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Taha, W., D. Chin, A. I. Silverberg, L. Lashiker, N. Khateeb, and H. Anhalt. 2001. "Reduced Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Adolescents of an Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Community in Brooklyn." Pediatrics vol. 107, p. E79.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Bone mass increases throughout childhood, with maximal bone mass accrual rate occurring in early to mid-puberty and slowing in late puberty. Prevention of osteoporosis and its morbidities depends primarily on the establishment of adequate peak bone mass. Physical activity, calcium intake, and vitamin D stores (from sunlight conversion of precursors of vitamin D and to a lesser degree from dietary intake) are vital determinants of bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is further controlled by genetic and environmental factors that are poorly understood. Observance of ultra-Orthodox Jewish customs may have a negative effect on the factors that promote bone health, and there have been anecdotal reports of higher fracture rates in this population. The ultra-Orthodox Jewish lifestyle encourages scholarly activity in preference to physical activity. Additionally, modest dress codes and inner-city dwelling reduce sunlight exposure. Orthodox Jews do not consume milk products for 6 hours after meat ingestion, leading to potentially fewer opportunities to consume calcium. Foods from the milk group are some of the best sources of dietary calcium. Our aims are to examine BMD in a group of healthy ultra-Orthodox Jewish adolescents in an urban community and to attempt to correlate it to physical activity and dietary factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 50 healthy, ultra-Orthodox Jews, ages 15 to 19 years (30 males and 20 females). None were taking corticosteroids or had evidence of malabsorption. All girls were postmenarchal and nulliparous. Pubic hair Tanner stage for boys and breast Tanner stage for girls were determined. Weight and height standard deviation scores were calculated. Calcium, phosphorus, protein, vitamin D, and calorie intake were assessed using a comprehensive food questionnaire referring to what has been eaten over the last year. Hours per week of weight-bearing exercise and walking were determined. Serum levels of calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH](2)D) were measured. Lumbar spine (L) BMD was assessed by dual energy radiograph absorptiometry. The pediatric software supplied by Lunar Radiation Corporation, which contains gender- and age-specific norms, provided a z score for the lumbar BMD for each participant. L2 to L4 bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated from L2 to L4 BMD. RESULTS: BMD of L2 to L4 was significantly decreased compared with age/sex-matched normative data: mean z score was -1.25 +/- 1.25 (n = 50). The mean L2 to L4 BMD z score +/- standard deviation was -1.71 +/- 1.18 for boys and -0.58 +/- 1.04 for girls. Eight boys (27%) had L2 to L4 BMD z scores <-2.5, which defines osteoporosis in adulthood. Twenty-seven adolescents (54%), 16 boys and 11 girls, had Tanner stage V. Two participants (4%) had delayed development of Tanner stage V. Mean consumption of calcium by participants under 19 years old was 908 +/- 506 mg/day (n = 46), which is lower than the adequate intake of 1300 mg/day for this age. The consumption of phosphorus was 1329 +/- 606 mg/day, and the consumption of vitamin D was 286 +/- 173 IU/day (n = 50). The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 18.4 +/- 7.6 ng/mL, and the mean serum 1,25(OH)(2)D level was 71.1 +/- 15.7 pg/mL (n = 50). Boys had significantly higher serum levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D than did girls (74.9 +/- 16.46 pg/mL vs 65.25 +/- 12.8 pg/mL, respectively). The serum levels of PTH, calcium, and protein were (mean +/- standard deviation): 33 +/- 16 pg/mL, 9.5 +/- 0.69 mg/dL, and 7.8 +/- 0.6 g/dL, respectively (n = 50). L2 to L4 BMD z score had positive correlation with walking hours (r = 0.4). L2 to L4 BMD z score had negative correlation with serum level of 1,25(OH)(2)D )r = -0.33; n = 50). We could not find significant correlation between L2 to L4 BMD z scores for the entire cohort and any of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, or protein intake. However, the L2 to L4 BMD z scores of boys had positive correlation with calcium, phosphorus, and protein intake (r = 42, r = 44, and r = 43 [Source: ML]

Yedwab, Paul Michael and Katherine Schwartz. 2001. Sex in the Texts. New York: UAHC Press.

Cohen, Erik H. 2000. "Mifgashim: A Meeting of Minds and Hearts." Journal of Jewish Education vol. 66, pp. 23-37.
Abstract: Part of a special issue on disciplined inquiry and informed discourse in Jewish education. A study examined Mifgashim, structured meetings between Jewish youth from the Diaspora and from Israel. Participants were 457 American youth and 312 Israeli youth who completed questionnaires. The results reveal that although the Mifgashim program is succeeding in its basic goal of exposing American Jews to Israeli youth, it does not reach its full potential, with a significant percentage of the participants claiming to be disappointed with the level of authentic interactions that occur. They also suggest that the reasons why the Mifgashim does not reach its full potential include the brief time allotted, language barriers, group functioning, and the widespread perception that the program is conducted primarily for the benefit of the Diaspora youth. [Source: EA]

Dubow, Eric F., Kenneth I. Pargament, Paul Boxer, and Nalini Tarakeshwar. 2000. "Initial Investigation of Jewish Early Adolescents' Ethnic Identity, Stress and Coping." Journal of Early Adolescence vol. 20, pp. 418-441.
Abstract: Presents a study which examined ethnic identity as a source of stress among Jewish early adolescents. Discussion on the concept of Jewish ethnic identity; Method; Results and discussion. [Source: AS]

Gastfriend, Edward and Bj"rn Krondorfer. 2000. My Father's Testament: Memoir of a Jewish Teenager, 1938-1945. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Keysar, Ariela, Barry A. Kosmin, and Jeffrey Scheckner. 2000. The Next Generation: Jewish Children and Adolescents. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Levine, Stephanie Wellen. 2000. "Mystics, Mavericks, and Merrymakers: The Inner Worlds and Daily Lives of Hasidic Adolescent Girls." Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University; 0084.
Abstract: I spent one year in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, headquarters of the Lubavitchers, a sect of Hasidim famous for their messianic fervor and their efforts to inspire secular Jews to become more observant. I explored the daily lives and inner worlds of the community's adolescent girls. Participant observation (spending time with the young women at school, home, and social activities) and intensive interviews with individual girls provided my data. Some key questions drove my research: Do these girls develop independent voices--unique desires, thoughts, and emotions? If so, how do they express them within the confines of an ostensibly all-encompassing Orthodox Judaism? How far can they go in thought and behavior before they are deemed rebellious? I also considered these young women in light of the psychological fragility that plagues so many American adolescent girls. As mainstream girls brave their teenage years, their attempts to achieve appropriately feminine personalities and bodies often overwhelm them. I wondered whether Lubavitch girls suffer similarly. Here is a brief summary of my findings: Yes, these young Hasidim certainly have unique ideas, quirks, preferences, and desires. In fact, they often develop more forceful, secure personalities than girls in mainstream America. On the whole, Lubavitch young women are louder and brasher, with a knack for introspection and self-insight that is rare among secular girls. They do suffer from all the insecurities and obsessions common in America at large; they fear that they are unattractive, overweight, unpopular... However, they generally seem more confident than mainstream American girls and less likely to let these worries rule their lives. I have many possible explanations--the camaraderie and safety of their single-sex social worlds, their close-knit community, the power of their religious faith, their unusually close families, values within Hasidism, the Lubavitch zeal for nurturing every Jew's unique and vibrant soul. Most likely, all these factors play a complex and interrelated role. [Source: DA]

Mammana, Richard J., Jr. 2000. "Mitzvah Envy." Touchstone: A Journal of Ecumenical Orthodoxy (US) vol. 13, pp. 20-21.

Robbins, Michael Benjamin. 2000. "The Impact of a Trip to Israel on the Jewish, Ethnic and Ego Identity Development of Jewish-American High School Students." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology - Berkeley/Alameda.
Abstract: The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship among Jewish, ethnic and ego identity development in Jewish-American high school students by assessing the impact a structured trip to Israel, or "Israel Experience," has on these students. Previous research has demonstrated that Israel Experience participants return home with a stronger connection to their Jewish identity. The present study explored the impact of these trips on ethnic and ego identity as well. The hypothesis was that these trips would positively affect all three aspects of identity development and that these increases would be positively correlated with each other. The experimental group consisted of 71 Jewish-American high school students between the ages of 15 and 18 who attended a variety of Israel Experience trips during the summer of 1999. The control group consisted of 29 Jewish-American high school students between the ages of 13 and 19 who did not go to Israel during that summer. All subjects responded to pre-trip and post-trip questionnaires which included measures of Jewish identity (the London Jewish Identity Questionnaire), ethnic identity (the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure), and ego identity (the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory). The results of the study supported the hypothesis that students who go to Israel return with greater levels of Jewish, ethnic and ego identity. When these changes were compared with the control group, however, only increases in Jewish identity were significant. This study also demonstrated that there was a positive correlation among Jewish, ethnic and ego identity development. These findings were robust, meaning that age, gender, religious affiliation, and which trip a student attended did not significantly influence the results. The findings of this study strengthened previous Israel Experience research by utilizing more stringent statistical techniques, and by exploring the impact of these trips on general levels of ethnic and ego identity. This study also contributed to the ethnic identity literature by demonstrating a relationship between changes in ethnic and ego identity. These findings were discussed in terms of general adolescent development and ethnic identity development. [Source: DA]

