal of Community Psychology vol. 24, pp. 551-587.
Abstract: Three experiments examined levels and correlates of parental support (PNS), peer support (PRS), partner support (PTS), and/or spiritual support (SPS) with additional variables (well being, self esteem, and institutional and goal commitment) among a total of 235 Black and 351 White adolescents and young adults in 3 contexts: adolescent pregnancy (Exp 1), 1st yr of college (Exp 2), and adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-29 yrs; Exp 3). Partially consistent with a cultural specificity perspective, in different contexts different support sources were higher in level and/or more strongly related to adjustment for 1 ethnic group than the other. Among pregnant adolescents, levels of SPS were higher for Black Ss; additionally, PRS was positively related to well-being only for Black Ss, whereas PTS was positively related to well-being only for White Ss. Among college freshmen, PNS was more strongly related to institutional and goal commitment for Black Ss; conversely, PRS was more strongly related to institutional and goal commitment among White Ss. Among 15-29 yr olds, levels of PNS and SPS were higher among Black Ss; additionally, SPS was positively related to self-esteem for Black Ss but not for White Ss. [Source: PI]

McBride, Duane C., Patricia B. Mutch, and Dale D. Chitwood. 1996. "Religious Belief and the Initiation and Prevention of Drug Use among Youth." Pp. 110-130 in Intervening with Drug Involved Youth, edited by Clyde B. McCoy and Lisa R. Metsch. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Abstract: (from the chapter) examine briefly selected religious perspectives on alcohol and drug use and chemically altered states of consciousness review selected literature on the empirical relationship between religious values and drug use examine data on reasons for alcohol and drug abstinence among college students in 2 colleges operated by a proscriptive Christian denomination [examine] the theological and philosophical underpinnings of religious views, reviewing selected empirical literature on religiosity and drug use religion and altered states of consciousness [altered states of consiousness and the monotheistic religions, Judaism and alcohol and drugs, Christianity and alcohol and drugs, Islam and alcohol and drugs] the empirical relationship between drug use and religious values and involvement reasons for abstinence in a conservative Christian young adult population [reasons for abstinence, differences in ethnicity, a note on gender differences] data were . . . presented showing that specific religious commitment may be a powerful component of abstinence decisions among religious youth, particularly minority youth [Source: PI]

Zhang, J. and S. H. Jin. 1996. "Determinants of Suicide Ideation: A Comparison of Chinese and American College Students." Adolescence vol. 31, pp. 451-467.
Abstract: A LISREL model that incorporates both social and psychological factors was used to explain Chinese and American college students' suicide ideation. Questionnaire data were obtained from one Chinese sample (N = 320) from four universities in Beijing and one American sample (N = 452) from one university in the Rocky Mountain area. As in the American sample, Chinese females score higher on the ideation scale than Chinese males, but the overall rate is lower for the Chinese than for the American college students. The findings in the American data support previous Literature that family cohesion and religiosity are inversely related to suicide ideation, while the Chinese data suggest a positive correlation between religiosity and suicide ideation. This article offers a comparison of different cultural environments for Chinese and American adolescent development. [Source: SC]

Beitz, Janice Marian. 1995. "Social and Educational Factors Affecting Sex Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Students." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Abstract: Adolescent sexual risk behaviors are a national health issue as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have spread in the American population. Social cognitive theory suggests that social and educational factors influence these behaviors. Previous research has found equivocal results in certain factors' relationships to and their interactive effect on sexuality. Earlier sex behavior's effect on current cognition has not been well examined. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, psychosocial, and educational variables related to sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of college students. The study addressed the following questions: What are the individual and interactive effects of number of sources and intensity of formal sex education, performance self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity on sex variables? Does gender affect these independent variables? How does gender and/or age of first coitus affect selected sex variables? Measures of the independent variables and sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered. Subjects were 200 full-time college students, aged 17 to 25 years old, enrolled in two large urban universities and a community college. For the independent variables, correlation analyses indicated that formal sex education, parent-adolescent communication, and religiosity were significantly but very weakly related to sex attitudes. No other intercorrelations were significant. Simple multiple regression demonstrated that the variables taken together explained negligible variance in sex behaviors. Gender generated differences in the independent variables. Independent t-tests indicated that males scored significantly lower than females in parent-adolescent communication with mother, social self-esteem, and religiosity. For age of first coitus and gender, a one-way analysis of variance indicated that males had significantly more liberal sex attitudes than females. Subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly more liberal sex attitudes and greater STDs. No interactions were significant. Age of first coitus itself was examined. Independent t-tests demonstrated that subjects with earlier first coitus had significantly less sex knowledge, more liberal sex attitudes, and greater risk behaviors. Results suggested that first coitus age and gender affected sexuality differentially. Recommendations were made for educational and health care practice and further research. [Source: DA]

Butler, M. R. 1995. "Self-Esteem and Health-Promoting Lifestyle as Predictors of Health-Risk Behavior among Older Adolescents." Ph.d. Thesis, Texas Woman's University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate a model of health-risk behavior among older adolescents. Specifically, relationships between self-esteem, health-promoting lifestyle, and health-risk behavior, and the importance of self-esteem and health-promoting lifestyle in predicting health-risk behavior were examined. The conceptual framework was based on the concepts identified in self and symbolic interactionism theories, as well as those in health promotion, adolescent and problem behavior theories. The interaction among the variables identified in the conceptual framework guided the development of the five research hypotheses. A predictive, correlational research method was used to test the hypotheses. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (Walker, Sechrist, & Pender, 1987), and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) were used to collect data. The study sample consisted of 120 college students attending a small, private, four-year liberal arts college. Mean age was 18.8 years. Students participated after being informed verbally and in writing of the purpose and voluntary nature of the study. Proposed relationships were analyzed by Pearson's product moment correlation and chi-square analysis. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine the power of health-promoting lifestyle and self-esteem in predicting health-risk behavior. Risk behavior was defined by specific YRBS items addressing sexual and alcohol-use behavior. One hypothesis was supported, one was not supported, and three hypotheses were partially supported. Relationships were found between self-esteem and health-promoting lifestyle, between health-promoting lifestyle and specific risk behaviors, and among specific personal characteristics such as academic self-assessment, religiosity, and physical health self-assessment and risk behaviors. Self-esteem was positively correlated with risk behavior, which was opposite the hypothesized direction. Self-esteem and health-promoting lifestyle were found to successfully predict membership into dichotomous risk behavior groups for two of the sexual behavior variables. The study concluded that health-promoting lifestyle may have a positive effect on behavior, and may be used in predicting health-risk behavior among older adolescents, but that self-esteem may have a spurious relationship with risk behavior, and should be investigated further. [Source: CI]

Corbitt, John H. 1995. Black Churches Reaching College Students. Nashville, Tenn.: Townsend Press/Sunday School Board.

Hoge, Dean R., Benton Johnson, and Donald A. Luidens. 1995. "Types of Denominational Switching among Protestant Young Adults." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 34, pp. 253-258.
Abstract: Telephone survey data from 500 US young adults ages 33-42 who grew up Presbyterian reveal four motivations of people who switched denominations: (1) interfaith marriage; (2) moving to a different town or neighborhood; (3) dissatisfaction with one's church; & (4) personal ties & influences. The third motivation was often associated with a conversion or renewal of commitment. Switches for the first two reasons tended to be within mainline Protestant denominations, while switches for the third reason tended to pull a person outside the mainline. Afterward, switchers became more church-inolved than nonswitchers, especially those citing reason 3. [Source: SA]

Low, Cynthia A. and Paul J. Handal. 1995. "The Relationship between Religion and Adjustment to College." Journal of College Student Development vol. 36, pp. 406-412.
Abstract: Investigated the relation between religion and adjustment to college through the use of Personal Religiosity Inventory (PRI) and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ). 500 Ss (aged 16-47 yrs) from 3 different universities were asked to complete these questionnaires. Results reveal that for young adults, sex differences were evident on the PRI, with females scoring significantly higher than males on some of the subscales. In the SACQ, gender and school differences were present on the Attachment subscale and integration contributed significantly to the prediction of academic adjustment. An overall significant relationship existed between religion and college adjustment for college freshmen. Regression analyses for the total sample reveal that various religion dimensions were significant predictors of several adjustment subscales. [Source: PI]

Neal, Cynthia J. and Michael W. Mangis. 1995. "Unwanted Sexual Experiences among Christian College Women: Saying No on the Inside." Journal of Psychology and Theology vol. 23, pp. 171-179.

Rubinstein, G. 1995. "Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Political Affiliation, Religiosity, and Their Relation to Psychological Androgyny." Sex Roles vol. 33, pp. 569-586.
Abstract: The authoritarian personality is characterized by a traditional attitude towards gender roles that reflects its conservative ideology [T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford (1950) The Authoritarian Personality, New York: Norton]. The present study investigated the relationship between S. L. Bem's [(1974) sex roles ''The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny,'' Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 42, pp. 155-162], on the one hand, and right- wing authoritarianism [RWA; B. Altemeyer (1988) Enemies of Freedom: Understanding Right-Wing Authoritarianism, San Francisco], political affiliation, and religiosity level, on the other Subjects were 365 Jewish undergraduate students (227 women and 138 men) at a number of universities; 81 were second generation Israelis, 90 were children of Ashkenazic parents, 75 were children of Sephardic parents, and 113 were children of parents from mixed background. They completed Altemeyer's RWA scab and a shortened version of Bem's Sex Role Inventory. Political affiliation and religiosity level (variables strongly linked to the authoritarian personality theory) were also measured. Among women, the RWA mean score of the cross-sex typed subjects was significantly lower than that of the sex- typed and the undifferentiated subjects, and most of the cross- sex typed women supported the political left and defined themselves as secular while among men, no statistically significant RWA, political affiliation, and religiosity differences were found between Bem's four personality types. These results highlight gender differences in the relationships between authoritarian personality and gender-role identification. While it seems that cross-sex-typed women tend to rebel against the status quo, the question of why similar patterns do not appear among men still remains open to speculation. [Source: SC]

Subkoviak, Michael J., Robert D. Enright, Ching Ru Wu, and Elizabeth A. Gassin. 1995. "Measuring Interpersonal Forgiveness in Late Adolescence and Middle Adulthood." Journal of Adolescence vol. 18, pp. 641-655.
Abstract: The construct of interpersonal forgiveness was operationalized and tested with 197 late-adolescent college students and 197 of their same-gender parents in the Midwestern US. Ss completed the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI), a background information scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, measures of religiosity and social desirability, and a 1-item forgiveness question. The EFI showed strong internal consistency reliability. The EFI correlated significantly and negatively with anxiety, particularly when a S was experiencing deep hurt in a developmentally relevant area. Age differences also were observed. College students were less forgiving and had more anxiety than their same-gender parents, particularly when the hurt concerned a developmentally relevant area. [Source: PI]

Anderson, Sharon L. Hedrick. 1994. "Intergenerational Religious Value Concordance: Mothers and Young Adults." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Delaware, Newark.
Abstract: The acquisition of values within the family matrix has intrigued and indeed perplexed scholars throughout history. The empirical studies that are available present conflicting and contradictory evidence regarding intergenerational value transmission. This study examines the relationships between mothers' religious values and those of their young adult offspring, whether expression of these values can be seen in corresponding behaviors, whether there is concordance between maternal and youth religious behaviors, and whether mothers and young adults accurately perceive each others' religious values and behaviors. One hundred and twenty-five mother-youth dyads from Messiah College, a Christian liberal arts institution, and 84 mother-youth dyads from the University of Delaware completed a five-part survey designed by the researcher. This instrument was used in a pilot study in 1990, and reliability analyses yielded strong scores, indicating that the instruments are highly reliable. The results of the study indicated that the respondents' born-again status was the significant main effect which explained the greatest amount of variance in religious value and behavior scores. Mothers' religious value and behavior scores were generally higher than the corresponding youths' scores. All of the mothers and the youth who reported concordant born-again status with the mothers showed strong correlations between their stated religious values and behaviors. Concordant mothers tended to accurately perceive both the religious values and behaviors of their offspring. For the discordant dyads, the youth tended to perceive the values and behaviors of the mothers more accurately than the mothers perceived the youths' values and behaviors. For the concordant pairs, the young people's religious values correlated with their perceptions of their mothers' religious values one hundred percent of the time, and the mothers' religious values were highly correlated with the mothers' perceptions of the youth values. The mothers' and the youths' perceptions of each others' religious values did not correlate with their own religious values for the discordant pairs. Implications for theory development as well as practical implications for parents are discussed. Implications for future research are suggested. [Source: DA]

Bliss, S. K. and C. L. Crown. 1994. "Concern for Appropriateness, Religiosity, and Gender as Predictors of Alcohol and Marijuana Use." Social Behavior and Personality vol. 22, pp. 227-238.
Abstract: The validity of the Concern for Appropriateness Scale (CAS) as a direct or indirect predictor of alcohol and marijuana use in college students was investigated in this study. Specifically, the study examined whether the CAS, by itself, predicted self- reported alcohol and marijuana and whether it interacted with gender and/or religiosity to predict alcohol and marijuana use. The Ss were 143 undergraduate students, and it was found that the CAS directly predicted marijuana use and also interacted with religiosity in the prediction of marijuana use. The results also indicated that the CAS did not directly predict alcohol use, but the CAS interacted with gender and religiosity in the prediction of alcohol use. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for validity of the CAS as an index of social anxiety. [Source: SC]

Dudley, Roger L. 1994. "Faith Maturity and Social Concern in College-Age Youth: Does Christian Education Make a Difference?" Journal of Research on Christian Education: JRCE vol. 3, pp. 34-49.

