NOTE: THE BIOBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES BELOW ARE STILL IN DRAFT FORM. WE ARE WORKING TO COMPLETE AND EDIT THESE, AND WILL UPDATE THEM WHEN THAT WORK IS DONE. IN THE MEANTIME, WE HOPE THAT THE REFERENCE INFORMATION BELOW, EVEN IN ROUGH FORM, IS USEFUL.

 

GENDER IDENTITY AND SEX ROLES

 

            Abu Ali, Azhar and Carol A. Reisen. 1999. “Gender Role Identity among Adolescent Muslim Girls Living in the Us.” Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social vol. 18, pp. 185-192.

            Abstract: Examined societal influences on gender identity, and beliefs about behaviors and characteristics appropriate for males and females among 96 Muslim adolescent girls (aged 13-18 yrs) living in the US and attending an Islamic high school. Over 75% of the sample characterized themselves as Middle-Eastern or Arab-American. Ss completed a survey in English or Arabic containing background questions, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, and a religiosity scale. Results show that Ss had comparable femininity scores, but higher masculinity scores than normative female samples. Results also indicated that those Ss who had lived in the US for longer periods reported more masculine attributes. Greater sense of belonging to one's ethnic group and greater religiosity were associated with greater femininity. Thus, identification with one's own culture, adherence to religious practices, and exposure to foreign cultural values were related to gender role identity.  [Source: PI]

 

            Christopherson, N. 1999. “Accommodation and Resistance in Religious Fiction: Family Structures and Gender Roles.” Sociology of Religion vol. 60, pp. 439-455.

            Abstract: The relationship between religion and secular culture has often been one filled with tension. For conservative Protestants. this relationship has been reflected in a tension between resisting secular culture, and accommodating certain aspects of faith to secular ideals. This paper offers a content analysis of Christian formulaic fiction written for teenage girls. The analysis compares gender roles and family structures within religious and secular novels, to explore how the forces of accommodation and resistance work within religious popular culture. The analysis reveals that in Christian formulaic fiction written for teenage girls there is some evidence of accommodation to more "progressive" gender roles. However, most depictions of family structures and gender roles tend to support traditional notions, and resist recent cultural developments.  [Source: SC]

 

            Mercer, Joyce Ann. 1999. “Educating for Subordination: Adolescent Girls, Gender Identity, and School Violence.” Journal of Religion & Abuse vol. 1, p. 19+.

            Abstract: Article addresses questions of school violence and violence education programs from perspective of adolescent girls and how girls' fear of violence is exploited to maintain female subordination

This article uses interviews with adolescent girls to address the questions of school violence, violence education programs, and gender construction. A central assumption is that schools function alongside church and popular culture as sites for the construction of female gender identity. While research indicates the need to focus attention and intervention upon boys because of their greater likelihood of encountering violence, this article argues that such research discounts the particularly insidious ways adolescent girls experience violence in school and the way their fear of violence is exploited to maintain female subordination. The assumption that violence education programs are gender neutral is therefore problematized. After a critical treatment of three common models of violence education in schools (conflict resolution, violence prevention, and nonviolence education), the article addresses problematic theological supports for young women's ro les as victims or as deviant perpetrators in the "culture of violence" operating in school violence. The author then draws upon positive resources from Christian tradition for vital self-assertion and self-defense. She concludes with constructive proposals from a feminist perspective for transformative theological and educational practices.  [Source: CW]

 

            Dentith, Audrey Marie. 1998. “Identities through Agency, Accommodation and Resistance: A Multi-Ethnic Study of Urban Adolescent Girls in Las Vegas, Nevada.” Ph.d. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.

            Abstract: Las Vegas, Nevada was the setting for this multi-ethnic study of urban adolescent girls. New forms of capitalism in the postmodern context of this city lend ambiguity to the labor practices and consumer logic which influences young women's social relations, career choices and cultural understandings. Cultural practices apparent in casino life and the sex industry place women on the margins of society and the conservative ideologies apparent through the highly visible Christian Right and public schooling practices within the city reinforce patriarchy and women's subordinate position. This ethnographic investigated the lives of nine girls, ages 13 through 18 years from White, Asian and Latina heritage. It examined girls' lives and the production and transmission of cultural phenomena as well as the reception and response to cultural knowledge from within the context of a specific community and in relationship to the wider social movements and mediated information. A multi-theoretical framework was used to capture the disruptions and intricacies of adolescent social life in this context. Postmodernism as an aesthetic descriptor of the changing cultural landscape within the Western world; critical postmodernism and feminism as discourses of social critique were used to describe contemporary life and as tools to disrupt notions within it. Girls exercised agency through close-knit friendships, schooling practices, and sexuality. Measures of resistance were seen in the formation of counterculture groups, alternate sexual mores, and defiance of conservative religions. Girls negotiated tenuous relations between traditional gender roles and sexual behaviors.  [Source: DA]

 

            Scott, Sue M. 1998. “Exploring God-Images of Children: Implications for Pastoral Counseling.” Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary.

            Abstract: This project analyzes and compares the God-images of three children, each distinguished by a different parental figure: intact, blended, and single parent. Grounding the study in Sallie McFague's model of God as parent, the project employs David Heller's methodology to investigate each child's image of God in a two-hour interview, finding several common themes: sexual identity, female identity development, separation and inequality, intimacy, creation, comforter, authority, and dynamic action. A child's parental experience does inform who God gets to be.  [Source: RI]

 

            Ajrouch, Kristine Joyce. 1997. “Ethnicity, Gender and Identity among Second-Generation Arab Americans: Growing up Arabic in America.” Ph.d. Thesis, Wayne State University.