Semans, M. P. and L. S. Fish. 2000. "Dissecting Life with a Jewish Scalpel: A Qualitative Analysis of Jewish-Centered Family Life." Family Process vol. 39, pp. 121-139.
Abstract: This article highlights findings from a qualitative analysis of the ways in which Jewish families identify how Judaism influences their lives. A theoretical sample of two religious and two cultural families were chosen from a larger sample of 48 Jewish families in Central New York. The qualitative part of this study, which was part of a larger multimethod investigation, was done in order to gather inductively any data that would allow the researchers to build a theory about a particular type of ethnic identity--Jewish identity--and how it affects family dynamics. Eleven categories emerged from this study, which suggest that this particular type of ethnic identity influences many family dynamics, for example, styles of communicating, parenting, values, and family rituals. The participants seem to dissect the world with a "Jewish scalpel." This "scalpel" informs their daily interactions, their parenting styles, and their childrens' self-perceptions. [Source: ML]

Reimer, Joseph. 1999. "Towards a More Inclusive Jewish Identity: Reflections on Reading Erik H. Erikson." Journal of Jewish Education vol. 65, pp. 9-15.
Abstract: Part of a special issue on research and Jewish education. The writer discusses Erik H. Erikson's formative work on identity development in relation to the creation of a more inclusive Jewish identity. There is no justification for defining as a goal of Jewish education the development of a "strong Jewish identity" if that identity is based on a narrow and exclusive ideological base. Jewish educators must think of Jewish identity as developing beyond the adolescent years and needing the active support of institutions that model and educate for Jewish pluralism throughout the life cycle. [Source: EA]

Ribner, D. S. and J. B. Wolowelsky. 1999. "A Note on Mourning an Adoptive Parent in an Orthodox Jewish Family." Journal of Family Social Work vol. 3, pp. 79-85.
Abstract: A sensitive and potentially problematic manifestation of family bereavement situations may occur when one of the mourners is an adopted child. Using an ecosystems perspective, this paper examines the nature of mourning in Orthodox Jewish adopted families and the therapeutic use of religious ritual and dicta to assist with the maintenance of family homeostasis during the potentially destabilizing period following the death of a relative. A case example is presented, illustrating the value of cooperation between therapists and clergy to determine appropriate interventions. Suggestions are made for the use of analogous rituals to assist a broader range of families. [Source: CI]

Shapiro, Susan. 1999. "Spiritual Education: An Assessment of Jewish Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Abstract: The present investigation was an exploratory study designed to assess the spiritual needs of Jewish adolescents. Their spiritual beliefs, experiences, interest in developing spiritually, and factors which facilitate and interfere with spirituality were evaluated. A survey was completed by 273 Jewish teenagers in the suburban Philadelphia area who were affiliated with Reform and Conservative supplementary Hebrew high schools. Ten students, who provided a diverse range of responses on the survey, participated in a semi-structured interview. Results showed that over one half of the Jewish adolescents believe in the existence of God, that God plays a role in the creation, and that some decisions are predetermined. Gender differences showed that females are more likely to view God as having a role in the creation, and more likely to view God as having a role in determining important decisions in their lives. Over 90% of the Jewish adolescents in the present study reported having spiritual experiences although they do no occur very often. Their spiritual experiences were mainly related to prayer and religion. These experiences were associated with feelings of peace and connection. About one fifth of the adolescents reported that they do not pray or they feel emptiness or nothing when they do pray. About one half of the Jewish teenagers showed interest in developing themselves spiritually, and this interest increased with age. Over a third viewed relationships with ones' peers as the most important area in which they would like to develop themselves spiritually. Supportive behavior of parents and peers were found to facilitate teenagers' spirituality. At the same time judgmental behavior of parents or peers may interfere with teenagers' spiritual experience. Teachers were not viewed positively as facilitating the teenagers' spirituality. This investigation pointed out the need for inservice training for educators in communication skills, adolescent and spiritual development. The integration of current scientific theory, the arts and nature with religious education; as well as the need for small group exploration with supportive peers is recommended. Future research might examine the teacher-adolescent relationship, gender differences, and the uncertainty expressed by teenagers. [Source: PI]

Gilman, Sander L. 1998. "Sibling Incest, Madness and the 'Jews'." Jewish Social Studies vol. 4, p. 157.
Abstract: Focuses on the history and philosophy of child abuse and the Jewish perception of sibling incest. Pathological relationship of the Jews to the economy and child abuse; Consideration of sibling incest as the highest form of sexual expression; Understanding of separation as sexual perversion; View of incest as a category of deviance in modern culture. [Source: AS]

Kramer, Robert L. 1998. "Ethnic Identity Development in Jewish Adolescents and the Impact of an Israel Experience." M.A. Thesis, University of Lowell, Lowell.
Abstract: Positive attitudes and a connection to Israel are seen as an important component in Jewish identity. It is widely believed throughout the Jewish community that an Israel experience (a trip to Israel with educational, experiential, and social components) during the adolescent years will enhance Jewish identity. Thirty-nine Jewish adolescents who regularly attend Jewish summer camps were interviewed. Twenty of the subjects had taken part in an Israel experience during the summer of 1997 while the other nineteen have never been to Israel. Subjects were asked open-ended questions about their most memorable Jewish cultural and life experiences, what connected them to the Jewish community, feelings about the Holocaust, whether or not they expected to marry someone Jewish, feelings about Israel, and other questions related to their Jewish identities. This paper employed quantitative and qualitative analysis to determine the impact that the Israel experience had on their Jewish identities. [Source: DA]

Leffert, Nancy. 1998. Shema: Listening to Jewish Youth. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.

Leffert, Nancy and Hayim Herring. 1998. Shema: Listening to Jewish Youth: Study Highlights. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.

Markstrom, C. A., R. C. Berman, and G. Brusch. 1998. "An Exploratory Examination of Identity Formation among Jewish Adolescents According to Context." Journal of Adolescent Research vol. 13, pp. 202-222.
Abstract: Identity formation among Jewish adolescents was examined according to a goodness-of-fit model and an exploration- based/perspective-taking model. Forty-eight high school students living in Jewish dominant neighborhoods and 54 high school students living in Jewish nondominant neighborhoods completed measures of ideological, interpersonal, and ethnic forms of identity, self-esteem, and self-acceptance. A series of 2 (Context) x 2 (Gender) x 4 (Grade) ANCOVA procedures (controlling for religious orientation and religious attendance) were performed on subscales of ideological, interpersonal, and ethnic identity. Slight support was shown for the goodness-of-fit model. Ideological identity diffusion was higher among Jewish nondominant participants, and ethnic behaviors and practices and total ethnic identity were higher among Jewish dominant adolescents. There were several significant correlations between ideological and interpersonal forms of identity and self-esteem. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for further research are given. [Source: SC]

Silverman, Brenda Kubena. 1998. "Parental Attempts at Promoting Ethnic Identity: A Qualitative Study." Ph.D. Thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine specific parent behaviors and socialization concerns related to fostering their adolescent children's Jewish identity in a community where Jews are not only in the minority, but nestled in a majority culture of minimal cultural or religious diversity. Interviews were conducted among parents and adolescents of ten families. In parent interviews, the data suggest parental involvement in Jewish community activities, including synagogue and home activities designed to assert cultural identity are central features of family life, and more intense or formal than when the interviewed families loved in communities with more Jews and more cultural diversity. The adolescents reported little concern or confusion about their ethnic identity, as if being a minority in a relatively homogeneous majority culture actually sharpened their sense of ethnic identification. Parental concerns about topics a sensitive as dating and mate selection were less an issue for the adolescents, who seemed aware of their distinct culture and committed to maintaining it, while simultaneously not anxious about dating outside the culture.. The unique socio-cultural context produced more culturally specific behaviors by the parents, and a clear sense of ethnic identity among the adolescents. [Source: DA]

Sorotzkin, Ben. 1998. "Understanding and Treating Perfectionism in Religious Adolescents." Psychotherapy vol. 35, pp. 87-95.
Abstract: This article discusses issues related to understanding and treating perfectionism in religious adolescents. To do so, the author discusses the distinction between the quest for perfection and the pursuit of excellence, some of the disorders associated with perfectionism and grandiosity (e.g., narcissism, obsessive-compulsive disorders), and the underlying affects (shame, guilt). The impact of parenting on perfectionistic tendencies is discussed at length as is the influence of adolescence and of religious beliefs. The unique challenges of treating religious perfectionists and the question of the advisability of a religiously similar therapist are explored. A case example drawn from the author's clinical experience with an Orthodox-Jewish population is presented. [Source: PI]

Kessler, Aharon. 1997. Educating the Jewish Adolescent in the Teachings of the Religion and Culture of Judaism. New York: Vantage Press.