Helm, Sharron. 1994. "The Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, Spirituality, Personal Characteristics, and Academic Success of African American Young Adults." Ed.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: Some African-American young adults in college have overcome seemingly insurmountable odds to become academically successful, while others are considered academically unsuccessful as a result of dropping out of school. This study attempted to compare the two groups to determine if internalized factors that influence academic success could be isolated. These internalized factors included general and social self-efficacy, locus of control, and spirituality. Students were compared on personal and family demographics. Successful African-American students were more likely to be single, with no children, and raised in an intact family. Their mothers and fathers had either completed high school or some college. The educational levels of parents of academically unsuccessful African-American tended to be somewhat higher than the academically successful young adults. The majority of academically successful students were in their sophomore years and were carrying 12 credit hours per semester. Their self-reported grade point averages ranged from 2.51 to 3.50 and they were pursuing degrees in business, engineering, or fine and performing arts. Findings of this study showed no relationship between general and social self-efficacy, locus of control, spirituality and selected demographic variables including educational level of mother and father, number of brothers and sisters, birth order of participants, number of credit hours taken in a semester, and course of study. When academically successful African-American young adults were compared with academically unsuccessful African-American young adults, a significant difference was found for general self- efficacy. The other variables were not found to be statistically significant, although the academically successful group appeared to be more internal, with higher levels of social self-efficacy. Spirituality did not differ between the two groups. Recommendations for further research were presented which included a reference to continue research in the area of successful African-American youth to determine patterns that could be extrapolated to younger African- Americans. [Source: DA]

Lottes, I. L. and P. J. Kuriloff. 1994. "Sexual Socialization Differences by Gender, Greek Membership, Ethnicity, and Religious Background." Psychology of Women Quarterly vol. 18, pp. 203-219.
Abstract: Socialization theories have included parents and peers as important determinants of the initial sexual standards and sexual behavior of teenagers and young adults. The purpose of the research reported here was to examine how parental and peer sexual socialization influences are related to gender, ethnicity, religious background, and college membership in a fraternity or sorority. A sample that included a majority of Caucasian university students and about 13% Asian and 7% Black students completed questionnaires both as entering first-year students and as seniors. Results indicated that compared to women, men continue to experience a more permissive sexual socialization from both parents and peers. Greek membership was associated with a more permissive socialization from peers but not parents. Asian students reported a more restrictive socialization than Blacks or Caucasians. Findings are discussed with respect to concerns of social scientists regarding the influence of fraternities and differential gender socialization. [Source: SC]

Shortz, Joianne L. and Everett L. Worthington, Jr. 1994. "Young Adults' Recall of Religiosity, Attributions, and Coping in Parental Divorce." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 33, pp. 172-179.
Abstract: Combines K. I. Pargament's (1990) theoretical framework of religion & coping with Bernard Spilka's, Phillip Shaver's, & Lee A. Kirkpatrick's attributional theory (see SA 33:4/85Q0299) to extend the existing understanding of religion's role in coping with stress. University students (N = 131) in the southeastern US who had experienced their parents' divorce during their own adolescence were surveyed. Findings reveal that retrospective religious causal attributions predicted coping activities - especially religious coping - beyond measures of religiosity. Religious causal attributions may uniquely influence how people cope with stress. [Source: SA]

Vanderbeek, Herbert Anthony. 1994. "Religious Identity Formation and Adolescent Friendships in a Tight-Knit Social Group." M.A. Thesis, The University of Manitoba (Canada).
Abstract: Erikson argued that identity formation represents the central developmental task for adolescents. Two processes, i.e., exploration (E) and commitment (C), contribute to identity formation. The high versus low levels of exploration and commitment determines the nature of an adolescent's identity status: (a) Identity Achievement (high E, high C); (b) Foreclosure (low E, high C); (c) Moratorium (high E, low C); (d) Identity Diffusion (low E, low C). The adolescent's social environment encourages/discourages exploration and commitment. Erikson felt that tight-knit social groups would favour Foreclosure by discouraging exploration and by encouraging commitment. Following Erikson's theoretical framework, the thesis examines the relationship between identity formation, adolescent friendship patterns and religious commitment in two samples: (a) students attending an ethnically (Dutch) and religiously (Christian Reformed) homogeneous college characterized by tight-social networks; (b) an unselected sample of Manitoba university students. [Source: DA]

Zhang, Jie and Darwin L. Thomas. 1994. "Modernization Theory Revisited: A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Conformity to Significant Others in Mainland China, Taiwan, and the USA." Adolescence vol. 29, pp. 885-903.
Abstract: Tests the viability of modernization theory's explanation of adolescent conformity behavior across 3 different cultural settings. Analysis of questionnaire survey data from college students in mainland China, Taiwan, & the US (total N = 1,026) does not support modernization theory. Contrary to modernization theory's predictions, the social institution of education is less important, but religion is highly valued in US society, while the reverse is true of the 2 Chinese societies. It is concluded that modernization theory tests with cross-cultural data should take into consideration cultural characteristics. [Source: SA]

Brisben, David Edward. 1993. "Adolescent Spirituality: Relationships among Adolescent Self-Esteem, Parent-Adolescent Communication, and Adolescent Spiritual Well-Being." Ed.D. Thesis, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Abstract: Purpose. This research investigated the relationships among the factors of self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and spiritual well-being for older adolescents in the evangelical community. Two other factors in the family environment were identified in the research literature as important to a person's spiritual well-being. These factors, parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation, were also examined as to their interaction effect on the three previously mentioned interval variables. This study, unlike previous studies, has statistically analyzed the relationship between the level of constructive communication perceived by the adolescent in the parent-adolescent relationship and the sense of spiritual well-being experienced by the adolescent. Secondly, this study has statistically examined the interaction effect of parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation on the adolescent's spiritual well-being. Procedure. This correlational research focused on certain indicators of the spiritual well-being of older adolescents (16-20 years) within the evangelical, Christian community. The sample population of the study was made up of 202 volunteers selected from three Christian colleges and nine evangelical churches in the southeastern United States. Data were collected by having the subjects complete three testing instruments (the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Bienvenu Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory, and the Paloutzian-Ellison Spiritual Well-Being Scale) and a demographic questionnaire. The correlational method of statistical analysis utilizing the Pearson product moment correlation was employed to measure the degree of relationship between the variables of self-esteem, parent-adolescent communication, and spiritual well-being. The causal-comparative method of statistical analysis utilizing t-tests was then employed to test for significance in relationships between the above mentioned criterion variables and their interaction with categorical variables of parent's marital status and parent's religious orientation. Findings. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that there is a low, positive correlation between the variables of parent-adolescent communication and adolescent spiritual well-being and a moderate, positive correlation between the variables of self-esteem and spiritual well-being for the adolescents in this study. Moreover, the findings indicated that the parent's religious orientation is a stronger predictor of the adolescent's spiritual well-being and the adolescent's self-esteem than is the parent's marital status. Finally, the findings indicated that there is a different set of predictor variables for adolescents with divorced parents than for adolescents with intact parents and that the variable of self-esteem is a stronger predictor of the adolescent's sense of spiritual well-being for adolescents with divorced parents than it is for adolescents with intact parents. [Source: DA]

Bryan, Janice W. and Florence W. Freed. 1993. "Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 22, pp. 1-22.
Abstract: 80 female and 70 male undergraduates (aged 18-49 yrs) completed surveys regarding their attitudes toward abortion, their sexual behavior, and their past and current problems. Although 70% of Ss were raised Catholic, 82% supported abortion choice. 86% of Ss had engaged in premarital sex, 70% of Ss used contraception, and 26% of the women had had premarital pregnancies. Compared with pro-abortion Ss, anti-abortion Ss had more religiosity, believed that abortion was murder, were more punitive toward the woman and medical personnel involved, were less sexually active, and were less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many Ss had a history of and were currently experiencing serious problems, especially the women. [Source: PI]

Dudley, Roger L. 1993. "Indicators of Commitment to the Church: A Longitudinal Study of Church-Affiliated Youth." Adolescence vol. 28, pp. 21-28.
Abstract: Studied the factors that determine which late adolescents drop out of the church and which remain committed to it by examining 3rd- and 4th-yr questionnaires of 859 17-29 yr old Seventh-Day Adventist youth. Ss were part of a 10-yr study that originally involved over 1,500 Ss distributed throughout the US and Canada. Commitment was found to be related to cognitive, experiential, and activity dimensions of religion. Ethical considerations, a perception of one's importance to the local congregation, and peer influence also played a part in the stepwise regression package, which accounted for half of the variance in commitment scores. [Source: PI]

Free, Marvin D. 1993. "Stages of Drug Use: A Social Control Perspective." Youth and Society vol. 25, pp. 251-271.
Abstract: Three models reflecting stages of substance use (alcohol use, alcohol and marijuana use, polydrug use) were tested. Path analysis examined data from 916 undergraduates who completed questionnaires at a church-affiliated university or a state university. School bonds (e.g., school involvement) contributed little toward an explanation of substance use. Religiosity and religious conservatism accounted for some of the variance in substance use, primarily underage drinking. Results suggest that explanations of substance use can be enhanced through development of models employing stages of drug involvement. [Source: PI]

Guerra, Lawrence Joseph. 1993. "A Cognitive-Emotional Developmental Model for Predicting Sexual Risk-Taking Behavior among Male Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, St. John's University.
Abstract: Recent research has revealed that adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behaviors which may expose them to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. The purpose of this study was to test the usefulness of a cognitive-emotional developmental model in predicting sexual risk taking behavior in male adolescents. One hundred fifty-three male adolescent community college students, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, anonymously completed packets of seven pencil and paper questionnaires. The instruments, including the "Test of Logical Thinking" (TOLT), the "Adolescent Egocentrism-Sociocentrism Scale" (AES), the "Sensation Seeking Scale" (SSS), the "Dyadic Sexual Regulation Scale" (DSR), the "Sexual Opinion Survey" (SOS), and a "Demographics Survey," were used to assess formal operational thinking, egocentrism, sensation seeking, locus of control, sexual guilt ("erotophobia"), age, ethnicity, religiosity, and socioeconomic status, as potential predictor variables. The dependent variable, sexual risk taking behavior, was assessed with the "Sexual Behavior Questionnaire" (SBQ) developed for this study. The results of multiple regression analyses indicated that only some of the variables were significant predictors of sexual risk taking behavior at p $<$.05 when the dependent variable was defined according to number and type of sexual partners, partners' other sexual history, and consistency of abstinence and condom use, during the previous one year. Older, less religious adolescent males prone toward sensation seeking were more likely to engage in behaviors which put them at risk of HIV infection. In a secondary analysis, in which number of sexual partners with other sexual history was examined as the dependent variable, male adolescents who were less egocentric, defined in terms of Elkind's (1967) "personal fable," who tended to be disinhibited sensation seekers, and who had relatively weak proportional (formal operational) reasoning ability tended to be at higher risk of HIV infection. The results suggest that specific cognitive-developmental and cognitive-emotional variables, in addition to demographic factors, need to be considered when examining adolescent sexual risk taking behavior and preventive interventions in the AIDS era. [Source: DA]

Hoge, Dean R. and Benton Johnson. 1993. "Determinants of Church Involvement of Young Adults Who Grew up in Presbyterian Churches." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, p. 242.
Abstract: Studies church involvement of young adults in Presbyterian churches. Influence of early religious socialization; Cultural broadening during college years; Liberalization of beliefs; Religious beliefs; Commitment of people with conservative beliefs; Adult family experiences. [Source: AS]

Jeffries, Vincent. 1993. "Virtue and Attraction: Validation of a Measure of Love." Journal of Social and Personal Relationships vol. 10, pp. 99-117.
Abstract: 479 undergraduates completed measures of self-esteem and faith in people, and a separate sample of 233 undergraduates (all Ss 17-46 yrs old) completed the Relationship Rating Form ([RRF] K. E. Davis and M. J. Todd, unpublished manuscript) and a measure of parental support. The RRF was used to measure Ss' self-reported love for their parents during their teenage years and Ss' perceived love of their parents for them. Results indicate that virtue and attraction are separate dimensions of love and that these dimensions are related to parental support. The RRF, self-esteem, and faith in people consistently showed discriminant validity when related to need fulfillment, religiosity, and altruism and criterion-related validity when related to parental divorce. A preliminary theory of love is considered, and the relationship between (1) virtue and attraction and (2) passion is discussed. [Source: PI]

Lo, Celia Chun Nui. 1993. "What Does Social Learning During the High School Senior Year Contribute to Collegiate Drinking Patterns?" Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA).
Abstract: A two-wave quasi-longitudinal method is employed to: (1) specify the effects on collegiate drinking patterns of social learning variables & drinking patterns as high school seniors; & (2) examine whether differential reinforcement is a crucial variable in collegiate drinking behavior, as described by Akers. It is demonstrated that differential peer associations in high school, which determine students' definitions of alcohol use & expectations of the consequences of drinking, directly affect drinking patterns during high school, but not during college. College students' drinking patterns are directly determined by their earlier drinking patterns, definitions of alcohol use, & parents' reaction to their using alcohol in high school. Supporting earlier studies, role models & religious norms show no significant impact on high school or collegiate alcohol use, when all other variables are controlled, & the important impact on college drinking of the differential reinforcement variables measured for high school is partially supported. However, that impact is not totally consistent with social learning theory precepts; further studies are needed to improve the conceptualization & measurement of social learning variables. [Source: SA]

Warren, Tamara M. 1993. "Ego Identity Status, Religiosity, and Moral Development of Christian and State High School and College Students." Thesis, Biola University, Rosemead School of Psychology.

Filius, Rens Jan. 1992. "Types of Adolescent Religious Conversion and Perception of Family Functioning." Ph.D. Thesis, Rosemead School of Psychology, Biola University, La Mirada.
Abstract: Developmental factors influencing adolescent religious conversion are examined in this study. Blos' theory of adolescent separation and individuation, Erikson's theory of ego identity development, and a developmental model of family functioning are discussed in relationship to adolescent religious conversion. Two typologies of conversion, sudden versus gradual and inter- versus intra-faith, were used to investigate the relationship with family functioning. It was hypothesized (a) that adolescents who have experienced a sudden religious conversion perceive their family as more extreme, and more frequently possess a foreclosed religious identity status and indiscriminantly proreligious orientation; (b) adolescents who have experienced a gradual religious conversion perceive their family as more balanced, more frequently possess an achieved religious identity status, and an intrinsic religious orientation; (c) adolescents who have experienced an inter-faith conversion perceive their family as less cohesive and those who had an intra-faith conversion will perceive their family as more cohesive; (d) adolescents from families holding strong religious values more frequently have an intra-faith conversion; (e) democratic family style correlates positively with intrinsic and consensual religious orientations, and achieved identity status. Undergraduate students from an evangelical and a state university participated in this study (N = 173). Subjects who had experienced an adolescent conversion were identified (n = 46). Three control groups were used: (a) Christian students who had experienced a childhood conversion and a religious recommitment in adolescence, (b) Christians who did not experience a change in faith, and (c) non-Christians. Analyses of variance were used to test the hypotheses; discriminant function analyses were used to explore additional relationships. Only the hypotheses concerning the inter-/intra-faith conversion typology were supported. The suddenness of conversion is less affected by family functioning compared to a change from the faith in which an individual has been socialized. Perception of religious emphasis in the family was the most important variable for prediction of group membership. It was concluded that antecedents of religious conversion are mostly religious variables. Religious socialization in general merits greater attention in research concerning religious conversion. [Source: DA]

Gallup, George and Robert Bezilla. 1992. The Religious Life of Young Americans: A Compendium of Surveys on the Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Teen-Agers and Young Adults. Princeton, New Jersey: The George H. Gallup International Institute.