Schoenfeld, Stuart. 1997. "Late Modernity, Self Identity and Bar/Bat Mitzvah: Implications for Family Education." Journal of Jewish Education vol. 63, pp. 11-16.
Abstract: Drawing on research by Anthony Giddens, the writer considers the implications of late modernity for Jewish family education. In traditional society, the development of self- identity was strongly influenced by stereotypical social expectations and constraints. However, in late modern society, the development of self-identity is reflexive. The social expectation is that individuals construct and reconstruct their own self-identity. This has implications for the Jewish bar/bat mitzvah. Early adolescents, their families, the synagogue, and the Jewish school are struggling with a ceremony that professes faith in a culture of radical doubt and fear of ontological risks; with language that passes on a traditional identity that may be at odds with parental and adolescent reflexive identities; and with a society where claims to meaning are greeted with skepticism. [Source: EA]

Vane, Jennifer and Marjorie Hatch. 1997. "Family Environment as a Function of Religious Observance in American Jews." Journal of Psychology and Judaism vol. 21, pp. 121-134.

Baron, L., H. Eisman, M. Scuello, A. Veyzer, and M. Lieberman. 1996. "Stress Resilience, Locus of Control, and Religion in Children of Holocaust Victims." Journal of Psychology vol. 130, pp. 513-525.
Abstract: Two hundred eight children of Holocaust survivors who were born after their parents' Holocaust experience (children of survivors; COS) and 70 children of parents who left Europe after Hitler's rise to power in 1933 but managed to escape or avoid the Holocaust (children of escapees; COE) were recruited from various Jewish organizations. Research was conducted using questionnaires that were returned by mail. Measures of stress resilience (Kobasa, 1982; Kobasa & Puccetti, 1983), locus of control (Nowicki-Strickland, 1973). and religion (Jewish identity) were administered to all participants. The COS were found to have less resistance to stress and to identify less with feelings of being Jewish. The appropriateness of using COE as a control group acid the difficulty of incorporating the unique experiences of the parents into a research study about the intergenerational transmission of coping style is discussed. [Source: SC]

Frank, Naava Leah. 1996. "Adolescent Constructions of Jewishness: The Nesiya 1988 Summer-Trip to Israel." Ed.D. Thesis, Harvard University.
Abstract: This thesis portrays adolescent conceptions of Jewishness and the impact of a summer trip to Israel on these conceptions. The sample consists of twenty North American Jewish adolescents attending the 1988 Nesiya trip to Israel for Jewish students in the arts. In-depth interviewing and qualitative methods of analysis were used. Uncertainty, doubt, confusion and searching abound in the data, and indicate the starting point of identity development. Some statements reflect adolescents coming to know themselves more deeply, and are termed "identity statements." Vygotsky's theory of language and thought is used to explain the internalization of such statements from their source in the social world. The potential importance of these "identity statements" is that they seem to provide early signs of the direction students will take upon concluding their adolescent search. A "trajectory," is observable for some students: a slow and evolving course of growth in a particular direction--either towards or away from Jewishness--that takes place over many years and is not easily re-routed. Three phases are defined based on students' descriptions of their Jewish growth over time. During the first phase, "Learning the Judaism of One's Parents," (based on retrospective questions), students are embedded in the value systems of their parents. This phase culminates some time around Bar/Bat Mitzvah. The second phase, "Separating from Early Patterns," begins with the breaking apart of early Jewish conceptions. The student separates from the family's customs and synagogue, struggles with the multiplicity of religious truths, explores ultimate questions, and may feel a discomfort at being Jewish. A variety of previously unexplored Jewish options are examined at this time. During the questioning of the second phase, the family traditions serve as an anchor to stabilize the search. The third phase, "Finding a Jewish Self," is the beginning of finding and feeling comfortable with a chosen Jewish self. Three in-depth cases are presented (one involving an adolescent from a mixed Jewish-non-Jewish marriage). The 1988 Nesiya trip was an important identity intervention experience in that it intensified the process of self-clarification of the students' Jewish identity. [Source: DA]

Markowitz, F. 1996. "''Shopping'' for the Future: Culture Change, Border Crossings, and Identity Options of Jewish Teenagers from the Cis." Ethos vol. 24, pp. 350-373.

Markstrom Adams, Carol and Melanie Smith. 1996. "Identity Formation and Religious Orientation among High School Students from the United States and Canada." Journal of Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 247-261.
Abstract: Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between Marcia's four identity statuses and Allport and Ross' four religious orientations. Study 1 was conducted among 38 Mormon and 47 non-Mormon high school students living in a predominantly Mormon Utah community. Study 2 was conducted among 102 Jewish high school students living in Ontario, Canada. It was revealed through the use of MANCOVA procedures that, in both studies, identity diffusion was associated with the extrinsic religious orientation. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on foreclosure than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups, and the extrinsic scored significantly higher on moratorium than the intrinsic and nonreligious groups in Study 1. The indiscriminate proreligious scored significantly higher on identity achievement than those classified as extrinsic or nonreligious in Study 2. The indiscriminate proreligious and intrinsic religious orientations were associated with higher scores in three subscales of ethnic identity for the Jewish adolescents. Potential moderating influences of religious orthodoxy, religious attendance, grade, and gender were found to not operate between identity and religious orientation. [Source: PI]

Shire, Michael Jonathan. 1996. "Enhancing Adolescent Religiosity in Jewish Education: A Curriculum Inquiry." Ph.D. Thesis, Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion (California), Los Angeles.
Abstract: This dissertation seeks to investigate the strategies used in institutions of Jewish Education to enhance religiosity and to compare the impact of those strategies across a variety of educational settings. In order to define the elements of religiosity, an analysis of Jewish thought offers a view of religiosity in which the classical Jewish sources and modern thinkers develop, express and refine the Jewish notions of religiosity. This study is an exploration of these dimensions of religiosity, as viewed through the relationship between religious commitment and spiritual awareness, faith and belief, the educator/student relationship and the educational environment in the enhancement of religiosity in Jewish educational settings. Analysis of the data in each setting identifies the strategies used for the enhancement of religiosity and the ways in which they connect together. A comparison of the impact of the strategies in the four educational settings results in an examination of curriculum theory regarding the enhancement of religiosity. Three phases of curriculum are newly identified: Encounter, Reflection and Instruction for Religiosity. The enhancement of religiosity is promoted through the presence of all three phases in the curriculum. The spiritual awareness found in Encounter and the verbalizations that emerge from it can lead to articulation of questions in Reflection. These questions are responded to by the Jewish context offered in Instruction for Religiosity. However the three phases of Encounter, Reflection and Instruction are not sequential but operate concurrently. All three influence each other as Instruction can open up students for new Encounters. Reflection allows others to hear and share experiences which encourages a future disposition to such Encounters or a sensitivity that places Encounter in a Jewish context. Reflection is a crucial phase, however, in that it allows articulation of Implicit qualities of spiritual awareness to be connected to the phase of Explicit religiosity in Instruction. [Source: DA]

Cohen, Steven M. 1995. "The Impact of Varieties of Jewish Education Upon Jewish Identity: An Inter-Generational Perspective." Contemporary Jewry vol. 16, pp. 68-96.
Abstract: Assesses the impact of several forms of Jewish education on composite measures of Jewish identity for Jewish-American parents & their teenage children (N = 1,464 & 615, respectively, surveyed by mail). The analysis controls for each generation's parents' Jewishness & other factors. All forms of Jewish education, except Sunday school, are associated with higher levels of Jewish identity in both generations. The putative effects of day school, including non-Orthodox day schools, are especially pronounced. Among adults, all forms of Jewish education, except Sunday school, are associated with lower rates of intermarriage. The likely impact of youth groups & travel to Israel on intermarriage rates is rather small. [Source: SA]

Dror, Y. (ed.). 1995. "Implications for Moral Education." Journal of Moral Education vol. 24, pp. 219-356.
Abstract: A special issue on the implications of the kibbutz experience for moral education includes an introduction to the issue as well as articles that feature a sociological account of kibbutz education, school-based curricula for kibbutz studies, education for work in the kibbutz, the kibbutz children's society, Zionist education in kibbutz high schools, the orientation and behavior of kibbutz youth, the impact of the Israeli kibbutz experience on Jewish identity and values, and a review of eight publications concerning the kibbutz in transition. [Source: EA]

Marshall, Sheila K. and Carol Markstrom Adams. 1995. "Attitudes on Interfaith Dating among Jewish Adolescents: Contextual and Developmental Considerations." Journal of Family Issues vol. 16, pp. 787-811.
Abstract: Examined Jewish adolescents' attitudes toward inter-faith dating (ID), and the contextual and developmental variables influencing them. 106 Ss (aged 14-28 yrs) were interviewed using the Religious Experience Survey, to investigate issues related to their being a religious minority, social relations, perceptions of prejudice and attitudes toward religion. Ss also completed the Imaginary Audience Scale and Perspective Taking Scale as measures of social-cognitive development. Results show that the Jewish majority and minority context was a crucial factor in adolescent ID relationships. Religious orientation, religious participation, and gender were also salient factors. Developmental factors were not found to play strong predictive roles in respect to attitudes toward ID. Findings suggest that adolescents formed attitudes about ID that facilitated the filtering and selection of desirable partners. [Source: PI]