Lottes, Ilsa L. and Peter J. Kuriloff. 1992. "The Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Political Orientation on the Sex Role Attitudes of College Freshmen." Adolescence vol. 27, pp. 675-688.
Abstract: 556 1st-yr undergraduates completed a questionnaire examining the effects of gender, race (Asian, Black, and White), religion (Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant), and political orientation (liberal and conservative) on 4 areas of sex-role ideology. They were (1) traditional attitudes toward female sexuality, (2) justification of male dominance, (3) negative attitudes toward homosexuality, and (4) attitudes toward feminism. The study assumed a social learning perspective: that sex-role beliefs are culturally determined. Of the 4 independent variables, religion and political orientation produced significant differences on all 4 sex-role measures. Liberals as compared to conservatives, and Jews as compared to Protestants were less traditional in their attitudes toward female sexuality, less accepting of male dominance and negative attitudes toward homosexuality, and more accepting of feminist attitudes. [Source: PI]

Whyte, Wallace E. 1992. "Community and the Transmission of Faith." Thesis, Knox College.
Abstract: This thesis is about a qualitative and phenomenological study of eight young adults with living faith and active participation in their faith community. It was discovered that the friendship and intergenerational relationships within the church which they experienced in childhood and adolescence contributed significantly to the generation and development of their faith, second only to the impact of their parents and family life. It was concluded that the quality of relationships within two communities, faith and family, have as much or more significance related to Christian education as the extent and quality of formal instruction. [Source: RI]

Wilcock, Robert Orvel. 1992. "Adolescent Influences on Young Adult Religious Family Values." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: Using longitudinal design this research assessed the degree to which an adequate conceptualization and measurement of religious family values could be conducted. Questionnaire responses from 560 young adult LDS Males, originally studies in 1981, were analyzed revealing a cluster of values centering around family home evening, scripture study, family prayer, and moral behavior formed one dimension of religious family values. Three other related value dimensions were also identified, viz. birth control, divorce, working mother. A LISREL model was developed and tested which showed that the family, peer, and religious influences all contributed to explaining variation in young adult religious family values. Adolescent religiosity emerged as an important intervening variable which also influenced whether or not the young man chose to serve a mission for the church. Of the exogenous variables, home religious observance was the single most important influence on young adult religious family values. The direct effect over nine years suggests the strength of family socialization in a specific relationship to special values. These findings have important implications for those wanting to better understand how religious, familial, and peer influences combine to shape the adolescent's world, which in turn influences young adult religious family values some nine years later. [Source: DA]

Zhang, J. I. E. 1992. "Modernization, Interpersonal Power, and Conformity: A Cross-Cultural Study of Significant Others' Influence on Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University.
Abstract: This dissertation was intended to test modernization theory's explanation of adolescent conformity behavior, and to discover conformity patterns in three different cultural settings. Questionnaire survey data were collected from college students in mainland China, Taiwan, and the USA. ANOVA, ONEWAY ANOVA, factor analyses, and LISREL were used to analyze the data. Modernization theory was not well supported by the data. Analyses of the findings suggested that modernization theory tests with cross-cultural data should take into consideration cultural characteristics, since much of human behavior is culturally determined. Contrary to modernization theory's predictions, the social institution of education is less important but religion is highly valued in American society, while the reverse was found in the two Chinese societies. Significant findings of the project were different patterns in the three societies of adolescent conformity to the three types of significant others. [Source: DA]

Alam, Javed and Saeeduzzafar. 1991. "Dependence Proneness in Relation to Prolonged Deprivation." Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies vol. 7, pp. 49-53.
Abstract: Investigated the influence of prolonged deprivation and religious affiliation on the development of dependence proneness. A 2 * 2 factorial design was used in which 1 personality variable (prolonged deprivation) and 1 sociological variable (religion) varied in 2 ways. There were 4 groups of undergraduates (aged 15-28 yrs), with 50 Ss in each group: nondeprived Hindus, deprived Hindus, nondeprived Muslims, and deprived Muslims. Ss completed a measure of dependence proneness. Deprived and nondeprived Ss did not differ with respect to dependence proneness. Muslims were found to be more dependent prone than Hindus. There was no interactional effect of religion and prolonged deprivation on the degree of dependence proneness. [Source: PI]

Koteskey, Ronald L., Michelle D. Little, and Michele V. Matthews. 1991. "Adolescent Identity and Depression." Journal of Psychology and Christianity vol. 10, pp. 48-53.
Abstract: Examined the correlation between adolescence and depression among 109 college students (aged 17-27 yrs) using the Beck Depression Inventory and an identity scale. Depression was negatively correlated with some types of identity. Ss who scored higher on community, family, and religious identity scored lower on depression. Cultural identity was not negatively correlated with depression. The creation of adolescence in modern Western culture means that teenagers have lost much control of their lives relative to work, marriage, and education. Community inclusion of adolescents in activities could help them gain a stronger sense of community identity. The church could include adolescents as adults to help them gain a stronger sense of religious identity. [Source: PI]

Nipkow, Karl E. and Friedrich Schweitzer. 1991. "Adolescents' Justifications for Faith or Doubt in God: A Study of Fulfilled and Unfulfilled Expectations." New Directions for Child Development pp. 91-100.
Abstract: Presents data concerning reflections and feelings about God obtained from 16-22 yr old students. Most Ss had expectations of God and the Church that had not been fulfilled, including God as helper, God as the key for explaining the world, God as more than symbol, and the Church as God's witness. Results are examined through the lenses of psychoanalytic and cognitive-developmental theories. The issue of how adolescents talk about God and the Church is discussed. [Source: PI]

Persinger, M. A. 1991. "Preadolescent Religious Experience Enhances Temporal Lobe Signs in Normal Young Adults." Perceptual and Motor Skills vol. 72, pp. 453-454.
Abstract: Compared responses to a personal philosophy inventory by 174 university students who indicated that their first religious experience had occurred before they were teenagers and 694 students who denied such an experience. Results support the hypothesis that earlier onset of limbic lability is associated with subjective experiences infused with more affect and meaningfulness. [Source: PI]

Sazer, L. and H. Kassinove. 1991. "Effects of Counselors Profanity and Subjects Religiosity on Content Acquisition of a Counseling Lecture and Behavioral Compliance." Psychological Reports vol. 69, pp. 1059-1070.
Abstract: Effects of counselor's profanity and subject's religiosity on acquisition of lecture content and behavioral compliance were investigated. 40 male and 80 female undergraduate students volunteered to attend a lecture about "coping with problems of daily living." They were divided into low, medium, or high religiosity groups based upon scores on Rohrbough and Jessor's Religiosity Scale. Each subject listened to a 15-min. videotaped rational-emotive mental health presentation which included a recommendation that they pick up a card (initial compliance) and send for a free book (delayed compliance) expanding upon the principles discussed in the tape. Half listened to a tape containing 16 profane words and half watched a nonprofane tape. At the end of the tape subjects were given a test on content. Analysis showed that profanity had a negative effect on acquisition of content and on initial compliance. Religiosity had no effect on any of the dependent variables. In contrast to the behavior modeled by some senior clinical practitioners, it was concluded that counselors be wary of using profanity in an initial session. Also, in keeping with the 1989 recommendations of Heppner and Claiborn, the importance of studying behavioral measures in influence studies was stressed. [Source: SC]

Schneider, Jim D. 1991. "Autonomy in Moral Judgment among Bible College Students." M.Ed. Thesis, University of Alberta (Canada), Edmonton.
Abstract: The overall objective of this project was to explore the nature of autonomy in moral judgments as it is experienced by college-aged youth raised within a conservative evangelical environment. A qualitative research design was employed and data collection consisted of a questionnaire and two interviews with each of the five participants. Data were organized around five major themes: cognitive expressions of the moral judgment process, faith expressions of the moral judgment process, religious resources, expressions of community in the moral judgment process, and holistic expressions of the moral judgment process. Participants demonstrated various levels of autonomy in the moral judgment process, reinforcing the notion of the developmental nature of autonomy. Generally speaking, their comments were most reflective of Petrovich's (1986) definition of autonomy as an act of willful obedience. [Source: DA]

Turiel, Elliot, Carolyn Hildebrandt, and Cecilia Wainryb. 1991. "Judging Social Issues: Difficulties, Inconsistencies, and Consistencies." Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development vol. 56, pp. 1-103.
Abstract: High school & college students' reasoning about the nonprototypical issues of abortion, homosexuality, pornography, & incest was examined in 3 studies. In Study 1, 87 high school seniors & 98 college undergraduates, divided between those who judged prototypical issues negatively or positively, were asked to evaluate 1 nonprototypical issue, 1 moral issue, & 1 personal issue. The groups differed in judgments about the nonprototypical issues, but not the moral issues. Both groups gave noncontingent & generalized judgments about moral issues, with justifications of justice & rights. Ss who evaluated nonprototypical acts negatively used varied & often inconsistent configurations of criterion judgments. Ss who evaluated nonprototypical acts positively judged that they should be legal & nongeneralized & gave justifications based on personal choice. Using similar procedures, Study 2 was conducted with 58 practicing Catholics who were seniors in parochial high schools. Findings paralleled those of Study 1, including a split among Ss in their evaluations of the nonprototypical issues. In Study 3, the role of informational assumptions in judgment of nonprototypical issues was examined through a set of questions & probes pertaining either to abortion or homosexuality given to 87 undergraduate introductory psychology students. Assumptions were found to be ambiguous & inconsistently applied. Ambiguity around assumptions is discussed as a central component of the nonprototypicality of these issues. In Why Are Nonprototypical Events So Difficult, and What Are the Implications for Social-Developmental Psychology?, Herbert D. Saltzstein (Graduate School & U Center, City U of New York, NY) lauds Turiel et al for their examination of the judgment & reasoning applied to nonprototypical issues, & their variations based on moral & personal issues. In light of their findings, several questions are explored concerning the organization of moral thought in relation to other forms of social thought. In essence, the findings do not provide a model by which to explain individual & group differences; rather, they suggest that they simply cannot be explained. [Source: SA]

Wheeler, Mark S. 1991. "The Relationship between Parenting Style and the Spiritual Well-Being and Religiosity of College Students." Christian Education Journal vol. 11, pp. 51-62.

Day, Wayne Allan. 1990. "Religious Generation Gap: A Relational Study of Selected Religious Attitudes of Union University Freshmen and Their Parents." Ed.D. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.
Abstract: Problem. This study addressed the issue of the differences in religious attitudes which existed between entering freshmen at a Tennessee Baptist college and their parents. This study compared and contrasted selected religious attitudes of students, mothers and fathers to see if a religious generation gap existed at a Tennessee Baptist college. Procedures. Three separate populations were utilized for this study. Union University freshmen (20 years of age or younger) during the Fall semester of 1989 and the mothers of these entering freshmen and the fathers of these students. These groups responded to Likert scale questionnaires concerning religious attitudes. This instrument was developed using the 1963 Baptist Faith and Message statement by the author and was validated and tested for reliability by a pilot study. The responses were statistically treated using t-Test for correlated samples and Pearson's r for matched pairs. Findings and conclusions. The study found both emancipation and social learning theory at work, though neither was adequate to fully explain the interaction of family attitudes. Parents and adolescents were different in their attitudes about Southern Baptist doctrine. There were also 7 similarities in attitudes that were found in the 18 attitudes measured between the groups. The current study found that there were significant differences between parents' and adolescents' religious attitudes. This meant that mothers and fathers were significantly different from their adolescent and that emancipation theory was at work. Significant negative relationships were found in adolescent and parent attitudes regarding liberty, God, and the social order. Significant positive relationships were found in adolescent and parent attitudes about Scripture, leisure, and the church. This meant that when parents were paired with their adolescent that there were some significant similarities and that social learning theory was at work. [Source: DA]

Fulton, Aubyn S. 1990. "Religious Orientation, Anti-Homosexual Sentiment, Identity Status, and Fundamentalism: In Search of Mature Religion." Ph.D. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of Psychology, Pasadena.
Abstract: The intrinsic ($I$), extrinsic ($E$), and quest ($O$) religious orientation scales have been empirically productive, but theoretically inconsistent. Both $I$ and $O$ have been found to correlate positively, negatively, and not at all with various measures of tolerance (see Fulton, 1990). $E$ has recently been shown to be comprised of two distinct sub-scales, social ($Es$) and personal ($Ep$). In this study the theoretical and empirical deficits of $I$, $E$, and $O$ were reviewed in light of Allport's concept of mature religion. It was suggested that the theoretical consistency of research in this area would be improved by considering not just the degree of religious commitment, but its developmental quality as well. One hundred and seventy-four conservative Christian undergraduate students were assessed for religious orientation, and these were correlated with three approaches to the evaluation of religious maturity: anti-homosexual sentiment, fundamentalism, and identity status as measured by Adams' Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS). Significant correlations were found between $I$ and both fundamentalism and negative morally-based attitudes towards homosexuals. Also, there were just as many foreclosed (developmentally immature) high $I$'s as there were foreclosed low $I$s. However, $I$ was negatively correlated with social distance from homosexuals; when fundamentalism was controlled for the association between $I$ and negative attitudes toward homosexuals disappeared. $Es$ was found to correlate with measures of prejudice toward homosexuals, but was uncorrelated with fundamentalism. The correlations of $Ep$ were exactly opposite. $O$ was found to correlate with most measures of tolerance, and also correlated with moratorium ("identity crisis" status). Results were interpreted as support for the positions that: $I$ confuses both mature and immature religious commitment; $E$ is comprised of two distinct types of immature commitment, $Es$ and $Ep$; and $O$ is best understood as a developmentally intermediate orientation similar to an adolescent identity crisis. The assessment of the developmental quality of religious commitment is discussed as an important step in the proper understanding of $I$, $E$ and $O$. [Source: DA]

Gamoran, Adam. 1990. "Civil Religion in American Schools." Sociological Analysis vol. 51, pp. 235-256.
Abstract: The central role played by US public schools in producing & transmitting civil religion is examined drawing on data from classroom observations, retrospective essays by 17 undergraduates, & personal experiences as a student in suburban Chicago, Ill. Results indicate that civil religion in schools appears in daily rituals, eg, the pledge of allegiance, holiday observances, activities such as music & art, & the social studies curriculum. The beliefs, symbols, & rituals of US civil religion are specified, & it is argued that the practice of civil religion in public schools plays a dual role: while it socializes youth to a common set of views, it also sets off subgroups whose backgrounds or beliefs prevent them from participating fully in civil religion. [Source: SA]

Jackson, Ellen Pastorino. 1990. "The Influence of Gender, Family Cohesion and Family Adaptability on the Domains of Adolescent Identity." Ph.D. Thesis, The Florida State University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, family cohesion and family adaptability on identity exploration and identity commitment in six domains: occupation, religion, politics, friendships, dating, and sex roles. Specific objectives included the assessment of (1) the interaction between family functioning and gender, and their effect on identity exploration and identity commitment, (2) the domains by which males and females define themselves, and (3) the typical sequence in which the identity domains are resolved by late adolescents. Subjects were 210 male and female college students. The FACES III Inventory provided measures of perceived cohesion and adaptability of families. The Ego-Identity Interview provided measures of identity exploration and commitment for the six domains. The findings of this study indicated a complex association between family functioning, gender, and identity. Females perceived more cohesion in the family environment than males, and higher levels of family cohesion were associated with higher levels of identity commitment. An interaction between adaptability and gender on identity exploration also was found. High-exploring males perceived high levels of adaptability in the family whereas high-exploration in females was related to low and high levels of family adaptability. Gender differences by domain also were observed. Males were more likely to have explored in politics and females were more likely to have explored sex role values. Males were more committed in the political domain whereas females were more committed in the domains of religion and dating. The results also indicated little evidence of exploration by the subjects in pursuit of religious or political identity. [Source: DA]

Jahan, Qamar. 1990. "Study of Communal Prejudice as Related to Adjustment." Manas vol. 37, pp. 31-39.
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that maladjusted persons are more prejudiced than well-adjusted persons. A 2 * 2 factorial design was used in which adjustment (good adjustment or maladjustment) and religion (Hindu or Muslim) varied. 850 female undergraduates (aged 15-20 yrs) completed the Bell Adjustment Inventory and a prejudice scale. Adjusted Ss were less prejudiced than maladjusted Ss, and Muslims were more prejudiced than Hindus. Hindu Ss were significantly better adjusted than Muslims, and there was an interactional effect of adjustment and religion on the degree of communal prejudice. [Source: PI]