Rubinstein, G. 1995. "Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Political Affiliation, Religiosity, and Their Relation to Psychological Androgyny." Sex Roles vol. 33, pp. 569-586.
Abstract: The authoritarian personality is characterized by a traditional attitude towards gender roles that reflects its conservative ideology [T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford (1950) The Authoritarian Personality, New York: Norton]. The present study investigated the relationship between S. L. Bem's [(1974) sex roles ''The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny,'' Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 42, pp. 155-162], on the one hand, and right- wing authoritarianism [RWA; B. Altemeyer (1988) Enemies of Freedom: Understanding Right-Wing Authoritarianism, San Francisco], political affiliation, and religiosity level, on the other Subjects were 365 Jewish undergraduate students (227 women and 138 men) at a number of universities; 81 were second generation Israelis, 90 were children of Ashkenazic parents, 75 were children of Sephardic parents, and 113 were children of parents from mixed background. They completed Altemeyer's RWA scab and a shortened version of Bem's Sex Role Inventory. Political affiliation and religiosity level (variables strongly linked to the authoritarian personality theory) were also measured. Among women, the RWA mean score of the cross-sex typed subjects was significantly lower than that of the sex- typed and the undifferentiated subjects, and most of the cross- sex typed women supported the political left and defined themselves as secular while among men, no statistically significant RWA, political affiliation, and religiosity differences were found between Bem's four personality types. These results highlight gender differences in the relationships between authoritarian personality and gender-role identification. While it seems that cross-sex-typed women. tend to rebel against the status quo, the question of why similar patterns do not appear among men still remains open to speculation. [Source: SC]

Davidson, Adina Ruth. 1993. "Value Development among Jewish Adolescents: Processes of Engagement." Ph.D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore and identify patterns of engagement in value struggles leading to Jewish identity development in adolescents. Jewish identity has been defined as engagement in a set of value struggles between traditional and modern values, within a framework of Jewish World View, Concretization of World View, and Jewish Peoplehood. Twenty-five North American, adolescent participants in the Nesiya program, a six-week, arts oriented trip to Israel, were studied. The Nesiya program addresses Jewish identity development using a model that is both appropriate for the adolescent stage of development (Erickson, 1968; Kohlberg, 1974) and consistent with Jewish practice (Linzer, 1984b). The model used to facilitate Jewish identity development among adolescents consists of encouraging value struggles between traditional Jewish values and modern values within a Jewish framework. A Jewish identity questionnaire was developed to measure level of struggle. In addition, critical incident reports, interviews, questionnaires about program elements and participant observation were used to gather data. [Source: DA]

Herzbrun, Michael B. 1993. "Father-Adolescent Religious Consensus in the Jewish Community: A Preliminary Report." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 32, pp. 163-168.
Abstract: Examined the relationship among a sample of 122 Jewish adolescents (75 males and 47 females) between father's religious communication and father's support (the predictor variables) and religious consensus (the outcome variable). Among sons of traditional fathers, a strong religious consensus correlated with father's emotional support, but was not affected by father's religious communication; the opposite was true for correlations among sons of religiously liberal fathers. Father's denominational affiliation had no mediating effects for daughters. [Source: PI]

Feldman, P. 1992. "Sexuality, Birth-Control and Childbirth in Orthodox Jewish Tradition." Canadian Medical Association Journal vol. 146, pp. 29-33.
Abstract: This paper examines some of the traditional texts that deal with sexuality, birth control and childbirth in the orthodox Jewish tradition and presents the rules governing these areas. For instance, a married woman should avoid being alone with a male physician unless other people are in earshot and have access to the room. A husband and wife must separate during the woman's menses and for the first 7 days afterward. Contraception is permitted if childbearing would endanger a woman's life or health. Termination of pregnancy is also permitted to preserve a woman's health, including her mental health. During childbirth the health of the mother is primary and supercedes all other rules or laws, including those of Sabbath observance. In general, orthodox Jewish women try to live as much as possible within the framework of Halacha. These customs are examined as examples of the need for sensitivity to cultural norms that affect the behaviour of different ethnic groups. [Source: SC]

Gamoran, Adam. 1992. "Religious Participation and Family Values among American Jewish Youth." Contemporary Jewry vol. 13, pp. 44-59.
Abstract: Data from 457 Jewish participants in the 1980 High School & Beyond survey are used to explore the link between religious involvement & family orientation among American Jewish teenagers. Results show that students who are synagogue & youth group leaders tend to be more family-centered than nonparticipants. But this assocation cannot be attributed to the effects of participation per se, for it is found to exist before the reported involvement took place. Students who became youth group leaders were already more family-oriented by their sophomore year of high school. It is therefore hypothesized that the relation between religiosity & family views results from acceptance of Jewish tradition in general, which places strong emphasis on the family. [Source: SA]

Short, Geoffrey and Bruce Carrington. 1992. "The Development of Children's Understanding of Jewish Identity and Culture." School Psychology International vol. 13, pp. 73-89.
Abstract: Explored the development of children's understanding of Jewish identity and culture using a structured interview with 28 8- and 9-yr-olds (Group 1), 28 10- and 11-yr-olds (Group 2), and 32 12- and 13-yr-olds (Group 3). Some Group 1 Ss had virtually no concept of a Jew, and among those who did there was some confusion. Many Group 2 Ss had the capacity to define "Jewishness" with sufficient complexity to have an understanding of anti-Semitism. Group 3 Ss displayed only superficial knowledge of the Jewish religion, even though they had visited a local synagogue during the previous year. In comparison with Group 2 Ss, Group 3 Ss appear to be aware of anti-Semitic stereotypes relating to personality (e.g., stinginess), and more of them are reluctant to conceive of Jewish identity in anything other than religious terms. [Source: PI]

Spickard, Paul A. 1992. "The Changing Status of Children of Jewish Intermarriage in the United States." Pp. 191-203 in Jewish Assimilation, Acculturation, and Accomodation, edited by Menachem Mor. Lanham: University Press of America.

Adelberg, Marla. 1991. "Suicidal Ideation among Adolescent Jews." M.SC. Thesis, The University of Manitoba (Canada), Winnipeg.
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to assess suicidal ideation among adolescent Jews. The data were collected from 86 students attending a private Jewish high school, in grades 9 through 12. Subjects were administered Beck's Depression Inventory, the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale and a brief demographic questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that 36% of the students reported suicidal thoughts. Religious affiliation, nationality, parental marital status and community involvement were all found to be nonsignificant factors involved in suicidal ideation. Religious observance and locus of control were found to be significant factors. More specifically, adolescents with an external locus of control and adolescents who were nonobservant were more likely to have suicidal thoughts. [Source: DA]

Liebes, Tamar, Elihu Katz, and Rivka Ribak. 1991. "Ideological Reproduction." Political Behavior vol. 13, pp. 237-252.
Abstract: Interview data from 400 Jewish families concerning conditions under which parents reproduce ideologies in their adolescent children (aged 12-28 yrs) show that (1) parents reproduced their political outlooks, (2) there was a greater likelihood that "hawkish" parents will have like-minded children than "dovish" ones, and (3) whereas the reproduction of "doves"was dependent on higher education, "hawks" reproduced regardless of their education level. Cohort and lineage analysis were used to explain change from generation to generation and the continuity and change within families. Clues to the tendency to move to the political right were observed in the relative hawkishness of nonreligious parents of 18-yr-olds who were about to begin their army service and in the relative complexity of the dovish position. [Source: PI]

Morris, Bonnie J. 1991. "The Children's Crusade: The Tzivos Hashem Youth Movement as an Aspect of Hasidic Identity." Judaism vol. 40, pp. 333-343.

Steinmetz, Daniel. 1991. "An Agenda for the Study of Jewish Identity and Denominationalism among Children." Pp. 181-185 in Jewish Identity in America, edited by D. Gordis and Y. Ben-Horin. Los Angeles, Calif.: Susan and David Wilstein Institute of Jewish Policy Studies.

Giller, Betsy. 1990. "All in the Family: Violence in the Jewish Home." Women and Therapy vol. 10, pp. 101-109.
Abstract: Discusses a study of Jewish family violence (JFV [B. Giller and E. Goldsmith, 1980]) based on a survey of active members of a number of synagogues. From 209 respondents, a total of 22 spousal abuse and 118 child abuse cases were revealed. Four cases of sexual abuse and 11 cases of social isolation were also reported. It is suggested that the Jew in American society functions with conflicting standards regarding the family. This conflict contributes to the existence of JFV and to the difficulty in acknowledging that such violence exists. JFV will continue as long as institutions both within and beyond the Jewish community perpetuate myths about women, Jewish women, and Jewish families. Suggestions for therapy, interventions, and services are discussed. [Source: PI]

Galperin, Mikhail David. 1989. Soviet Jewish Emigre Adolescents' Adjustment to the U.S.: Comparisons with American Norms and Inter-Relationships of Parent- and Self-Reported Adolescent Psychopathology and Social Adjustment with Family Environment Factors, Parental Attitudes and Demographics. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.