Jensen, Larry, Rea J. Newell, and Tom Holman. 1990. "Sexual Behavior, Church Attendance, and Permissive Beliefs among Unmarried Young Men and Women." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 29, pp. 113-117.
Abstract: Examined how religion interacted with permissiveness (P) in influencing premarital sexual behavior among 191 single male and 232 single female 17-25 yr olds. Independent variables of church attendance, sexual permissiveness (SP), age, state, and gender were used to study the dependent variables of sexual behavior. The only variable with a significant main effect was SP. However, there was a significant 2-way interaction between church attendance and P and between P and gender. The means for permissive and nonpermissive females were similar, but for males the nonpermissive Ss had dramatically lower intercourse frequency. The interaction between church attendance and P resulted because nonpermissive Ss who attended church had the lowest frequency, but permissive Ss who attended church every week had one of the highest frequencies of sexual intercourse. [Source: PI]

Persinger, M. A. and K. Makarec. 1990. "Exotic Beliefs May Be Substitutes for Religious Beliefs." Perceptual and Motor Skills vol. 71, pp. 16-18.
Abstract: Examined whether people who attended church regularly would endorse more traditional and fewer exotic beliefs, while those who did not attend church regularly would demonstrate the opposite effect. Personal philosophy inventories of 847 university students (aged 16-58 yrs), collected over 10 yrs, were analyzed. Results suggest that exotic beliefs may serve as substitutes for more traditional religious concepts. The absence of an absolute decrease in belief scores suggests that the influence of a university education did not change this core of beliefs. Early-onset religious experiences appear to promote or to enhance exotic and religious beliefs. [Source: PI]

Serow, Robert C. and Julia I. Dreyden. 1990. "Community Service among College and University Students: Individual and Institutional Relationships." Adolescence vol. 25, pp. 553-566.
Abstract: Examined whether 1,960 college students' frequency of community service is associated with sociodemographic background; institutional type (public, private with church affiliation, and private with church affiliation and strong emphasis on religion); personal value patterns; and involvement in campus activities. Two personal variables showed significant relationships to community service in each of the institutional categories: Spiritual/religious values were positively associated with service, while an emphasis on professional success showed a negative relationship. Findings offer evidence of the importance of human values in the development of prosocial behavior. [Source: PI]

Woods, Dorris Stubbs. 1990. "Risk Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abusers." Ph.D. Thesis, Claremont Graduate School.
Abstract: This study examined risk factors associated with suicidal ideation in adolescent and young adult male substance abusers with regard to the self-reported drug- use behavior and other factors. The subjects who participated in the study consisted of the study group and a comparison group. The study group included clients in treatment for substance abuse. The comparison group included students in various educational institutions in Los Angeles County. Each of the two groups had approximately equal numbers of black, white and Hispanic subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 18-29 years. It was hypothesized that: (1) the drug-abuse group would show more suicidal ideation than the non-abuse group (comparison) as measured by Beck's Hopelessness Scale; (2) suicidal ideation would have a positive association with problem-family communication and negative association with open-family communications as measured by Olson's Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PACS); (3) suicidal ideation will show a significant and negative association with achieved ego identity measure but a significant and positive association with diffused ego identity measure as measured by Adams' Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (OMEIS); (4) there is a significant and positive association between intensity of drug abuse and the degree of suicidal ideation; (5) more suicidal ideation will be found in black and white youths who abuse drugs than Hispanic youths who abuse drugs; (6) Hispanics who are Catholic will have less suicidal ideation than black or white youth who are Protestant or of other religious affiliation; (7) there is a positive association between social conflict and suicidal ideation. The data were analyzed utilizing several statistical procedures: correlation analyses, analyses of variance and factorial analyses of variance and content analysis for non-quantified data. As stated above, the variables under consideration for this study were the use and non- use of drugs, ethnicity, religion, family structure, social conflict, and ego identity status. [Source: DA]

Benzel, Laura Ann. 1989. "Drug Use and Attitudes toward Drug Use among College Church Youth Group Members." M.A. Thesis, The University of Arizona.
Abstract: A study of data from 85 undergraduate and graduate students involved in church youth groups revealed a significant relationship between degree of religious belief and drug using behavior and attitudes. Highly religious subjects disapproved of drinking alcoholic beverages and used cigarettes and alcohol less than subjects professing lower religiosity. Protestant subjects had more negative attitudes and less personal use of tobacco and alcohol than Catholics. Similar findings pertaining to drug using behavior and attitudes were reported between groups for all other substances. [Source: DA]

Bolger, Niall, Geraldine Downey, Elaine Walker, and Pam Steininger. 1989. "The Onset of Suicidal Ideation in Childhood and Adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 18, pp. 175-190.
Abstract: Suicidal behavior among adolescents in the US has increased threefold since 1950, becoming the third leading cause of death in this population. Here, the relationship between suicidal ideation & suicidal behavior is explored, based on the questionnaire responses of 364 undergraduates. A developmental approach to suicidal ideation leads to the prediction that the impact of the demographic variables & life experiences on suicidal thoughts will vary by developmental stage. Findings reveal that thoughts of suicide had occurred to the majority of respondents at some point in their lives. At all ages, females were at higher risk for considering suicide than males, & whites than nonwhites; non-Catholics, however, were no more likely than Catholics to consider suicide. It is concluded that the results demonstrate the importance of examining patterns of suicidal ideation in nonclinical samples in order to provide a basis for targeting primary prevention efforts. [Source: SA]

Fadoir, Steven Joseph. 1989. "Adolescent Development and Substance Abuse." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cincinnati.
Abstract: National studies have shown that drug use has declined or leveled off, while alcohol use has remained stable at high rates. However, the level of substance use and abuse is still truly alarming, whether by historical standards or in comparison with other countries. The study of chemical use by adolescents and young adults is important because of possible deliterious impact on their physiological, psychological and social development. Some form of chemical use by adolescents is considered to be normative today and sometimes seen as a "rite of passage." Adolescent substance use has been linked with lower self-esteem; less psychological well-being; lower academic achievement; career indecision; less conventional beliefs; less religiosity; and more negative perception of parental environment. Each variable has been investigated in past research and has been associated with substance use. However, recent research has raised questions concerning the strength and direction of these associations. Major problems have existed in past research in the definitions of non-use, use, and abuse. Therefore, in this study subjects were classified in relation to their level, pattern and type of substance involvement, and chemical related negative events. Method. Subjects: 275 undergraduate subjects and 50 treatment subjects completed the survey questionnaire consisting of: the Mental Health Inventory (MHI); the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; the Family Environment Scale; the Radicalism-Conservatism Scale; the Religious Orientation and Involvement Scale; the Career Indecision Scale; an Alcohol and Drug Use Inventory; an Alcohol and Drug Experience Inventory; and sociodemographic information. Results. The results found that experimental and moderate use of alcohol and marijuana is normative within a college sample. The different levels and patterns of substance use within the profile groups did not significantly differ in their self-esteem, psychological functioning, and overall perceptions of family environment. Heavier substance using subjects were less religious, less traditional and more radical in their political beliefs, less disapproving of chemical use, and perceived their parents as using more alcohol, and being less disapproving of chemical use. The treatment sample used significantly higher levels of all chemicals, and had higher negative events, more psychological dysfunction, lower self-esteem, higher career indecision, and perceived their parents as using higher levels of chemicals, and as being less disapproving of chemical use. [Source: DA]

Hamilton, Scott B., Rebekah S. Lynch, Judith L. Naginey, Kimberley A. Peters, and Kevin R. Piske. 1989. "Relationships between the Life Values of U.S. College Students and Their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War." Journal of Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 55-68.
Abstract: Relationships between four separate value dimensions & the nuclear-war-related feelings, behaviors, & opinions of a group of Colorado State U students (N = 399) were investigated, & their value/nuclear war correlates of satisfaction with life analyzed, based on their responses to a fall 1986 survey that included a values questionnaire, a scale measuring general life satisfaction, & several nuclear war measures (nuclear distress, salience, weapons opposition, personal efficacy, information approach). The value dimensions were: conventionally defined success (CDS); religious faith & devotion (RFD); activist pursuit of social causes (APSC); & materialistic orientation (MO). Although the respondents endorsed MO & CDS value statements, RFD was the only dimension positively associated with life satisfaction. APSC yielded the most consistent pattern of positive relationships with the five nuclear war measures. Findings reflect the prevalence of self-centered values among US college students, & raise the question of whether they are sufficiently informed & motivated to participate in the democratic process, especially regarding nuclear issues. The possible role of educators, parents, & other influential adults in this regard is discussed. [Source: SA]

Margolis, Gary. 1989. "Beyond Me: Fostering Images and Actions Beyond the Self." Journal of College Student Psychotherapy vol. 4, pp. 45-53.
Abstract: Challenges the view that college students are too self- and career-focused, to the exclusion of social, political, and spiritual concerns. The developmental sequence of young adults (separation, depression, intimacy, and psychological and vocational individuation) is explored to understand the necessity for adolescent self-absorption. Ways in which students go beyond their personal selves in dreams, art, prayer, and feeling are discussed, and ways in which institutions can recognize and support these activities are reviewed. Changes in the development of the self in each year of college are outlined. [Source: PI]

Murstein, Bernard I., Michelle J. Chalpin, Kenneth V. Heard, and Stuart A. Vyse. 1989. "Sexual Behavior, Drugs, and Relationship Patterns on a College Campus over Thirteen Years." Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 125-139.
Abstract: 737 college students at a small liberal arts college received questionnaires regarding their sexual philosophies, behavior, relationship with most recent partner, self-perceived attractiveness, relationship with parents, use of drugs and alcohol, attitudes toward marriage and abortion, and other subjects in 1974, 1979, and 1986. Results show that sexual behavior increased dramatically from 1974 to 1979 and then decreased in 1986 to approximately where it was in 1974. It is suggested that data reflect an increase in individualism and a weakening of the influence of religion and parental relationship on sexual behavior. However, newly prominent diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), have pushed college youth toward more committed sexual relationships, although not to abstention. [Source: PI]

Serow, Robert C. 1989. "Community Service, Religious Commitment, and Campus Climate." Youth and Society vol. 21, pp. 105-119.
Abstract: Current debates over a national service policy have focused attention on voluntary action by US youth. Analysis of questionnaire data collected from 2,100 college students in a southeastern state reveals that participation in community service is related to individual religious commitment & to the moral climate of the campus. The finding that campus climate is most important among students with relatively weak religious commitments suggests that institutions can take steps to encourage pro bono efforts by young people. [Source: SA]

Zern, David S. 1989. "Some Connections between Increasing Religiousness and Academic Accomplishment in a College Population." Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 141-154.
Abstract: A sample of 251 college students were asked via a 6-item questionnaire to describe their own degree of religiousness & that of the home atmosphere in which they grew up. Ss gave self-report measures of their total religiousness, belief in God, & ritual observance. When these measures were related separately to their cumulative grade point averages (GPAs), no relationship was found for either present or past degree of religiousness. However, on each of the three measures of religiousness, about 75% of the approximately 10% of the sample who reported being more religious currently than in the atmosphere in which they grew up had GPAs above the sample mean, while fewer than 50% of the rest of the sample did. [Source: SA]

Ryan, Ione J. and Patricia C. Dunn. 1988. "Association of Race, Sex, Religion, Family Size, and Desired Number of Children on College Students' Preferred Methods of Dealing with Unplanned Pregnancy." Family Practice Research Journal vol. 7, pp. 153-161.
Abstract: Surveyed 238 Black and 466 White college students (43% male, 57% female) to assess their order of preference of 5 methods for dealing with an out-of-wedlock, unplanned pregnancy: (a) marriage, (b) abortion, (c) adoption, (d) raising the child as a single parent, and (e) having grandparents raise the child. Results indicate that the majority of Ss would prefer to marry, if possible. Abortion was their second preference. Of the remaining options, raising a child as a single parent was preferable to allowing a third party to raise the child, either through adoption or extended family. Race, sex, religiosity, religious preference, number of siblings, and number of desired children were significantly associated with Ss' preferences. [Source: PI]

De Witt, Craig Alan. 1987. "Ego Identity Status, Religious Orientation and Moral Development of Students from Christian Colleges." Psy.D. Thesis, Biola University Rosemead School of Psychology.
Abstract: From both a social and developmental perspective, the stages of adolescent development have received a great deal of focus. James Marcia (1964) operationalized Erik Erikson's (1963, 1968) stage of identity development by introducing four identity states. As a result of Marcia's work, additional research has been conducted that in essence looks at other developmental issues, such as religion and morality, and how they appear to be related to the larger and more comprehensive developmental systems. In this study, ego identity statuses for religion, as assessed by the Dallas Identity Scale (1981), were compared to levels of religiousity, as assessed by Fleck's (1977) Attitudes About Religion Scale, and levels of moral development, as assessed by Rest's Defining Issues Test (1974). The goal was to clarify and extend the literature relative to ego identity development, especially as it relates to religious orientation and moral reasoning. It was hypothesized that there would be significant differences found between the various identity statuses for religion when compared to the subjects' maturation and development in terms of religious orientation and moral reasoning. Furthermore, it was expected that there would be a high correlation among the variables moral reasoning and religious orientation and their predictability of a specific identity status for religion. A survey completed by 210 Christian college students assessed the following variables: identity status (Achieved, Moratorium, or Foreclosed), religious orientation (Committed, Consensual, Extrinsic), and level of moral reasoning. Comparison of the three identity statuses for religion indicated significantly different means for the intrinsic-committed and extrinsic scales (p $<$.05). Further comparisons show that the three identity statuses had significantly different mean scores on moral reasoning (p $<$.05). Finally, when focus was placed on the subjects' endorsement of extrinsic items and the level of moral reasoning, it was possible to predict 7.3% of the variance of identity status. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for identity status and the type of thought processes that are the result of maturation and development. [Source: DA]

Fehring, Richard J., Patricia Flatley Brennan, and Mary L. Keller. 1987. "Psychological and Spiritual Well-Being in College Students." Research in Nursing and Health vol. 10, pp. 391-398.
Abstract: Two separate correlational studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between spirituality and psychological mood states in response to life change. In the first study a spiritual well-being index, a spiritual-maturity scale, a life-change index, and a depression scale were administered to 95 freshman nursing students. The spiritual well-being index was composed of two sub-scales; a religious well-being and an existential well-being scale. In the second study a spiritual-outlook scale and the Profile of Mood State index was added to the above tests and administered to 75 randomly selected college students. The results demonstrated a weak positive relationship between life change and depression. Unlike a previous study, spiritual well-being, existential well-being, and spiritual outlook showed strong inverse relationships with negative moods suggesting that spiritual variables may influence psychological well-being. [Source: PI]

Futterman, Jack Robert. 1987. "Identity Status, Sex Role, and Gender Identity in Late Adolescent Males and Females." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Michigan.
Abstract: The relationships between identity status, sex role, and gender identity were investigated in 59 male and 59 female undergraduates. Identity status was assessed by a version of the Identity Status Interview (Marcia, 1966; Grotevant and Cooper, 1981) containing intrapersonal content areas of occupation, religion, and politics, and interpersonal content areas of friendship, dating, sex roles, and sexual values. Sex role was assessed by the original and short versions of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974; 1979) and by the short version of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence and Helmreich, 1978). Gender identity was assessed by the Franck Drawing Completion Test (Franck and Rosen, 1949) and by the May Measure of Gender Identity (May, 1966). The investigation of the relationship between identity status in intrapersonal areas and instrumental traits (Masculinity) such as independence and competitiveness indicated that instrumental traits were associated with high identity status in the area of occupation for both sexes and in the area of religion for females. Instrumental traits were also associated with high identity status in the areas of dating and sex roles for females. The investigation of the relationship between identity status in interpersonal areas and expressive traits (Femininity) such as kindness and sensitivity indicated that expressive traits were associated with high identity status in the areas of dating, and sex roles for males. With regard to sex role orientation, Androgyny, or the possession of a high level of both instrumental and expressive characteristics, was found to be associated with high identity status more frequently than either a Feminine or Undifferentiated sex role. Sex-typed individuals demonstrated significantly higher rates of Foreclosure than individuals of other sex role orientations. Undifferentiated individuals also demonstrated higher rates of Diffusion than Androgynous or Masculine individuals. Gender identity was related only weakly to identity status; Feminine males, as classified by the Franck Drawing Completion Test, demonstrated a tendency towards a higher rate of Diffusion than Masculine males. While there were several replications of previous research findings, the main finding of this study is the high degree to which instrumentality was associated with high identity status for females. [Source: DA]

Hoge, Dean R., Jann L. Hoge, and Janet Wittenberg. 1987. "The Return of the Fifties: Trends in College Students' Values between 1952 and 1984." Sociological Forum vol. 2, pp. 500-519.
Abstract: An analysis of value trends during the 1950s-1980s using questionnaire data obtained in (1) a 1952 survey of M students (N not provided) at 11 US Colls & Us, & (2) replication studies conducted in 1968/69, 1974, 1979, & 1984 at Dartmouth Coll, NH (N = 360, 366, 316, & 334, respectively), & the U of Michigan (N = 400, 348, 331, & 364, respectively). In most value domains the trends are U-shaped, reversing from the 1950s direction in the 1960s & 1970s; by 1984, attitudes were similar to those of the 1950s or moving in that direction. Domains examined include: traditional religion; career choice; faith in government & the military; advocacy of social constraints on deviant social groups; attitudes about free enterprise, government, & economics; sexual morality; marijuana use; & personal obligations. Two attitude areas do not show a return to 1950s values: (1) other-direction was high in 1952, then dropped in the 1960s & did not rise; & (2) the level of politicization rose greatly from 1952 to the 1960s, then dropped again only slightly. [Source: SA]

Perkins, H. Wesley. 1987. "Parental Religion and Alcohol Use Problems as Intergenerational Predictors of Problem Drinking among College Youth." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 26, pp. 340-357.
Abstract: Surveyed 860 16-23 yr old college students to explore intergenerational linkages between religiosity and problem drinking. Results indicate that Ss were at greater risk for problem drinking if they were (1) from Gentile religious traditions as compared with Jews, (2) not strongly attached to a particular faith, or (3) the child of an alcohol abuser. In addition to presenting "at risk" categories for Ss, the intergenerational transmission of alcohol problems that can occur specifically through the influence of parental religion was analyzed. Parental religion was related to these "at risk" categories, suggesting that characteristics of parent's faith may have multiple paths of impact on the S's drinking experience. [Source: PI]

Phillips, William Louis. 1987. "An Examination of Hypermasculinity and Contraceptive Use and Attitudes in Adolescent Males." Ed.D. Thesis, Peabody College For Teachers of Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
Abstract: A study done by Exner (1985) found that college male reported contraceptive behavior could be predicted by contraceptive attitudes and masculinity beliefs, but that contraceptive behavior could not be predicted by a measure of sex guilt. This study replicated Exner's findings using adolescent male subjects. Importance of religion and a comprehensive measure of self-concept were additional independent variables. The participants were selected from two adolescent groups: catholic high school students and residents at a child psychiatric facility. Catholic and psychiatric group scores were similar except on self-concept scales and sexual history. Consistent with predictions, the findings indicated that less effective contraception was related to negative self-concepts (viz., Moral Ethical Self), greater hypermasculinity, and negative attitudes toward contraception. Sex guilt, also as expected, was not significantly associated with male contraceptive behavior. Contrary to the expectation that religion would not be a significant independent variable, the self-report of importance of religion was related to one measure of contraceptive behavior. Ineffective contraceptors in this study have a self-concept profile that prior research had shown to be characteristic of a delinquent antisocial personality. Implications for sex education were derived from the delinquency research. Reference. Exner, T. (1985). Hypermasculinity and male contraceptive attitudes and behavior. [Source: DA]

Studer, Marlena and Arland Thornton. 1987. "Adolescent Religiosity and Contraceptive Usage." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 49, pp. 117-128.
Abstract: Studied sexual attitudes and experience and contraceptive usage of 224 White 18-yr-olds who were born in the Detroit, Michigan, area in 1961. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data. Findings show that identification with a religious group appears to provide the adolescent with role models and a sanctioning system that operate to discourage sexual activity and consequently do not offer help with contraception for adolescents who become sexually active. Religious teenagers' lower likelihood of using medical methods of contraception when sexually active might thus be partially attributed to a lack of open dialog, information, and support for birth control usage from parents, peers, and others with whom they strongly identify. [Source: PI]

Earle, John R. and Philip J. Perricone. 1986. "Premarital Sexuality: A Ten-Year Study of Attitudes and Behavior on a Small University Campus." Journal of Sex Research vol. 22, pp. 304-310.
Abstract: An analysis of changes in sexual attitudes & behaviors among undergraduates at a small, private, church-related southern U between 1970 & 1981, based on questionnaire responses from 3 samples (N = 243 in 1970, 182 in 1975, & 368 in 1981). Results indicate significant increases in rates of premarital intercourse & in the average number of partners, & significant decreases in the average age at first experience, for both Ms & Fs. Attitudes toward sexual activity are more strongly related to sexual behaviors for Fs than for Ms; however, Fs are more conservative than Ms in their attitudes toward the kinds of relationships in which premarital coitus is personally acceptable. Influences of religiosity, SE background, fraternity/sorority membership, age at onset of dating, & societal attitudes are examined. [Source: SA]

Eve, Raymond A. and Francis B. Harrold. 1986. "Creationism, Cult Archaeology, and Other Pseudoscientific Beliefs: A Study of College Students." Youth and Society vol. 17, pp. 396-421.
Abstract: An empirical inquiry into the prevalence & etiology of pseudoscientific beliefs (including certain tenets of biblical literalism & sensationalistic archaeological claims about ancient astronauts, lost tribes, sunken continents, monsters, etc). Data were collected from approximately 400 undergraduates at a large public U using closed-ended modified Likert-scale items. Belief levels were found to be strikingly high for a wide variety of pseudoscientific beliefs (20%-60% belief in each phenomenon). A factor-analytic statistical procedure indicated that the domains of items relating to Christian fundamentalism & those relating to "cult" science were highly internally homogeneous but largely uncorrelated between these two domains. Fundamentalist Christian beliefs were correlated, not surprisingly, with conservative outlooks in religion & politics, but also with lower grades, less outside reading, more authoritarian & dogmatic personalities, & support for the so-called Moral Majority. The etiology of the cult science items was much less clear. Older students were less likely to hold such beliefs, & they were weakly related to an internal locus of control. It is concluded that pseudoscientific beliefs have several different likely origins. Suggestions are offered for future research & for science education. [Source: SA]

Hauerwas, Stanley. 1986. "How Christian Universities Contribute to the Corruption of Youth: Church and University in a Confused Age." Katallagete pp. 21-28.

Prager, Karen J. 1986. "Identity Development, Age, and College Experience in Women." Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 147, pp. 31-36.
Abstract: The identity status - achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, or diffusion - of 86 undergraduate Coll Fs aged 18-23 was assessed via interviews covering occupation, political & religious ideology, & sexual values. Overall identity status showed a significant association with the women's ages & Coll experience. Achievement women were older & had been in Coll longer than women in the other statuses. Occupational & political identity status were each significantly associated with Coll experience. No association was found for religious or sexual identity status. The results support Erik Erikson's notion (Identity: Youth and Crisis, New York: Norton, 1968) that identity achievement is the most mature outcome of the identity crisis & extended his theory to women. [Source: SA]

Wolfson, Orna. 1986. "Adolescent Separation from Home: An Ethnic Perspective." Ph.D. Thesis, Boston University.
Abstract: This study examined ethnic aspects of the separation process for adolescents leaving home. It was assumed that separation is a critical task of adolescence. The principal hypothesis was that adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds would experience separation differently. The differences were expected to follow the relative dominance of centripetal and centrifugal forces, operating to pull family members together or push them away. This hypothesis was derived from Stierlin's transactional theory (1981), depicting the interplay between adolescents and parents in the process of separation. I attempted to relate this theory to studies of ethnic differences pertaining to attitudes toward adolescence and preferred modes of family functioning in times of stress. The subjects were 163 college students from Italian-Catholic, Irish-Catholic, and WASP backgrounds. Five measurements were used for various aspects of culture and separation: (a) a background information questionnaire; (b) the Thematic Apperception Test scored for separation themes; (c) the Fundamental Interpersonal Relation Orientation scales; (d) Moos's Family Environment Scale; (e) a questionnaire measuring the experience of going to college. Differences between the ethnic groups in the experience of separation were noted, partially supporting the major hypothesis. Italian-Catholics demonstrated dominance of centripetal forces, operating to discourage separation and resulting in a difficult experience of separation. Italian-Catholics produced more TAT stories with separation anxiety themes, tended to stay at their parents' homes while at college, and if they did leave home they expected to feel homesick at college, and started college feeling mostly sad. WASPs showed dominant centrifugal forces, making separation an encouraged and relatively easy process. WASPs produced fewer TAT stories with separation anxiety themes, tended to leave home when they attended college, preferred to go to a college far from home, and started college feeling mostly excited. Following Stierlin's description, the Italian-Catholic families were seen as binding, while WASP families were protrayed as expelling. Regarding Irish-Catholics, no systematic pattern was found consistent with Stierlin's theory. The applicability of Stierlin's theory to families with complex separation processes, like the Irish-Catholic families, was questioned, and the need for further research in this direction was noted. [Source: DA]

Herring, Lynda L. 1985. "The Effect of Family Adaptability and Cohesion on Psychosexual Development." Ph.D. Thesis, Kansas State University.
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of college students' perceptions of their family cohesiveness and adaptability on the development of their sexual attitudes and values. Additionally, demographic factors were observed for differences. Previous research dealing with adolescent sexuality has focused on the sexual behavior of the adolescent, rather than the attitudes which precede behavior. This study attempted to supply to some degree, a first step toward building an integrated, multi-dimensional relationship theory of systemic family dynamics as it relates to the psychosexual development of young people. Responses were elicited from 820 college students at Central Missouri State University, Warrensburg, Missouri. The questionnaire was a combination of two recognized instruments, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scales (FACES II) and the Sexual Attitude and Value Inventory in addition to demographic information. Major conclusions drawn from this study showed that demographic influences had a difference upon the way college students perceived their psychosexual development. Females scored higher on the way they viewed the importance of birth control, in their opposition to the use of pressure and force in sexual activity, and in recognition of the importance of the family. Males scored higher on their attitude toward sexuality in life. Individuals who had had intercourse appeared to have a greater understanding of their personal sexual response and had a more positive attitude toward sexuality in life in addition to having higher esteem. Other demographics showing significance involved the degree of importance of religion and size of the home community. Overall, family adaptability and cohesion had some direct positive impact on all measured aspects of sexual attitudes and values and the majority of the activity was directional. That is, the closer and less structured a family became, the more positive the perceptions of sexual values and attitudes. Family cohesion appeared to be a larger factor in positive sexual attitudes and values than family adaptability. The implications of this study could have substantial effect upon the quality of life through Family Life Educators, researchers, clinicians, and others interested in a systemic perspective of family functioning and/or sexuality. [Source: DA]

Hunsberger, B. 1985. "Parent-University Student Agreement on Religious and Nonreligious Issues." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 24, pp. 314-320.

Killeen, Katherine Winston. 1985. "Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Contraceptive Use." Ph.D. Thesis, Washington University.
Abstract: Failure to use contraceptives is a critical problem among American youth because sexual activity is common, and illegitimacy and abortion rates are high among young women. This study investigates gender differences in attitudes toward contraceptive use within the framework of the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a nonprobability, purposive sample of 339 never-married, sexually active college students (158 males and 181 females) between the ages of 17 and 22 years. No statistically significant or meaningful differences between male and female respondents were found in regards to demographic and sexual background characteristics. Regression analyses revealed that the Fishbein/Ajzen model was not of comparable explanatory magnitude for males and females. Overall, the model accounted for 19% of the variance in contraceptive use intentions for males and 26% for females. Males and females were found to differ as well in the weighting of the model's components (the normative component was more heavily weighted for females whereas the attitudinal component was more heavily weighted for males) and also in regards to the specific elements making up the model's components. Six other variables believed to be related to contraceptive use were also examined. Regression analyses revealed that for males frequency of intercourse, level of intimacy, and the experience of one's partner becoming pregnant were independent and significant predictors of contraceptive use intention. For females, affiliation with a religious group rather than no religious affiliation was an independent and significant predictor of contraceptive use intention. When independent and significant predictors of contraceptive use were included in an expanded model, it was able to account for 29% of the variance among males and 32% of the variance among females. [Source: DA]

McNeel, Steven P. and Philip L. Thorsen. 1985. "A Developmental Perspective on Christian Faith and Dogmatism." The High School Journal vol. 68, pp. 211-220.
Abstract: Identified mutual implications in the areas of dogmatism, the nature of mature biblical faith, and a focus on human growth and development during the late adolescent and adult years. 65 freshman and sophomore undergraduates were administered scales measuring dogmatism, doctrinal orthodoxy, and styles of religiosity (external, internal, interactional). 41 Ss had previously been administered the Defining Issues Test; most Ss completed a 119-item questionnaire to measure attitudes toward, beliefs about, and behavior relevant to the Christian life, the Bible, authority, decision making and seeking God's will, difficult doctrinal questions, the Christian, and the community. Results show that dogmatism scores were somewhat high; Ss more orthodox doctrinally tended to show more dogmatism. Ss who viewed their Christian commitment as a quest (interactional) tended to be more dogmatic. Dogmatism was significantly related to Ss' reliance on external authority but not to their reliance on internal feelings or their tendency to think in noncritical, global terms. [Source: PI]

Paik, Mary. 1985. "The Church and Young Adults." Pp. 79-86 in Always Being Reformed, edited by John Purdy. Philadelphia: Geneva Press.