Garfinkle, Martin I. 1989. "The Relationship between Reported Alcohol Abuse and Self-Perceived Jewishness among Adolescents." D.S.W. Thesis, Adelphi University School of Social Work.
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between alcohol abuse among Jewish adolescents and three related factors that comprise the trait we define as "Jewishness": (1) Jewish ethnic identity, (2) religious affiliation (synagogue attendance), and (3) religiosity. Instruments were developed to measure the strength of Jewish ethnic identity and religiosity, the frequency of synagogue attendance (affiliation), and the extent of alcohol abusing behavior. The results indicated that Jewish adolescents who are ethnically identified tend to abuse alcohol less frequently than Jews who do not have a strong sense of ethnic identity. The same inverse relationship was true for religiosity. However, the combined effects of ethnic identity and religiosity were not additive, thus indicating no interactive influence in the prediction of alcohol abusing behavior. Other findings from the study indicated that friends' use of alcohol was a strong predictor of alcohol abusing behavior in the Jewish adolescent. It appears that past discrepancies in findings with regard to the Jew and alcohol abuse relate to the dependent measure in those studies. The implications of the findings suggest that social workers should encourage the enhancement of ethnic identity in their clients when possible and where appropriate since this may retard alcohol abuse. Another implication for social workers, educators, and other professionals is the promotion of programs that discuss the vulnerability of adolescents to peer influences. [Source: DA]

Haas, Marilyn Goldman. 1989. "Concerns and Characteristics of Tucson Jewish Youth, Grades 4-12." M.A. Thesis, The University of Arizona.
Abstract: This study assesses the concerns of Jewish youth in Tucson, Arizona and reports their demographic characteristics and those of their families. Other issues explored are Jewish identity, family and peer relations, use of community resources, and program interests. The 382 Jewish youth surveyed in grades 4-12 were essentially an affiliated population with over 96% belonging to a Jewish religious institution, education program, or youth organization. The relationship was examined between Jewish youth concerns and family changes of single-parent and stepfamily living, dual careers, and interfaith marriage. Differences in concerns were also identified by gender, educational level, and affiliation. Results are also presented of a survey of 59 Jewish community resources concerning their utilization by parents and youth and their perception of youth concerns. Based on findings, recommendations are made to encourage Jewish community awareness and responsiveness to concerns and needs of Jewish youth and their families. [Source: DA]

Jaret, Beth Gerstel. 1989. "Factors Related to Religiosity in Jewish Adolescents." Ph.D. Thesis, Hofstra University.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative influence of variables related to the religiosity of Jewish adolescents. The sample in this study consisted of 208 Jewish teenagers (grades nine through twelve); 107 male, 101 female; 41 were reform Jewish teenagers, 71 conservative, 50 orthodox, and 46 unaffiliated. Subjects completed a revision of the Religiosity Scale (Rohrbaugh & Jessor, 1975) four times, reflecting their perceptions of: (a) their mother's religiosity, (b) their father's religiosity, (c) the average religiosity of their peer group, and (d) their own religiosity. They also completed Schuldermann and Schludermann's 1988 revisions of the Children's Reports of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI-30) to determine their perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' behavior and a demographic data and religious referent questionnaire. The results of this study indicated a positive relationship between subject and perceived parental religiosity (r = .723, p < .001) as well as between subject and peer religiosity (r = .670, p < .001). No difference was found between the relationships of mothers' and fathers' religiosity to that of the subject (t [51] = -.466, p > .05). The correlation between perceived parental religiosity and subject religiosity was found to be greater among male than among female subjects (z = 3.59, p < .01). Perceived parental behavior was not found to contribute significantly to the explained variance within adolescent religiosity, once perceived parental religiosity was considered (p > .05). In choosing referents for religious beliefs (chi sq [4, n = 181] = 27.8, p < .001) and behavior (chi sq (4, n = 179) = 29.8, p <.001), subjects report choosing parents more frequently than they report choosing peers. [Source: DA]

Selengut, Charles. 1989. "The Search for the Sacred: Jewish Youth and Contemporary Religious Movements." Dialogue and Alliance vol. 3, pp. 29-38.

Eisenberg, Gary D. 1988. Smashing the Idols: A Jewish Inquiry into the Cult Phenomenon. Northvale, NJ: J. Aronson.

Grossman, Miriam. 1988. The Wonder of Becoming You: How a Jewish Girl Grows Up. New York: Feldheim Publishers.
Abstract: An explanation for adolescent girls of the changes that take place at puberty and how Jewish tradition views this and other related aspects of becoming a woman. [Source: HA]

Shapiro, Z. V. I. 1988. "From Generation to Generation: Does Jewish Schooling Affect Jewish Identification?" Ph.D. Thesis, New York University, New York.
Abstract: This study tries to answer three primary questions: (1) What is the effect of Jewish schooling on Jewish religious identification? (2) What is the effect of the family on Jewish religious identification? (3) What is the effect of the interaction of Jewish schooling and family on Jewish religious identification? The study also explores the effect of Peers, Camps and Jewish Group Activity on Jewish identification and investigates how the predictors of Jewish identification vary by denomination. The students of grades five, six and seven in all the Atlanta Jewish schools were surveyed. The schools included two day schools, three Traditional, three Conservative and four Reform synagogue schools. At the same time the parents of all the students were surveyed. The final sample consists of 416 families in which both children and parents responded. Some of the major findings are: (1) The number of hours of Jewish schooling does not make a significant independent contribution to Total Jewish Identification after controlling for the influence of Family background, Peers, Camps and youth groups. This finding differs from previous findings. (2) Family background makes a large and significant contribution to Total Jewish Identification after controlling for Jewish Schooling, Peers, Camps and youth groups. (3) The interaction between the hours of Jewish Schooling and the Parents' Residence-Friendship Patterns make a slight contribution to Total Jewish Identification. All other interaction variables are not significant. (4) The most important predictors of Total Jewish Identification are: Parents' Ritual Observance, Parents' Residence-Friendship Patterns, the children's Jewish Group Activity and the Parents' Parenting Behaviors. (5) The Peers variable is negatively related to Total Jewish Identification. (6) Two sub-scales of Total Jewish Identification, Religious Observance and Charity, are predicted by the hours of Jewish Schooling. (7) The pattern of predictors of Total Jewish Identification varies by denominational affiliation. The total Jewish Identification of Traditional/Orthodox subjects is predicted by Parents' Ritual Observance and Parents' Residence-Friendship Patterns. Reform Total Jewish Identification is predicted by Parents' Parenting Behaviors, subjects' Jewish Group Activity, and by Parents' Residence- Friendship Patterns. Conservative Total Jewish Identification is predicted by the subjects' Jewish Group Activity, years of Jewish Camping, Parents' Parenting Behaviors, and Peers. [Source: DA]

Anisfeld, Moshe, Stanley R. Munoz, and Wallace E. Lambert. 1987. "The Structure and Dynamics of the Ethnic Attitudes of Jewish Adolescents." Pp. 119-128 in Error without Trial: Psychological Research on Antisemitism. Current Research on Antisemitism, Vol. 2, edited by Werner Bergmann. Berlin, Germany: Walter De Gruyter.
Abstract: (from the chapter) the present study, carried out with Jewish adolescents in Montreal . . . was designed to investigate whether the reported patterns of ethnic attitudes concerning mainly majority group members also hold for members of the Jewish minority group [Source: PI]

Elias, Noa and Judith Blanton. 1987. "Dimensions of Ethnic Identity in Israeli Jewish Families Living in the United States." Psychological Reports vol. 60, pp. 367-375.
Abstract: Examined dimensions of ethnic identity in 82 parents (mean age 42.7 yrs) and 46 children (aged 13-28 yrs) from Israeli-Jewish families who had resided in the US for at least 5 yrs. Three components of identity (American, Israeli, and Jewish) were assessed using 3 instruments that tapped aspects of behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. Results indicate that identity components are complex, rather than unidimensional, constructs that manifest themselves differently in different domains. [Source: PI]

Schwartz, Lita Linzer and Natalie Isser. 1987. "Proselytizers of Jewish Youth." Journal of Psychology and Judaism vol. 11, pp. 181-195.