Perkins, H. Wesley. 1985. "Religious Traditions, Parents, and Peers as Determinants of Alcohol and Drug Use among College Students." Review of Religious Research vol. 27, pp. 15-31.
Abstract: Relationships between religiosity and drinking or drug use among college students are examined in the context of family backgrounds and peer relations using data from a survey of an entire undergraduate college population (N=1514). With a large minority of Jewish students represented, a uniquely detailed exploration of distinctive Jewish patterns was possible. Initial findings on alcohol use conform to patterns found among previous generations of students: least drinking and negative consequences appeared among Jews with the most drinking and consequences among Catholics. Jewish students also report the fewest family problems with alcohol and the lowest consumption levels in social drinking by parents. Jewish restraint is substance specific, however; when other drug use was examined, no differences were found among religious groups. For both alcohol consumption and other drug use, friendship environments are the primary influences; parental attitudes play little part. A relatively strong faith commitment to a Judeo-Christian tradition remains as a significant moderating influence on alcohol and other drug use. [Source: RI]

Valez, William. 1985. "Finishing College: The Effects of College Type." Sociology of Education vol. 58, pp. 191-200.
Abstract: Used multivariate analysis to determine the odds that high school seniors would earn a bachelor's degree. Data on 3,169 students (84% White) were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (National Center for Education Statistics, 1980). Ss who started in 2-yr colleges were less likely to finish than Ss who started in 4-yr colleges. However, other variables such as religious background (i.e., being Jewish); educational aspirations; academic performance in college; participation in a work-study program; and living on campus exerted substantial positive effects on finishing. Non-White Ss with low educational aspirations were more likely to finish college than similar White Ss, but White Ss with high aspirations were more likely to finish than comparable non-White Ss. [Source: PI]

Woodroof, J. Timothy. 1985. "Premarital Sexual Behavior and Religious Adolescents." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 24, pp. 346-366.
Abstract: Freshmen attending 8 colleges affiliated with the churches of Christ responded to questions about their religious behaviors, religious motivations, and premarital sexual behaviors. It is argued that a religious sample may be able to give us information about the relationship between religiosity and sexuality that more general samples could not. The religious and sexual characteristics of this conservative Christian sample are described, and are found to differ markedly from most samples studied in this area. In addition, a number of relationships are tested and discussed. The well-substantiated relationship between religious and sexual behavior is replicated, with some interesting points raised by the fact that this sample is more religiously active than any others reported to date. The relationship between religious orientation and premarital sexual activity is documented for the first time, and is found to be as strong a correlate as is religious behavior. Religious orientation and behavior are so highly related in this sample as to prove no more predictive of sexual activity when considered together than they do when taken separately. [Source: RI]

Levine, Saul V. 1984. "Alienated Jewish Youth and Religious Seminaries: An Alternative to Cults?" Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 183-199.
Abstract: Examines the backgrounds, personalities, and experiences of 110 male (aged 18-29 yrs) North American and other Western Jewish youth who left their families, lifestyles, and their "charted courses" to enter orthodox religious seminaries in Israel, called Yeshivot. The majority of the Ss were from conservative, reform, or progressive Jewish homes or from secular-humanistic backgrounds. Some of the Ss reported that their parents felt that they had "strayed," were acting self-destructively, and were "losing" valuable time during which they could be pursuing higher education, careers, or other middle-class activities. Other Ss reported that their parents felt that they had done no better than joining cults, although cults were pictured as being somewhat more alien. It is suggested that these Ss gravitated to Israel because it was inculcated, even subtly, into their consciousness, sometimes in spite of the efforts of their parents. It is also suggested that much more could be learned about religious cults and their members by using a more "palatable" or acceptable option or model. [Source: PI]

Seyfarth, Leonard H., Knud S. Larsen, Kris Lamont, Chris Haasch, Tom Hale, and Dierk Haskin. 1984. "Attitude toward Evangelism: Scale Development and Validity." Journal of Social Psychology vol. 123, pp. 55-61.
Abstract: In the item-selection phase of a 2-part study, 130 18-37 yr old undergraduates participated in the development of a Likert-type scale measuring attitude toward evangelism. In the reliability and validity phase, 124 18-39 yr old undergraduates participated. The final scale, consisting of 21 internally consistent items, had high internal reliability and related highly to fanaticism. Factor analyses were performed on the evangelism scale and S. Putney and R. Middleton's (see PA, Vol 36:3GD85P) 6-item fanaticism scale. The evangelism scale consisted of 2 major independent theoretical components: "respect for the courage to stand up for one's beliefs," and "interpersonal approach." A high evangelism score was associated with relative youth, being of any religion (rather than none), being non-Catholic, being Protestant, being of a high-outreach Protestant denomination, and being active in religion. It did not discriminate on sex, class standing, or academic major. Attitude toward evangelism appeared to be a multidimensional concept, related to, but distinct from, fanaticism, and having specified relationships with other variables. It is suggested that positive attitude toward evangelism may be related to heightened adolescent role confusion. [Source: PI]

Tobacyk, Jerome, Mark J. Miller, and Glenda Jones. 1984. "Paranormal Beliefs of High School Students." Psychological Reports vol. 55, pp. 255-261.
Abstract: 193 11th graders were administered the Paranormal Belief Scale, which provides a total Paranormal Belief score and scores on 7 paranormal subscales (Traditional Religious Belief, Psi Belief, Witchcraft, Spiritualism, Superstition, Extraordinary Life Forms, and Precognition). Ss' paranormal scale/subscale scores were compared to those of 424 college students. Results indicate that, in general, high school Ss were greater disbelievers in paranormal phenomena than college Ss. High school Ss showed significantly less belief than college Ss on the total Paranormal Scale and on the subscales Psi Belief, Extraordinary Life Forms, and Witchcraft. The number of science courses taken by high school Ss correlated significantly and inversely with total Paranormal Scale scores, Traditional Religious Belief scores, and Psi Belief scores, and their Traditional Religious Belief scores were significantly and directly associated with GPA. High school Ss in the most accelerated academic track showed significantly less belief on superstition than Ss in other tracks. [Source: PI]

Villeneuve, Claude Michel. 1984. "Religious Value Transmission among Seventh-Day Adventist White American Families: A Cognitive Approach to Parental Values and Relationship as Perceived by Youth." Ed.D. Thesis, Andrews University.
Abstract: Three research questions were examined: (1) What role does cognitive-attribution play in religious value transmission? (2) Is there a generation gap in the religious values of Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) families? (3) What is the influence of parental support on value transmission? The Religious Value Transmission Study (RVTS) questionnaire was developed. The internal reliabilities of the fundamental belief, attitude, and behavior scales was, for each scale, above .80. A factor analysis with a rotation of factors confirmed the construct validity of the scales. A nation-wide random selection of SDA college freshmen and sophomores, and their parents returned 1089 questionnaires representing an answer rate of 61 percent for the students and 65 percent for the parents. Thus, 228 daughter-parents and 135 son-parents triads were gathered and analyzed using correlational and group mean comparisons. The ninety null hypotheses and subhypotheses were tested at .05 level and the statistical power set at .90. It was found that: (1) The misattribution of belief and attitude confirms the role of cognitive-attribution in value transmission. However the study shows no misattribution of parents' behavior. Therefore the cognitive-attribution theory seems to apply only to cognitively oriented aspects of the transmission. (2) The generation gap between parents and children as a group or cohort, although statistically significant, seems to be less central to the problem of transmission than the gap existing between children's beliefs or attitudes and their behavior. Therefore, the practical conclusion is to focus on the integration of these dimensions in order for individuals to achieve consistency. (3) The role of family interaction in transmission needs further study using a more sophisticated paradigm with multiple dimensions. [Source: DA]

Woodroof, James Timothy. 1984. "Religiosity and Reference Groups: Towards a Model of Adolescent Sexuality." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
Abstract: 471 Freshmen attending colleges affiliated with a conservative religious denomination completed a questionnaire relating to their premarital sexual behavior. The questionnaire was designed on the basis of a proposed model of adolescent sexuality, and drew heavily from questionnaires published in the literature. Not only were questions on sexual behavior asked, but information on the adolescents' religious behaviors and orientation, and the sexual and religious behaviors of parents and friends was also requested. The results indicated that: (1) This sample was more religious and less sexually active than any other college sample reported in recent literature; (2) Many variables correlated with premarital sexual behavior in the literature were replicated in the present research, although (because these variables were viewed not singly but as part of matrix) the comparative importance of certain variables had to be reassessed. What resulted was a greater respect for the influence of peer variables, a growing understanding of the impact of religious variables, and another confirmation of the weakness of parental variables in regard to the sexual behavior of adolescents; (3) New relationships were explored and established in this study. Religious orientation and peer religious behavior were correlated with adolescents' sexual behaviors, both of which constitute new and theoretically important findings. Finally, the model which was proposed constitutes the most important contribution of the study, not only summarizing many of the variables found to be most strongly related to premarital sexual behavior by the literature, but embedding them within a matrix that allows their comparative importance to be assessed. The greatest weakness in this field of inquiry (as identified by many of its most prominent researchers) is the lack of a theoretical basis that provides the student not simply with data but with understanding. This research was as much an attempt to organize as it was to collect data, to the end that a more comprehensive picture of this important social issue might emerge. [Source: DA]

Hughes, Stella P. and Richard A. Dodder. 1983. "Alcohol-Related Problems and Collegiate Drinking Patterns." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 12, pp. 65-76.
Abstract: Examined 462 university students for 6 types of collegiate problem drinking: (1) the total problem scale, (2) acting-out types of problems, (3) physical problems, (4) social problems, (5) loss of memory as a result of drinking, and (6) drinking while driving or driving after having several drinks. A conceptualized relationship among the variables of student religious commitment, parental attitude toward drinking, neutralization of drinking behavior, drinking before college, anticipated ethos of college life, social orientation in college, and quantity/frequency of alcohol consumption was used. Self-administered questionnaires were collected and analyzed by path analysis, which explained up to 47% of the variation in certain types of problem drinking. The strongest single predictor of problem drinking was quantity and frequency of consumption, but precollege drinking was also important. [Source: PI]

Davids, Leo. 1982. "Ethnic Identity, Religiosity, and Youthful Deviance: The Toronto Computer Dating Project--1979." Adolescence vol. 17, pp. 673-684.
Abstract: Analyzed data on 298 Jewish (J) college students in the Toronto Computer Dating Project. Findings indicate that J identity is quite independent of J religiosity: 5 of 6 Ss reported a high sense of J identity but less than 1 out of 10 reported themselves to be highly religious. J schooling was not concentrated among Ss of higher religiosity. Chemical/drug abuse was found to be an extremely minimal problem. Sexual liberalism (SL) was fairly evenly distributed among Ss, but males scored higher on SL than females. When SL was considered in conjunction with J schooling and religiosity, it was found that more J schooling had a slight association with more traditional moral attitudes (i.e., lower SL scores), and that a higher religiosity was associated with lower SL scores. These findings suggest that Ss who were more involved in religious practice and to whom religion was a greater force in their thinking had a tendency toward the moral side of the SL continuum, while those who were not involved in religion were more likely to have the nontraditional attitude that favors premarital sex. These findings confirm those of other researchers (e.g., K. L. Cannon and R. Long, 1971). Implications for youth policy and program planning are discussed. [Source: PI]

Ullman, Chana. 1982. "Cognitive and Emotional Antecedents of Religious Conversion." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol. 43, pp. 183-192.
Abstract: Evaluated the contribution of several cognitive factors (tolerance of ambiguity, impermeability of present belief system, and cognitive quest) and emotional factors (perception of childhood relationship with parents, and childhood and adolescence stress and trauma) in precipitating religious conversion. Ss were 40 religious converts (aged 20-40 yrs) from 4 religious groups (Jewish, Catholic, Bahai, and Hare Krishna) and 30 age-matched religiously affiliated nonconverts (Jewish and Catholic). Converts' present belief systems were judged as more impermeable; but contrary to the cognitive hypotheses, the groups did not differ on several measures of tolerance of ambiguity and in degree of cognitive quest during adolescence. Emotional factors were more closely associated with religious conversion. Converts' perceptions of their parents were markedly more negative, and incidence of father absence was higher in the convert sample. Converts reported more traumatic events during childhood and described their childhood and adolescence as unhappy. In the interview with converts, personal stress was also reported more often than cognitive quest as characterizing the 2-yr period preceding conversion and as involved in the immediate consequences of conversion. [Source: PI]

Hershell, Marie and Ben Hershell. 1981. "Our Involvement with a Cult." Marriage and Family Review vol. 4, pp. 131-140.
Abstract: The parents of a 19-yr-old female undergraduate discuss their daughter's involvement with the Unification Church and her subsequent de-programming and rehabilitation. [Source: PI]

Hoge, Dean R., Cynthia L. Luna, and David K. Miller. 1981. "Trends in College Students' Values between 1952 and 1979: A Return of the Fifties?" Sociology of Education vol. 54, pp. 263-274.
Abstract: Four identical surveys carried out in 1952, 1968-69, 1974, and 1979 among men at Dartmouth College and the University of Michigan depict value shifts in several areas. Privatism decreased from 1952 to 1968-69, then increased again in the late 1970s. Traditional religious beliefs were relatively weak in the 1960s but gained in the late 1970s although church attendance did not increase. Other-direction dropped from 1952 to the 1960s and changed little thereafter. Anxieties about deviant social groups dropped sharply during the late 1950s and remained low. Belief in free enterprise ideology was strong in 1952, weak in the 1960s, and slightly stronger again in 1979. Faith in the government and the military similarly fell during the 1960s but rose again in 1979. The changes in survey findings are not traceable to changes in student selection at the two colleges; they represent broader value shifts among college-going youth. In some respects there is the beginning of a return of the fifties, but not in areas involving personal freedoms, such as sexual behavior and life-style. The demand for increased personal freedoms, begun in the 1960s, continues to rise. [Source: JS]

Khan, Mohammad Monawar. 1981. "Sequential Analysis of Fertility Orientations and Behavior of Teenage Mothers." Ph.D. Thesis, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.
Abstract: Purpose. Most previous studies of teenage motherhood relied on a cross sectional comparison between teenage and non-teenage mothers. Variations in life course development among teenage mothers subsequent to their first birth remain largely unknown. The decade of the 1960's to 1970's was a period of 'contraceptive Revolution' and continued trend towards increased female labor force participation and college education. Given the impact of this period change, the aim of the present study is: (1) to examine the temporal trends in life course development of teenage and non-teenage mothers regarding marital disruption and remarriage, educational and economic attainments, and contraceptive behavior; (2) to study subsequent fertility in relation to the effects of timing of first birth, the role-related variables such as work and education in the temporal context; (3) to explore factors differentiating patterns of life course development among teenage mothers. Data and Methodology. Currently married white mothers, aged 20-40, were selected from the 1965 National Fertility Survey and the 1973 Survey of Family Growth. Considering age and period effects on marriage, education and labor force participation, parity progression (a measure of subsequent fertility) and childbearing intentions at second parity were analyzed. Log-linear analysis was employed for analysis of fertility behavior and intentions. Factors affecting patterns of subsequent life course development were explored by examining profiles of subgroups of teenage mothers. Results. Chances of college education were not much improved for teenage mothers during the 1960's and 1970's. Teenage mothers were more likely to combine a work role and childcare but with no real gains in income and they experienced marital disruption more than non-teenage mothers. The temporal increase in contraceptive use after the first birth did not differentiate teenage and non-teenage mothers. Teenage mothers were more likely to be at higher parities than non-teenage mothers at a given age despite the fact that their fertility intentions were lower than non-teenage mothers. Parity progressions were differentiable significantly by role-related variables not only between teenage and non-teenage mothers but also within teenage mothers. College educated teenage mothers were likely to limit their susequent fertility by delaying or not having their second birth. College educated teenage mothers tended to experience remarriage, marrying college educated husbands, have a higher parental SES and fewer siblings. They tended to participate in the labor force between marriage and first birth and currently more than non-college educated teenage mothers. The former attended church more often than the latter. Some of these differences imply that college educated teenage mothers had relatively favorable support systems. The programs intended to assist teenage mothers should recognize the importance of continuation of education among teenage mothers and their support systems beyond provision of contraceptives. [Source: DA]