Schwartz, Morry Avrum Joel. 1987. "Jewish Adolescent Self-Esteem in Contemporary Society." Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Manitoba (Canada), Winnipeg.
Abstract: The present study investigated Jewish Adolescent self esteem in contemporary society in order to shed light on the relationship between self esteem and (1) sex differences, (2) socioeconomic status, (3) family satisfaction and (4) parental child-rearing behaviors. In addition, Jewish identity and its relationship to self esteem was investigated. Participants included 255 Jewish adolecents from Joseph Wolinsky Collegiate, a Jewish Parochial high school in the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Participants were administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; Family Satisfaction Scale; Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory, and a Jewish Identity Scale. In addition, a demographic questionnaire was included with the administered measures. An overall MANOVA revealed no sex or sex x age-related effect in the measures of the study. A one-tailed t -test confirmed that Jewish males scored significantly higher in self esteem then Jewish females. The results of correlational analyses (Pearson r) confirmed the following predicted relationships: family satisfaction and self esteem, parental child-rearing behavior Acceptance and self esteem, and Jewish identity and self esteem (some age groups only). The following predicted relationships were not confirmed: a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and self esteem, and a negative relationship between Psychological Control, Firm Control and self esteem. A stepwise regression analysis on self esteem confirmed family satisfaction to be a better predictor of self esteem than socioeconomic status but failed to confirm the importance of parental child-rearing behaviors or Jewish identity. Contrary to prediction, sex was found to be a significant predictor of self esteem. The results of this study are discussed and placed in perspective. In light of the findings, it appears that the most profitable line of future inquiry into adolescent self esteem development lies within the area of family relations. [Source: DA]

Kaye, Lenard W. 1986. "Educating Our Children About Growing Older: A Challenge to Jewish Education." Journal of Aging and Judaism vol. 1, pp. 6-21.
Abstract: A rationale & strategy are presented for teaching Jewish youth (& other learners throughout their life cycles) about aging, within the context of the Jewish system of education. US sociodemographic trends that will inevitably influence this education are explored, along with some new approaches offered by secular education, particularly in gerontology. Some broad educational principles, as well as specific initiatives that might be implemented, are explored. [Source: SA]

Kreutzer, Franklin D. 1986. And Therefore Choose Life: A Jewish Response to Teens in Crisis. New York: United Synagogue of America, Commission on Teenage Suicide.

Poris, Barry. 1986. "The Conceptualization of a New Program Design Concerning Sexuality for Adolescents in a Jewish Community Center of Metropolitan New York." Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.

Schoenberg, Elliot S. 1986. "Conservative Judaism and Adolescence." Religious Education vol. 81, pp. 251-266.
Abstract: Discusses 3 problems facing Jewish education on the secondary level and outlines possible solutions. The problems are continuity in religious education, the pressure to teach more advanced Judaica, and motivating the student body to study rabbinic source material. Solutions include, respectively, emphasizing self-contained teaching units, development of a learnable corpus of rabbinic texts, and matching the Jewish agenda to the adolescent agenda. The importance of the Bar/Bat Mitzvah to the adolescent and the adolescent's family is discussed. [Source: PI]

Tucker, Gordon. 1986. "The Jewish Point of View." Pro Mundi Vita Bulletin vol. 105, pp. 24-31.

Elias, Noa. 1985. "Ethnic Identity of Israelis in the U.S.: Generational Comparison." Ph.D. Thesis, California School of Professional Psychology - Berkeley/Alameda.
Abstract: The study examined the structure and patterns of ethnic identity of two generations of secular Israeli Jews currently residing in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thus three components of identity (American, Israeli and Jewish) were measured through three modalities: behavioral, cognitive and affective. A number of hypotheses and questions were tested and explored. Some related to generational comparisons and others to the effect of residence time in the United States, age, sex, and the adolescents' identification with each of the parents. The specific structure and content of Jewish identity were also explored. The sample included 47 families with highly educated parents and their adolescent children who had resided in the U.S. for a minimum of five years. Three instruments provided measure for the identity components, one for each modality: (a) the Background Questionnaires assessed the behavioral modality, (b) a modification of Zak Questionnaire (Zak, 1973), and (c) Semantic Differential Scales (Osgood, 1957), measured the cognitive and affective modalities respectively. A fourth instrument, the Jewish Identity Questionnaire (Bar-Lev et al., 1981), measured the centrality of elements of Jewish identity. The results partially corroborated the study hypotheses regarding acculturation. The adolescents reported more American behavior and were consistently less Israeli than the parents. However, contrary to the hypotheses, they were more Israeli than American in their sense of belonging and self-perception. These discrepancies were considered indicators of conflict, and were interpreted as reflecting dominance of parental influence in the cognitive and affective dimensions versus peer group dominance in the behavior. Other results showed that parents who stayed longer in America had stronger American and Jewish identities. The Israeli identity appeared to be maintained over time, primarily as a result of continuous involvement with the Israeli community and culture. Stronger Jewish and Israeli sense of belonging were found for the older fathers. Parents and adolescents showed pronounced similarities in both structure and content of Jewish identity. For both groups Jewish identity was found related primarily to the sense of belonging. Finally, the structure of identity components and modalities were explored and implications for further research were discussed. [Source: DA]

Fisch, Dov Aharoni. 1984. Jews for Nothing: On Cults, Intermarriage, and Assimilation. New York: Feldheim Publishers.

Friedman, Seymour I. 1984. "The Effect of Jewish Religious Education on the Moral Reasoning and Social Interest of Yeshiva High School Students." Thesis, Fordham University.

Levine, Saul V. 1984. "Alienated Jewish Youth and Religious Seminaries: An Alternative to Cults?" Adolescence vol. 19, pp. 183-199.
Abstract: Examines the backgrounds, personalities, and experiences of 110 male (aged 18-29 yrs) North American and other Western Jewish youth who left their families, lifestyles, and their "charted courses" to enter orthodox religious seminaries in Israel, called Yeshivot. The majority of the Ss were from conservative, reform, or progressive Jewish homes or from secular-humanistic backgrounds. Some of the Ss reported that their parents felt that they had "strayed," were acting self-destructively, and were "losing" valuable time during which they could be pursuing higher education, careers, or other middle-class activities. Other Ss reported that their parents felt that they had done no better than joining cults, although cults were pictured as being somewhat more alien. It is suggested that these Ss gravitated to Israel because it was inculcated, even subtly, into their consciousness, sometimes in spite of the efforts of their parents. It is also suggested that much more could be learned about religious cults and their members by using a more "palatable" or acceptable option or model. [Source: PI]

Baer, Max F. 1983. Dealing in Futures: The Story of a Jewish Youth Movement. Washington, D.C.: B'nai B'rith International.

Kipust, Philip Joseph. 1983. "Moral Development and Self-Concept of Hasidic Adolescent Boys and Girls." Ed.D. Thesis, Yeshiva University, New York.
Abstract: This study compared Hasidically educated boys and girls, in grades 9 and 11, for moral development and self-concept. It also attempted to determine if any differential effect on the level or stage sequence of moral development was exhibited by this cultural group. Two issues dealt with were the sexual aspects of Kohlberg's theory and women's status in Orthodox Jewish education and tradition. The sample, 125 boys and 160 girls, attended six Yeshiva high schools in Boro Park, Brooklyn, New York. Three research instruments were administered: the Ethical Reasoning Inventory (ERI), to measure moral reasoning; the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS); and the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test (OLMAT), to measure intelligence. Non-parametric statistical procedures were utilized to analyze the data. Findings and Conclusions. (1) A significant correlation (P < .01) was found between moral development and grade level. (2) The moral development scores of the girls were significantly higher than those of the boys for the overall sample and for the 9th grade level. No significant differences were found at the 11th grade level. (3) No significant differences were found in the self-concept scores between the boys and girls although the 11th grade girls scored higher than the 11th grade boys. (4) There was a positive correlation (P < .01) between self-concept and moral development for the overall sample and the 11th grade males. (5) The correlation between self-concept and moral development was higher for the 11th grade boys than for the 11th grade girls. (6) There was a significant correlation between moral development and intelligence (P < .001) and between self-concept and intelligence (P < .05). The findings supported the "Stage sequence" and "Universality" aspects of Kohlberg's theory and showed that no special differential effect was exhibited by this cultural group. It also supported the contention of the Orthodox Jewish leaders that the status of women in their community, as reflected by their self-concept and moral development scores, is on par with that of the men. Also included are suggestions for modifying Kohlberg's stage model. [Source: DA]

Davids, Leo. 1982. "Ethnic Identity, Religiosity, and Youthful Deviance: The Toronto Computer Dating Project--1979." Adolescence vol. 17, pp. 673-684.
Abstract: Analyzed data on 298 Jewish (J) college students in the Toronto Computer Dating Project. Findings indicate that J identity is quite independent of J religiosity: 5 of 6 Ss reported a high sense of J identity but less than 1 out of 10 reported themselves to be highly religious. J schooling was not concentrated among Ss of higher religiosity. Chemical/drug abuse was found to be an extremely minimal problem. Sexual liberalism (SL) was fairly evenly distributed among Ss, but males scored higher on SL than females. When SL was considered in conjunction with J schooling and religiosity, it was found that more J schooling had a slight association with more traditional moral attitudes (i.e., lower SL scores), and that a higher religiosity was associated with lower SL scores. These findings suggest that Ss who were more involved in religious practice and to whom religion was a greater force in their thinking had a tendency toward the moral side of the SL continuum, while those who were not involved in religion were more likely to have the nontraditional attitude that favors premarital sex. These findings confirm those of other researchers (e.g., K. L. Cannon and R. Long, 1971). Implications for youth policy and program planning are discussed. [Source: PI]

Sigal, John, David August, and Joseph Beltempo. 1981. "Impact of Jewish Education on Jewish Identification in a Group of Adolescents." Jewish Social Studies vol. 43, pp. 229-236.
Abstract: It was hypothesized that the failure of other studies to demonstrate any impact of full-time Jewish education on Jewish identification over that provided by the home was due to the students' not yet having achieved a capacity to think abstractly. The impact of full-time Jewish education on Jewish identification in adolescence, when this capacity emerges, was examined by comparing the Jewish identification of two groups of students. Both had attended the same secular, Jewish elementary school to the end of grade 6. Subsequently one group attended a secular Jewish high school & the other regular high schools. In the Jewish elementary & high schools, approximately 50% of the day was devoted to Jewish studies. When the students were in grade 11, all were given two copies of the Brenner Jewish Identification Scale (JIS), one to be completed by them & one by their parents. Forty-three parent-student pairs from the Jewish high school & 30 from the other high schools returned the questionnaires, an overall return rate of 75%. In order to control for the impact of home environment, families were divided into high & low Jewish identification groups at the median of the total JIS score. Then they were matched within the high & low groups. Children of the parents in each of the groups were then compared on each of the separate JIS factors & on the total score, using a 2-way analysis of variance. Those students who came from families with a lower level of Jewish identification who attended the Jewish high school had higher scores on Positive Group Cultural (p less than .001), Positive Group National (p less than .001) factors, & on the total score for Jewish identification (p less than .01). Those from families with a higher level of Jewish identification who attended the Jewish school scored significantly lower on the Positive Group Religious factor (p less than .01). Regardless of the level of parental Jewish identification, public high school students scored significantly higher on the Combating Anti-Semitism factor (p less than .01). The first two sets of findings are attributed to the impact of the school, the last to difference in the respective school environments. All-day Jewish education can, therefore, have an impact, provided it is continued into adolescence, when the capacity to think abstractly & to conceptualize develops. [Source: SA]

Himmelfarb, Harold S. 1980. "The Study of American Jewish Identification: How It Is Defined, Measured, Obtained, Sustained and Lost." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 19, pp. 48-60.
Abstract: This paper outlines current knowledge about Jewish identification and some of the substantive and methodological issues that still need to be resolved. It focuses upon studies which exemplify new research trends and discusses the implications of these trends for the field. Consistencies and inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of Jewish identification are described, and the work needed to make the measurement of the concept of Jewish identification more efficient is noted. The opportunities and challenges for Jews to be involved with Jewish life vary with the social environment. The following environmental influences are discussed: generation, community, socio-economic status, and the events of Jewish history (anti-Semitism). Particular socialization experiences, which reinforce or counter general environmental influences, such as the influence of parents, siblings, spouse, peers, youth groups, summer camps, and trips to Israel are also discussed. [Source: RI]

Kahn, Charlotte. 1980. "I Am That I Am: Toward a Psychology of Teenage Jewish Identity." Religious Education vol. 75, pp. 354-363.
Abstract: Reviews concepts of adolescent development (psychoanalytic, ego psychology, and cognitive) as background for suggestions about religious education for Jewish adolescents. Diaspora Jewish youth have opportunities to develop rich identities from exposure to both the Jewish culture and the prevailing cultures in which they live. Models for identity, including bicultural lives, are represented in Bible stories. Bible characters also represent the sequence of developmental tasks and provide hope in the face of the adolescent's unknown future. [Source: PI]

Maibaum, Matthew. 1980. "The New Student and Youth Movements, 1965-1972: A Perspective View on Some Social and Political Developments in American Jews as a Religio-National Group." Ph.D. Thesis, Claremont Graduate School.
Abstract: This study traces the growth, development and ontogenesis of student and youth groups on the "radical" model in Jewish American society in 1965-1972. Chapter One presents five hypotheses concerning the relationships of origin, structure, and behavior in these groups towards which the discussion is addressed. Chapter Two discusses the general surrounding environment of American Jewish college youth. The primacy of college as shaper of attitude, interest, and political socialization is stressed. The academic achievements of youth are discussed. The cross pressures he had to resolve with adult society are analyzed: as a radical he had to resolve relations with the Jewish adult world as a radical and with general radical youth as "a Jew." Chapter Three gives a political and social history of religious developments. Jewish religious groups grew because cultural pluralism on the back model became acceptable, and also from increased dissatisfaction by youth with the mode of worship and sparse ideology of parents. Most attended intensively to Orthodox Jewish guidelines, seen as more authentic, older, and more comprehensive. Chapter Four discusses "general" cultural developments. Communal living groups developed after 1965, owing origins to "Hippie" communes and to the autonomous community concept on the Amish, Essene, and ancient Jewish pietist models. New interest in Jewish science and sociology grew, an outgrowth of academic interests of youth desiring to discover the intricacies of Jewish life and problems. A Jewish youth press also arose producing up to fifty periodicals. Chapter Five discusses the broad range of "political" groups. There arose out of dissatisfaction with middle-class intrasigence, desire to infuse Jewish identity into "radical" positions, and modelling the cultural pluralist position in Black American society. They combined a radical leftist political jargon, centrist lifestyle, maintenance of historic middle-class values including law, absence of acrimony, and academic pursuits. Members attempted an integrated cultural model of "radical" Jew both religiously and politically focused in interest. Chapter Six discusses developmental and relations problems. The role of religious youth in leadership posed problems; women found their roles still unchanged in some ways; relations with the "Hippie," "liberated" and middle-class youth had to be rectified; diffuseness of types of interest members had had to be dealt with, antisemitism had to be combatted; and the future place of Jewish youth approaching adult roles within Jewish communities and organizations becoming increasingly professionalized posed problems of access to leadership. Chapter Seven restates the hypotheses. For the most part all were substantiated. The relationship between individual personality, specific group environment, and broader American and world events appeared important for further inquiry. Finally, participant observations on how active Jewish youth indicated they felt about religious, cultural and political dimensions of life, and their place in it, were made. It was characterized that your developments comprised an effort by youth to construct an identity through organizations that legitimized, and articulated, their identity in their eyes and in the eyes of others. [Source: DA]

Parker, Mitchell and Eugene L. Gaier. 1980. "Religion, Religious Beliefs, and Religious Practices among Conservative Jewish Adolescents." Adolescence vol. 15, pp. 361-374.
Abstract: Among 22 male and 24 female Jewish 13-27 yr olds, religion was defined in terms of observance. Ss completed a questionnaire composed of 3 scales: religious beliefs, religious practices, and parental practices. A trivariate step-wise multiple regression analysis showed the relationship between religious beliefs and religious practices to be linear. Only parental practices significantly accounted for any of the variance in the criteria variables, which also included Hebrew school attendance, youth group attendance, and sex. [Source: PI]

Zegans, Susan and Leonard S. Zegans. 1979. "Bar Mitzvah: A Rite for a Transitional Age." Psychoanalytic Review vol. 66, pp. 115-132.
Abstract: Examined the significance of the Jewish bar mitzvah ritual as experienced by 9 boys who participated in the ceremony, and studied the interaction of social and psychological factors that facilitated the maturational process. The bar mitzvah is one of the few surviving rites to mark the entrance into adolescence for a segment of the population, and it remains a ceremony that helps bind family and friends in a search for a meaningful symbolic reconciliation of the tensions between tradition and change. [Source: PI]

Eckstein, Simon L. 1978. "Adolescent Drug Use: A Commentary." Ontario Psychologist vol. 10, pp. 11-14.
Abstract: Reviews the literature on drug abuse among Jewish youth, concluding that the rate of incidence is considerably higher than a generation ago and that it is inversely correlated with the degree of religious involvement of the youth. Peer pressure can be used to help youth stay away from drugs. Psychologists have a moral responsibility to take an active position on community problems such as drug and alcohol abuse. Present patterns of abuse are promoted by parental failure to set standards of behavior, and by the trend toward self-gratification. [Source: PI]

Ostow, Mortimer. 1978. "The Psychologic Determinants of Jewish Identity." Pp. 311-333 in Perspectives on Jews and Judaism, edited by A. A. Chiel. New York: Rabbinical Assembly.

Adler, Moshe. 1974. "Alienation and Jewish Jesus Freaks." Judaism vol. 23, pp. 287-297.

Luz, Ehud. 1972. "Between Necessity and Will--Kibbutz Youth Discuss Their Jewishness." Immanuel vol. 1, pp. 95-95.

Frazin, Lester A. 1971. "The Relationship of Religious Value Acceptance to Self-Esteem and Degree of Isolation among Reform Jewish Adolescents." Thesis, Northern Illinois University.