Kloepper, Howard W., Wilbert M. Leonard, and Lucy J. Huang. 1981. "A Comparison of the "Only Child" and the Siblings' Perceptions of Parental Norms and Sanctions." Adolescence vol. 16, pp. 641-655.
Abstract: Used a 77-item questionnaire to examine the extent to which 1,474 college students from one-child or multiple-child families perceived that they had been regulated during their last 2 yrs of high school by their parents. Specifically studied were the following behavioral variables: academic achievement, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, dating practices, driving privileges, athletic participation, money-saving and spending habits, movie attendance, and religious worship attendance. Cross-sectional analyses provided only weak support for the hypothesis that only-children would be granted more autonomy and would be less severely sanctioned by their parents than Ss with siblings. Findings demonstrate that regardless of family size, the majority of Ss had been given a great deal of freedom in the substantive areas investigated and were rarely parentally sanctioned with physical punishment and/or withdrawal of financial support. [Source: PI]

Kureshi, Afzal and Rahat A. Khan. 1981. "Fear of Failure Motivation as Related to Certain Social Variables." Journal of Psychological Researches vol. 25, pp. 89-93.
Abstract: Eight pictures with marked fear of failure (FOF) cues were used to elicit themes of FOF from 128 16-24 yr olds. Ss were paired on age (16-29 yrs/20-24 yrs), sex (male/female), religion (Muslim/Hindu), and socioeconomic status (SES; upper/middle). Analysis showed that Muslims, older Ss, and upper SES Ss had a greater FOF than their counterparts. There were no sex differences on FOF scores. [Source: PI]

Mischey, Eugene J. 1981. "Faith, Identity, and Morality in Late Adolescence." Character Potential: A Record of Research vol. 9, pp. 175-185.
Abstract: 32 18-22 yr olds were interviewed regarding such issues as death, meaning-of-life, loyalties and commitments, evil, symbol, guilt, and shame. Tapes of the 2-hr interviews were rated by 2 judges for J. W. Fowler's (1977) "faithing" stage descriptions and 7 general variables. Ss were also given an identity rating and a score on a Kohlberg-type moral dilemmas questionnaire. Four groupings of Ss' faith statuses were delineated that arranged themselves from youngest to oldest. Faith stage, moral reasoning scores, and identity status were all highly correlated. Results support a progression of identity status and faith orientation followed by moral reasoning. Implications for religious education are discussed. [Source: PI]

Fullerton, John T. 1980. "An Investigation of Christian Orthodoxy and Right-Wing Authoritarianism in a Collegiate Population." Thesis, University of Manitoba.

Kemper, Theodore D. and Roslyn W. Bologh. 1980. "The Ideal Love Object: Structural and Family Sources." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 9, pp. 33-48.
Abstract: Obtained preferences from 101 male and 126 female undergraduates about the characteristics of their ideal love objects. Preferences were factor analyzed separately for males and females, and both common and sex-specific factors were obtained. The relative contributions of a set of structural and family factors to the explanation of variance in each of the characteristics of the ideal love object were examined. About one-third of the 58 characteristics had significant, though not high, amounts of variance explained by the predictors. The most important predictors were sex, religion, mother's marital happiness, and father's education. [Source: PI]

Mahoney, E. R. 1980. "Religiosity and Sexual Behavior among Heterosexual College Students." Journal of Sex Research vol. 16, pp. 97-113.
Abstract: The relationship between religiosity & sexual behavior is examined on the basis of questionnaire responses from a sample of 290 F & 151 M Coll students. Across a wide range of sexual behaviors & dimensions of sexuality, religiosity is found to be negatively related to sexual experience. This relationship does not differ by gender. Additionally, religiosity among Ms is related to the sequence in which sexual behaviors are experienced in adolescence. Highly religious Ms have a significant tendency to reverse the sequence of sexual behaviors by having oral sexual experience before coitus. This reversal is discussed in terms of the outcome of an interaction between M sexual socialization & peer pressure, which emphasize Ms' obtaining sexual experience, & religious beliefs, which prohibit coitus outside of marriage. This sequence reversal is thus seen as maintaining technical virginity at an age & in an environment where sexual experience is emphasized. [Source: SA]

Maibaum, Matthew. 1980. "The New Student and Youth Movements, 1965-1972: A Perspective View on Some Social and Political Developments in American Jews as a Religio-National Group." Ph.D. Thesis, Claremont Graduate School.
Abstract: This study traces the growth, development and ontogenesis of student and youth groups on the "radical" model in Jewish American society in 1965-1972. Chapter One presents five hypotheses concerning the relationships of origin, structure, and behavior in these groups towards which the discussion is addressed. Chapter Two discusses the general surrounding environment of American Jewish college youth. The primacy of college as shaper of attitude, interest, and political socialization is stressed. The academic achievements of youth are discussed. The cross pressures he had to resolve with adult society are analyzed: as a radical he had to resolve relations with the Jewish adult world as a radical and with general radical youth as "a Jew." Chapter Three gives a political and social history of religious developments. Jewish religious groups grew because cultural pluralism on the back model became acceptable, and also from increased dissatisfaction by youth with the mode of worship and sparse ideology of parents. Most attended intensively to Orthodox Jewish guidelines, seen as more authentic, older, and more comprehensive. Chapter Four discusses "general" cultural developments. Communal living groups developed after 1965, owing origins to "Hippie" communes and to the autonomous community concept on the Amish, Essene, and ancient Jewish pietist models. New interest in Jewish science and sociology grew, an outgrowth of academic interests of youth desiring to discover the intricacies of Jewish life and problems. A Jewish youth press also arose producing up to fifty periodicals. Chapter Five discusses the broad range of "political" groups. There arose out of dissatisfaction with middle-class intrasigence, desire to infuse Jewish identity into "radical" positions, and modelling the cultural pluralist position in Black American society. They combined a radical leftist political jargon, centrist lifestyle, maintenance of historic middle-class values including law, absence of acrimony, and academic pursuits. Members attempted an integrated cultural model of "radical" Jew both religiously and politically focused in interest. Chapter Six discusses developmental and relations problems. The role of religious youth in leadership posed problems; women found their roles still unchanged in some ways; relations with the "Hippie," "liberated" and middle-class youth had to be rectified; diffuseness of types of interest members had had to be dealt with, antisemitism had to be combatted; and the future place of Jewish youth approaching adult roles within Jewish communities and organizations becoming increasingly professionalized posed problems of access to leadership. Chapter Seven restates the hypotheses. For the most part all were substantiated. The relationship between individual personality, specific group environment, and broader American and world events appeared important for further inquiry. Finally, participant observations on how active Jewish youth indicated they felt about religious, cultural and political dimensions of life, and their place in it, were made. It was characterized that your developments comprised an effort by youth to construct an identity through organizations that legitimized, and articulated, their identity in their eyes and in the eyes of others. [Source: DA]

Wiebe, Ken F. and J. Roland Fleck. 1980. "Personality Correlates of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Nonreligious Orientations." Journal of Psychology vol. 105, pp. 181-187.
Abstract: Personality profiles of 158 Canadian university freshmen were compared across religious orientation and religious affiliation. The Religious Orientation Inventory and the 16 PF were employed. It was hypothesized that the profiles of extrinsically religious and nonreligious Ss would correlate significantly with each other and that both would differ significantly from intrinsically religious Ss. Both hypotheses were supported. The personality variables for which the hypotheses were supported included superego strength, emotional sensitivity, and liberalism. Differences were also found across religious affiliation for certain personality variables. [Source: PI]

Raphael, Dennis. 1979. "Sequencing in Female Adolescents' Consideration of Occupational, Religious and Political Alternatives." Adolescence vol. 14, pp. 73-80.
Abstract: In 2 studies on how adolescent females deal with adolescent issues, it was observed that the 69 undergraduates (Study 1) and the 112 12th graders (Study 2) were not in the same identity status (J. E. Marcia's Identity Status Interview) for the areas of occupation, religion, and politics. It appeared that it was necessary for female adolescents to have explored alternative courses of action in the occupation area before they could consider possibilities in the religion area. The exploration of alternative beliefs and plans was necessary in the religion and occupation areas before alternatives could be explored in politics. Reanalyses of data from the 2 studies indicated that this scaling sequence was reliable. A suggestion of a horizontal decalage of successive applications of cognitive structures to these areas of concern is discussed within a Piagetian theoretical framework, as is the possibility that environmental variables determined areas of exploration. An attempted synthesis of these 2 viewpoints is presented. [Source: PI]

Schnitzer, Robert, Phillip Isenberg, and Stanley Rothman. 1978. "Faces in the Crowd: Portraits of Radical Youth." Adolescent Psychiatry pp. 195-223.
Abstract: Administered a questionnaire on personality traits to 1,195 students at 4 major American universities, classified in 4 groups--moderates and radicals of Jewish and of Christian backgrounds. A few Ss from each group were also interviewed at length and were administered projective tests. As compared with liberal and conservative students, radicals scored high on the need for power and on "defensive projection," low on the need for affiliation and on impulse control. Their personality structure appears to combine covert idealism with an underlying need to exercise control over others. The authors believe that some radicals have identified themselves with the student movement, with Blacks, and with Third World revolutionaries because they see these groups as powerful (i.e., tough and "macho") in contrast to a malevolent but weak Establishment. Individual case histories from the 4 groups are presented and analyzed in detail. [Source: PI]

Soderstrom, Doug and E. Wayne Wright. 1977. "Religious Orientation and Meaning in Life." Journal of Clinical Psychology vol. 33, pp. 65-68.
Abstract: Tested the general hypothesis that a mature religious commitment should aid youth in their search for meaning in life. A questionnaire was given to 427 college freshmen and sophomores in 6 midwestern colleges. Results indicate that intrinsically motivated Ss, committed Ss, and true believers had significantly higher Purpose in Life Test mean scores than did extrinsically motivated Ss, uncommitted Ss, and unbelievers. The results also indicate that religious integration (moral commitment paired with spiritual commitment) is indicative of meaning in life. It is concluded that a mature religious commitment should aid youth in their search for meaning in life. [Source: PI]

Garrison, Charles E. 1976. "Effect of Participation in Congregational Structures on Church Attendance." Review of Religious Research vol. 18, pp. 36-43.
Abstract: The structure of congregations that college students attended prior to college is examined for effect upon church attendance rates while in college. Specifically, the division of labor in the congregation was measured as was also the extent to which the individual held positions in the division of labor. The findings reveal that the division of labor itself does not affect attendance rate. However, holding positions in the division of labor does have some effect on the attendance rate in college even when rate of high school church attendance is controlled. In comparing positions held in the division of labor with participation in church-sponsored youth activities, a greater effect on church attendance was derived from the holding of positions in the congregational division of labor. [Source: RI]

King, Karl, Thomas J. Abernathy, Jr., Ira E. Robinson, and Jack O. Balswick. 1976. "Religiosity and Sexual Attitudes and Behavior among College Students." Adolescence vol. 11, pp. 535-539.
Abstract: A cross-section of students from a large southern state U (N=134 M's & 161 F's), all white, single, & Protestant, were surveyed via questionnaire to test 2 major hypotheses: "(1) Religiosity will vary inversely with premarital sexual behavior; & (2) religiosity will vary inversely with permissive premarital sexual attitudes." Goodman's Gamma is used as the probability statistic to measure for the significance of relationships. Religiosity as measured by religious beliefs & attitudes is not significantly related to premarital sexual behavior, a finding which opposes most previous research which finds these 2 variables to be obviously related when religiosity is measured by church attendance. Religiosity is "more strongly related to premarital sexual attitudes among M's than among F's." Discrepancies between these results & those of other research projects are discussed. [Source: SA]

Potvin, Raymond H., Dean R. Hoge, and Hart M. Nelsen. 1976. Religion and American Youth, with Emphasis on Catholic Adolescents and Young Adults. Washington: Office of Research Policy and Program Development, U.S. Catholic Conference.

Bardis, Panos D. 1975. "Abortion Attitudes among Catholic College Students." Adolescence vol. 10, pp. 433-441.
Abstract: Explored the abortion attitudes of 200 students (freshmen-seniors) attending a midwestern liberal arts college affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Ss' attitudes were quantified by means of P. Bardis' (1972) Abortion Scale. A 2nd tool was a questionnaire dealing with independent variables (e.g., sex, age, number of siblings, birth order, marital status, and education). Findings show the following: (a) Catholics in general tended to be more conservative than Protestants. (b) There were no statistically significant differences between urban and rural residents and between single and engaged Ss. On the other hand, females, social science majors, and those having no plans for graduate studies were significantly more conservative than males, natural science majors, and those planning to do graduate work, respectively. (c) Abortion scores were significantly negatively correlated with religious services attended, amount of Catholic education, and, to a limited extent, father's occupation, but nonsignificantly with age, number of siblings, birth order, college rank, parental education, and mother's occupation. [Source: PI]

Starr, Jerold M. 1975. "Religious Preference, Religiosity, and Opposition to War." Sociological Analysis vol. 36, pp. 323-334.
Abstract: This study finds religious preference to be significantly correlated with opposition to war among a sample of over 900 college freshmen. Even when controls are applied for frequency of religious attendance, sex, father's education and family income, those with no religious preference are most opposed to war, followed somewhat closely by Jews. Protestants and Catholics are close in their degree of opposition to war, but rank well below Jews and the non-religious. Since frequency of religious attendance fails to demonstrate a predictable linear or curvilinear relationship with opposition to war within religious categories, it is suggested that religiosity and opposition to war may represent statistically independent effects of religious preference. The findings in this study cast doubt on the linear and curvilinear hypotheses of the relationship between religiosity and outgroup hostility and also raise the question of what Jewish and non-religious youth may share which makes them significantly more opposed to war than their Protestant and Catholic peers. [Source: RI]

Henze, Lura F. and John W. Hudson. 1974. "Personal and Family Characteristics of Cohabiting and Noncohabiting College Students." Journal of Marriage and the Family vol. 36, pp. 722-727.
Abstract: The phenomenon of cohabitation among Coll students is discussed, focusing on characteristics of students who have cohabitated in comparison with those who have not. Data were gathered in interviews with a random sample of 291 students (174 M & 117 F) at Arizona State U in 1971-72. The data indicate that 29% of the M's & 18% of the F's currently cohabit or had cohabited. Family characteristics examined failed to differentiate between cohabitators & noncohabitators. Personal characteristics which tended to distinguish the 2 groups were in the areas of religion, lifestyle, & drug use. Cohabiters, compared to noncohabiters, were less apt to attend church, were more likely to identify with a liberal lifestyle, & were more apt to be drug users. There will be an impact on traditional courtship patterns & family life, but there will be no change in the near future on the marriage rate. [Source: SA]

Krishnan, L. 1974. "Attitude Structure and Change: An Experimental Study." Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient vol. 17, pp. 6-15.
Abstract: Measured attitudes toward religion (taken in the broadest sense). Included were valences of religious attitude, congruence-incongruence of attitude change, and sex differences in relation to these 2 factors. 3 hypotheses were tested. Ss were 110 16-22 yr old undergraduates, most of whom were Hindus. A Likert-type religious attitude scale was used. On the basis of scores obtained, Ss were classified into 6 valence groups. Results indicate that positivist males were significantly more likely to change than negativist males and that males and females were equally likely to change. [Source: PI]

Parfrey, P. S. 1974. "Factors Associated with Undergraduate Alcohol Use." British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine vol. 28, pp. 252-257.
Abstract: Conducted a survey of 265 male and 179 female undergraduates to examine the extent and prevalence of intoxicant use and the various factors associated with their use. 20% of males and 36% of females reported that they did not drink, whereas 52% of males and 17% of females were social drinkers or occasional drunks. Student patterns of drinking behavior were significantly associated with sociocultural factors, such as leisure money available, belief in a God, and frequency of attendance at religious services. Current cigarette use, experience of marijuana, and attitude to future marijuana use, to the opposite sex drinking, and to the misdemeanor considered most serious also had significant associations with alcohol-related behavior. It appears that peer group pressures, as illustrated by the proportion of close friends drinking and sibling drinking, had a greater influence on student drinking behavior than family-related factors such as parental drinking and parental knowledge of drinking. The effect of ambivalent attitudes towards alcohol use, demonstrated by the age at introduction and the place of introduction to alcohol, may suggest that a more relaxed attitude to alcohol should be adopted. [Source: PI]

Lorimier, Jacques de, Roger Graveline, and Aubert April. 1973. Identity and Faith in Young Adults. New York: Paulist Press.

Chambers, Juanita and Betty Dusseault. 1972. "Characteristics of College-Age Gifted." Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association vol. 7, pp. 527-528.
Abstract: Compared 200 gifted college-age youth with average peer-age groups with regard to religion, socioeconomic status, scholastic achievement, and personality traits. Greatest differences were found in socioeconomic status and parental education. In educational achievement, gifted Ss were only slightly higher. In personality traits, using CPI scales, males were less well adjusted on 9 of the 18 scales; females scored significantly lower on 10. Findings are discussed in relation to (a) traditional conclusions regarding intellectual giftedness, and (b) conclusions reached by Terman and associates. [Source: PI]

Fredrickson, L. C. 1972. "Value Structure of College Students." Journal of Youth and Adolescence vol. 1, pp. 155-163.
Abstract: An investigation of value orientations & perceived value sources in 4 domains: fam, educ, ethical situations, & religious beliefs. What was sought was (1) the nature of student att's toward specific value situations, & (2) student perception of the relative amount of influence of various soc agencies in shaping values. The sample consisted of undergraduates enrolled in classes in educ'al psychol at the U of Iowa, & freshman & senior students living in residence halls at Coe Coll. 415 students participated in the project, 312 men & 283 women. In general, the results did not support the findings of a "degeneration of values in a majority of Coll students" reported in previous published res. That is, students seem to still recognize the importance of fam, educ, & religion. In fact, the findings do support recent res which indicates that Coll students have a high positive identification with their fam's (ie, esp with parental values). [Source: SA]

Jacks, Irving. 1972. "Religious Affiliation and Educational, Political and Religious Values of College Freshmen and Sophomores." Adolescence vol. 7, pp. 95-120.
Abstract: An inventory covering educ'al, pol'al & religious values & att's was admin'ed to 337 freshmen & sophomores at the Ogontz Campus of Pennsylvania State U. Responses of 4 subgroups--Protestant, Roman Catholic-parochial Sch, Roman Catholic-public Sch, & Jewish--were compared. Intergroup similarities far exceeded divergences. Coll educ was perceived as most relevent to civic & vocational area of life, least to primary interpersonal relationships. Little change in religious or pol'al outlook was acknowledged, although some tendency to pol'al liberalization was suggested. Protestants resemble most closely the total group norm. There was a noticeable diff in att's & values between the 2 Catholic subgroups, related to whether they had gone to public or parochial secondary Sch's. Jews were most occup'ly oriented, most liberal pol'ly, most rejecting of formal religion, but most adhering to their own religious affiliation. [Source: SA]

Mader, Paul Douglas. 1972. "Residential Background and Religious Socialization: An Examination of College Students' Beliefs and Practices." Paper presented at Rural Sociological Society (RSS).

Richek, Herbert G. 1972. "Personality and Mental Health Concomitants of Religiousness in Late Adolescent College Students." Thesis, University of Texas.

Simon, William, Alan S. Berger, and John H. Gagnon. 1972. "Beyond Anxiety and Fantasy: The Coital Experiences of College Youth." Journal of Youth and Adolescence pp. 203-222.
Abstract: Applied a social-bookkeeping approach to document the relatively stable rates of early and premarital coitus since the Kinsey report. Data are drawn from a 1972 study of 14-18 yr. olds and a 1967 study of college students. When appropriate controls for educational attainment and age are introduced, it is shown that, compared to the change in rates at the beginning of the century, the rates since the 1940s have increased only 1/4 as much. Coital behavior is shown to be still strongly linked to traditional patterns of restraint and facilitation, e.g., relationships with parents and religious attendance are shown to restrain early coital experience (defined as coitus before 18 yr. old), while factors linked to the courtship process facilitated this early behavior. During college both restraining and facilitating factors were operative, but levels of coital behavior in most cases stayed surprisingly low. Rates of frequent coitus rarely reached 40% among female college seniors and the proportion of college female seniors with 3 or more partners never reached 20%. It is concluded that popular discussions of the contemporary sexual revolution are out of touch with reality and possibly inducing anxiety among young people when they do not experience the sexual revolution. (17 ref.) [Source: PI]

Greenberg, Irving. 1970. "The Jewish College Youth." Pp. 201-229 in The Jewish Family in a Changing World, edited by G. Rosenthal. New York: T. Yoseloff.

Heath, Douglas H. 1969. "Secularization and Maturity of Religious Beliefs." Journal of Religion and Health vol. 8, pp. 335-358.
Abstract: An unexpected finding in the course of a study of how entering freshmen of 1 college had changed characterologically since 1948, was data suggesting "that the secularization of religious beliefs and practices is occurring, as Cox asserts, but that such secularization is not necessarily accompanied by an increased maturity, as Greeley might assert." It is concluded "that because Cox's assumptions about secular man are only partially valid psychologically, the implication that secularization necessarily leads to maturity confuses more than it clarifies our understanding of their relationship." Included in the data was information derived from a measure of religiousness which was developed from the MMPI and the Study of Values. Based on the analysis of this sample, it is proposed that "(a) Young persons of the 60s are less religiously orthodox but not less religiously philosophical than their counterparts of the 50s. (b) Youths of the 60s are not more mature or better adjusted than those of the 50s . . . . (c) The psychological significance of religious orthodoxy in the 50s differs from that of the 60s . . . . (d) Generally, extreme religio-philosophical interest in the 17 yr. old tends to be associated with immaturity . . . ." [Source: PI]

Mayo, Clyde C., Herbert B. Puryear, and Herbert G. Richek. 1969. "Mmpi Correlates of Religiousness in Late Adolescent College Students." Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease pp. 381-385.
Abstract: Ss were 99 female and 67 male undergraduates at a small Southwestern denominational university. Groups were defined on the basis of sex and of church membership and self-classification as religious and nonreligious; dependent variables were the standard MMPI clinical scale scores, 3 validity scales and Repression, Anxiety, and Ego Strength. In the comparisons between religious and nonreligious males, religious males were found to be significantly less depressed, less schizoprenic, and less psychopathic deviant that nonreligious males. Only 1 difference emerged between the female groups: nonreligious females were found to score higher on the MMPI Ego Strength scale than the religious females. [Source: PI]

Peretti, Peter O. 1969. "Guilt in Moral Development: A Comparative Study." Psychological Reports pp. 739-745.
Abstract: 400 17-20 yr. old undergraduates participated in an investigation to find out: (a) those areas which college students consider important in their moral considerations; (b) the extent to which such students will feel guilty when considering to engage in activities in these areas; and (c) any differences in pertinent classifications for youngsters reared or not reared in relatively strict Christian backgrounds. Results suggest 13 areas which tend to be important to the youth in moral considerations, differences in guilt feelings, and differences in responses relative to backgrounds. [Source: PI]

Cope, Robert G. 1968. "Selected Omnibus Personality Inventory Scales and Their Relationship to a College's Attrition." Educational and Psychological Measurement vol. 28, pp. 599-603.
Abstract: SELECTED SCALES FROM FORM D OF THE OMNIBUS PERSONALITY INVENTORY (OPI) WERE ADMINISTERED TO ALL INCOMING COLLEGE FRESHMEN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS. 2 YR. LATER, THE SCORES OF 565 STUDENTS WHO HAD DROPPED OUT WERE COMPARED TO THOSE OF A RANDOMLY SELECTED GROUP OF 730 PERSISTING STUDENTS. THE SCALES THAT DISTINGUISHED THE 2 GROUPS WERE: RELIGIOUS LIBERALISM, ESTHETICISM, AND THEORETICAL ORIENTATION. MORE SIGNIFICANT WERE THE SEX DIFFERENCES IN SPECIFIC SCALES: THE RELIGIOUS LIBERALISM SCALE WAS CLEARLY RELATED TO MALE DROPOUTS, THE ESTHETICISM AND THEORETICAL ORIENTATION SCALES TO FEMALE DROPOUTS. "SOCIAL MATURITY SCALES FOR MALES AND FEMALES WERE SIMILAR, SUGGESTING THAT STUDENTS WITH HIGHER SCORES ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE AMONG THE STAYINS." RESULTS SUPPORT THE USE OF THE OPI FOR THE STUDY OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG COLLEGE AGE YOUTH. [Source: PI]

Watts, William A. and David Whittaker. 1968. "Profile of a Nonconformist Youth Culture: A Study of Berkeley Non-Students." Sociology of Education pp. 178-200.
Abstract: Compared 151 nonstudents to 56 students at Berkeley in september 1965 by questionnaire data concerning "socio-economic backgrounds, current family relationships, and social-political attitudes." Srole's scale of anomie, the personal integration scale of the omnibus personality inventory, and the Thorndike vocabulary test were also used. No major differences appeared related to geographic origin, class background, and parental education. The outstanding differences between the 2 groups are in general appearance and religious affiliation. Nonstudents are alienated from society and their families, interested in creativity and less career minded than students. Although not a conventional political group, they support civil rights and Vietnam war protests. 3 factors for SS dropping out of college are anomie, nonconformity, and the philosophy of the college. It is concluded that the SS might be divided into (1) an anomic subgroup, politically inactive, and (2) an active subgroup, not anomic. [Source: PI]

Jacks, Irving. 1967. "Attitudes of College Freshmen and Sophomores toward Interfaith Marriage." Adolescence vol. 2, pp. 183-209.
Abstract: Protestant students were more broadly accepting of marriage to either Catholics or Jews than were students of the latter religions. Jewish students, especially females, were least accepting of interfaith marriages for themselves. [Source: PI] [Source: PI]

Bennett, Thomas R. 1965. "A Profile of the Young Adult." International Journal of Religious Education vol. 42, pp. 8-9.

Watson, Charles G. 1965. "Cross-Validation of Certain Background Variables as Predictors of Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Research pp. 147-148.
Abstract: Ss were 84 male upper classmen volunteers from an elementary psychology course at the State University of Iowa. On a Personality Background Inventory, students were asked to report the educational level of their fathers and mothers, number of siblings, size of high school graduating class, high school extracurricular activities, hometown population, rural vs. urban home setting, family religious preference, and birth order. Grade-point average was used as a measure of academic achievement. With the exception of father's educational level, none of the predictors showed a relationship to the criterion or aptitude. [Source: PI]

Kosa, John, Leo D. Rachiele, and Cyril O. Schommer. 1962. "Marriage, Career and Religiousness among Catholic College Girls." Marriage and Family Living vol. 24, pp. 376-380.

Loomis, Irven Lyle. 1962. "A Comparison of the Religious Views of High School, College Age, and Adult Leaders of Methodist Youth." Ed.D. Thesis, Wayne State University, Detroit.

Levinson, Boris M. 1959. "The Problems of Jewish Religious Youth." Genetic Psychology Monographs vol. 60, pp. 309-348.
Abstract: An analysis of the responses of 220 Yeshiva College freshmen to the Mooney Problem Check List shows that Jewish religious youth experience the most difficulty with adjustment problems related to social and recreational activities, health and physical development, and adjustment to school work. It is hypothesized that because of the traditional Jewish emphasis on verbal learning, youth of this religious faith are exposed to extreme pressures toward academic overloading with the inevitable curtailment of social and recreational activities. 34 refs. [Source: PI]

Ross, Murray G. 1950. Religious Beliefs of Youth: A Study and Analysis of the Structure and Function of the Religious Beliefs of Young Adults, Based on a Questionnaire Sample of 1,935 Youth and Intensive Interviews with 100 Young People. New York: Association Press.

Gilkey, Charles W. 1949. "Religion in Our College Generations." Christianity and Crisis pp. 147-150.

Valentine, C. W. 1943. "Adolescence and Some Problems of Youth Training." Nature London pp. 122-124.
Abstract: Questionnaire responses of over 200 university students and autobiographical essays point to great variation in the ages at which characteristic adolescent traits appear. Items discussed are: adolescent moods of intense depression, feelings of inferiority, self-consciousness, instability of intellectual interests, and interest in vocational problems. Delinquency among boys reaches its peak at 13 years, while among girls the peak age is appreciably later. Membership in youth clubs and attendance at church and evening schools as such seem to exert little causative influence in delinquency, but home discipline is a paramount factor. [Source: PI]

Garrison, K. C. 1940. The Psychology of Adolescence. NY: Prentice-Hall.
Abstract: New material on youth problems, religious development, and achieving independence has been added to this revised edition which represents the 4th printing since the original publication of the book in 1934. The book, designed as a text, is addressed to both, adolescent college students and to those entrusted with the care and guidance of adolescents. It is divided into (1) development of the individual and (2) personality development. There are 16 chapters, most of which have a summary and are followed by 5-9 thought questions and 5-11 selected references. [Source: PI]

Dudycha, G. J. 1930. "The Religious Beliefs of College Freshmen." School and Society vol. 31, pp. 206-208.
Abstract: All freshmen entering Ripon College in 1929-1930 were requested to indicate on a questionnaire their belief or disbelief in each of 25 religious propositions. Twenty-five minutes after the first questionnaire had been answered a second was submitted in which the propositions included in the first were presented in the negative. The correlation between the results of the two questionnaires was .93. Among the propositions upon which the students were asked to react were such as the following: the existence of God, heaven, hell, angels, the devil, the soul, miracles, etc. In the average case 60% of the propositions were said to be accepted whole-heartedly, while only 8% were disbelieved with equal conviction. Lukewarm faith or non-committal attitudes were confessed on the average with respect to 32% of the items. It is concluded that students tend to believe more than they disbelieve and that their faiths are firm. Among the propositions accepted most frequently and with most conviction were the moral truth of the ten commandments, the existence of God, the existence of the soul, and the divinity of Christ. Of the existence of the devil, on the other hand, 53% of the students were skeptical. [Source: PI]

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.