Berman, Myron. 1970. "Sex and the Jewish Teenager." Religious Education vol. 65, pp. 415-421.
Abstract: Sex-with-affection among the middle classes, constituting the sexual revolution, is less evident among Jews than among Catholics and Protestants, but shows signs of increasing. Stability of the family has served as the common denominator of sexual behavior for Jews, coupled with the elevated status of women. Sex education should include: physiological factors, interpersonal relations, preparation for marriage, sociological considerations, and formulating a standard of values. Girls in a sex education class posed almost 3 times as many questions as boys. Girls' inquiries, in descending order, related to female physiology and the birth process, social implications of sexual behavior, petting, social-sexual behavior, male physiology, intercourse, and contraception. Boys' lesser concern over interpersonal relations suggests continued existence of a double standard with respect to sex. Avoiding puritanism and irrelevancy, future programs can construct a bridge for understanding sex within a total philosophy of life. [Source: PI]

Cohen, Joseph Isadore. 1970. "Group Membership and a Belief System: A Study of the Relationship between Membership in a National Jewish Religious Youth Organization and the Religious Attitudes of Its Membership." Ed.D. Thesis, New York University.

Greenberg, Irving. 1970. "The Jewish College Youth." Pp. 201-229 in The Jewish Family in a Changing World, edited by G. Rosenthal. New York: T. Yoseloff.

Propper, Martin M., Virginia Kiaune, and John B. Murray. 1970. "Alienation Syndrome among Male Adolescents in Prestige Catholic and Public High Schools." Psychological Reports vol. 27, pp. 311-315.
Abstract: Found dimensions of A. Davids' alienation syndrome egocentricity, distrust, pessimism, anxiety, and resentment among 40 Catholic parochial high school (CHS) males were comparable to those reported for 80 predominantly Jewish public high school (PHS) males. These dimensions were assessed by projective and direct techniques. CHS showed no significant differences from PHS on all 3 measures but significantly more variability on the direct test. These startling commonalities among adolescent populations differing in social class and religious affiliation present strong evidence that CHSs are not immune to the winds of change sweeping our universities and PHSs. Future research should determine whether these dimensions of alienation represent a normative trend, a transitory phenomena or a deviant aspect of psychological development among modern adolescents. (17 ref.) [Source: PI]

Ash, Roberta T. 1969. "Jewish Adolescents' Attitudes toward Religion and Ethnicity." Adolescence vol. 4, pp. 245-282.
Abstract: "Faith in knowledge applied to human progress and potentially springing from any human being is the central tenet of the Ss' sense of Jewishness; despite their claim that Jewish identity is based on religion, it seems really to be based on the belief in a universal contribution (humanistic, applied, rational and meliorative knowledge) made by a unique and persecuted people." [Source: PI]

Eisenstein, Ira. 1969. Jewish Youth and the Sexual Revolution. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

McAllister, Joy Torstrup. 1968. "A Study of Delinquent Jewish Youth in Los Angeles County." Ed.D. Thesis, University of California Los Angeles.

Sanua, Victor D. 1968. "The Jewish Adolescent: A Review of Empirical Research." Jewish Education vol. 38, pp. 36-52.
Abstract: Research on the Jewish adolescent in the past 35 yr. is critically examined. Papers discussed are classified under the following headings: (1) Jewish identification (2) values and attitudes, (3) Hebrew education and religious practices, (4) psychological studies, and (5) deviancies among Jewish adolescents. Recommendations for future research are provided. [Source: PI]

Rosen, Bernard Carl. 1965. Adolescence and Religion: The Jewish Teenager in American Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman Pub. Co.

Sanua, Victor D. 1965. "A Study of Attitudes of Adolescents Attending Jewish Community Centers in New York." Journal of Jewish Communal Service pp. 402-417.
Abstract: A report on the responses of approximately 180 Jewish adolescents, male and female, who are members of a Jewish center affiliated with the Associated YM-YWHAs of Greater New York. [Source: PI]

Bannan, Rosemary Shamborsky. 1964. "Attitudes of Jewish High School Youth toward Catholics, Protestants, and Jews." Ph.D. Thesis, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago.

Sanua, Victor D. 1964. "The Relationship between Jewish Education and Jewish Identification." Jewish Education pp. 1-14.
Abstract: Reviews a number of studies which have attempted to determine the effects of religious education on Jewish identification. 1 of the greatest problems confronted by studies attempting to measure such effects, is the difficulty of defining Jewish identification. Findings are reported on the Jewish Anti-Semitic Scale, the F-Scale and the Jewish Authoritarian Scale which were administered to approximately 180 adolescents, boys and girls, attending 6 Jewish Community Centers, some having received extensive religious education and others with little or no religious education. No relationship was found between the extensiveness of religious education and the respondents' Jewish identification among the more traditional Jewish denominations such as Orthodox Jews. No relationship was found between respondent's socioeconomic background and the extensiveness of his religiosity. Girls were found to be more positive towards the need for religious education and had enjoyed their education in this area to a greater extent than the boys. [Source: PI]

Swerdloff, Sol and Howard Rosen. 1964. The College and Career Plans of Jewish High School Youth. Washington,: B'nai B'rith Vocational Service.

Portnoy, Joseph Leon. 1962. "An Analysis of Reform Jewish Youth Participation in Jewish Activities in the Northern California Council Region." Ed.D. Thesis, New York University.

Levinson, Boris M. 1959. "The Problems of Jewish Religious Youth." Genetic Psychology Monographs vol. 60, pp. 309-348.
Abstract: An analysis of the responses of 220 Yeshiva College freshmen to the Mooney Problem Check List shows that Jewish religious youth experience the most difficulty with adjustment problems related to social and recreational activities, health and physical development, and adjustment to school work. It is hypothesized that because of the traditional Jewish emphasis on verbal learning, youth of this religious faith are exposed to extreme pressures toward academic overloading with the inevitable curtailment of social and recreational activities. 34 refs. [Source: PI]

Siegman, Aron Wolfe. 1957. "Authoritarian Attitudes in Children: I. The Effect of Age, IQ, Anxiety and Parental Religious Attitudes." Journal of Clinical Psychology pp. 338-340.
Abstract: "The Children's Antidemocratic Scale (CAS) was administered to 83 Ss with an age range of nine to thirteen. Ss' CAS scores decreased significantly with age. It was suggested that the decrease in authoritarian attitudes with age is due to the maturation of Ss' cognitive processes as well as Ss' increasing independence of parental authority. Ss with high CAS scores obtained significantly lower verbal IQ scores and significantly higher scores on the Children's Manifest Anxiety Schedule than those with low CAS scores. Finally, Ss whose parents were strictly observant of the Jewish religion tended to fall either in the upper or the lower quartile of the CAS distribution." All Ss were of the Jewish faith; most were from upper middle class homes. Ns for separate age groups varied from 11 to 21. The verbal subtests of the WISC were given children of 10 or more years of age. [Source: PI]

Laydes, Morris A. 1955. "Jewish Primary Children and Jewish Religious Symbolism." Religious Education vol. 50, pp. 398-401.
Abstract: The attempt to teach the subtle meanings of religious symbols to a child is wasteful. "It is enough that they are there and part of his familiar environment." "The child is allowed to assimilate it in his environmental experience and to understand it at his own level of comprehension." [Source: PI]

Rosen, Bernard C. 1955. "Conflicting Group Membership: A Study of Parent Peer Group Cross-Pressures." American Sociological Review pp. 155-161.
Abstract: The entire universe, 50, of Jewish high school age boys and girls in a small city were questioned regarding their religious attitudes and membership groups. A significant relationship was found between the adolescents' attitudes and the attitudes of their familial-peer groups. When the attitudes of the family and the peer group were in conflict, the attitudes of the adolescents tended to agree with the attitudes of whichever was the reference group, as determined by independent criteria. On the whole, the peer group tended to exert more influence. [Source: PI]

Unterman, Isaac. 1941. Jewish Youth in America. Philadelphia, Pa.,: The Federal press.

1940. Some Characteristics of 408 Baltimore Jewish Youth. New York: Jewish Occupational Council.

Franzblau, A. N. 1934. "Religious Belief and Character among Jewish Adolescents." Teachers College Contributions to Education p. 80.
Abstract: 701 students aged 12 to 16 years were given a battery of character tests, intelligence tests, and religious tests. The findings show that maturity measures (intelligence, age, etc.) are negatively related to the acceptance of religious beliefs, as are all measures of honesty and character. None of the evidence which was found supports the principle, fundamental in most religions, that acceptance of the traditional religious dogmas is creative of superior character. The "Religious Ideas Test" and the "Confession and Reporting Blank" developed for the study are given, together with the data on their validity and reliability. The bibliography lists 32 titles. [Source: PI]

National Study of Youth and Religion


The National Study of Youth and Religion, funded by Lilly Endowment Inc., is under the direction of Dr. Christian Smith, Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and Dr. Lisa Pearce, Assistant Professor of Sociology at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.