            Abstract: This study implements the use of focus group discussions and life history interviews with Muslim Lebanese immigrants and their adolescent children in order to explore the process by which an Arab-American identity develops among the second generation. The participants reside in Dearborn, Michigan which has the largest and most visible Arab population outside of the Middle East. The adolescents were accessed through the Dearborn Public school system on a voluntary basis. Immigrant parents were accessed through the adolescents or volunteered through the Kfarhouna Lebanese Club of America. This study was informed by the interactionist perspective and therefore approaches ethnic identity formation as a process which is continuously negotiated. The major goal of this research is to ascertain the impact of both the American culture and the Arab culture upon the formation of personal and community identities among these adolescents. Focus group discussions and life history interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and then analyzed through the development of major themes. Gender relations is a central theme to discovering the process of ethnic identity formation in this study. Much of the dialogue by parents and adolescents revealed that ethnic identity formation is a gendered process. Specifically, there are a set of restrictions placed upon the females by parents with regard to social outings, particularly with regards to dating, which does not apply to males. This difference marks not only the parent child relationship, but extends to the relationship between brother and sister. Brothers often times assume the role of protector as they watch over their sister. The social structure of the community places the female in a position where her actions not only represent herself, but extend to her family and to community members generally. She is the bearer and transmitter of the Arab ethnic identity in America. Religion is a central theme because it not only serves as a justification for the structure of gender relations, but also often times becomes conflated with definitions of Arab culture. The respondents often drew upon religious precepts to underscore the meaning of an Arab identity in America. Immigration also became a core theme. The experiences of the parents in Lebanon as well as the adolescents' perceptions of their experiences contribute to their understanding of Arab culture and an Arab identity. Respect is the aspect of traditional Arab culture which faces a major threat from the American cultural value of freedom. The negotiation of these forces arises within each major theme of gender, religion, and immigration to produce the finding that ethnic identity formation is a gendered process among children of Lebanese Muslim immigrants living in Dearborn.  [Source: DA]

 

            Mercer, Joyce Ann. 1997. “Gender, Violence, and Faith: Adolescent Girls and a Theological Anthropology of Difference.” Ph.D. Thesis, Emory University.

            Abstract: This dissertation explores gender and faith identities among a group of adolescent girls. Drawing from interview research I bring girls' discourses on gender, violence, and faith into dialogue with feminist theologians. A gap exists between the situations of these adolescent girls and the ability of feminist theologies to speak to their situations because of problems created by overly immanental theologies that cannot deal adequately with difference from a non-essentialist framework. To function in critical and visionary ways in relation to the subject positions of girls in the study group, feminist theologies need a nuanced theory of gender, an alternative perspective on Divine transcendence, a notion of community that protects difference, and a critical utopia. The central question guiding this project concerns how to configure the interplay of sameness and difference in theologically informed perspectives on gendered subjectivity without resulting in either the erasure of difference on the one hand or of relationality on the other. After surveying theories of adolescence, I propose alternative background theories from the works of Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu, Drucilla Cornell, and themes from feminist theologians as alternative perspectives on human personhood highlighting the productive power of discourse and social practices in constructing subjectivities. I develop a feminist qualitative research methodology, asserting the educational and pastoral functions of interview research. A sub-theme of the dissertation concerns the role that education plays in the construction of subjectivity. As a discursive social practice embodying cultural norms and values, education like religion can function negatively, contributing to the production of problematic subject positions for women. Both religion and education also have the potential to function as emancipatory discourses in relation to women's subjectivity. In interviews, girls explored their experiences of the educational roles of parents, schools, and religious communities in relation to becoming a female self. The work concludes with a constructive theological account of human personhood based upon the interviews with girls and their dialogue with feminist theologies, as well as the alternative background theories proposed for construing subjectivity.  [Source: DA]

 

            Rubinstein, G. 1995. “Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Political Affiliation, Religiosity, and Their Relation to Psychological Androgyny.” Sex Roles vol. 33, pp. 569-586.

            Abstract: The authoritarian personality is characterized by a traditional attitude towards gender roles that reflects its conservative ideology [T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford (1950) The Authoritarian Personality, New York: Norton]. The present study investigated the relationship between S. L. Bem's [(1974) sex roles ''The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny,'' Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 42, pp. 155-162], on the one hand, and right- wing authoritarianism [RWA; B. Altemeyer (1988) Enemies of Freedom: Understanding Right-Wing Authoritarianism, San Francisco], political affiliation, and religiosity level, on the other Subjects were 365 Jewish undergraduate students (227 women and 138 men) at a number of universities; 81 were second generation Israelis, 90 were children of Ashkenazic parents, 75 were children of Sephardic parents, and 113 were children of parents from mixed background. They completed Altemeyer's RWA scab and a shortened version of Bem's Sex Role Inventory. Political affiliation and religiosity level (variables strongly linked to the authoritarian personality theory) were also measured. Among women, the RWA mean score of the cross-sex typed subjects was significantly lower than that of the sex- typed and the undifferentiated subjects, and most of the cross- sex typed women supported the political left and defined themselves as secular while among men, no statistically significant RWA, political affiliation, and religiosity differences were found between Bem's four personality types. These results highlight gender differences in the relationships between authoritarian personality and gender-role identification. While it seems that cross-sex-typed women. tend to rebel against the status quo, the question of why similar patterns do not appear among men still remains open to speculation.  [Source: SC]

 

            Lottes, Ilsa L. and Peter J. Kuriloff. 1992. “The Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Political Orientation on the Sex Role Attitudes of College Freshmen.” Adolescence vol. 27, pp. 675-688.

            Abstract: 556 1st-yr undergraduates completed a questionnaire examining the effects of gender, race (Asian, Black, and White), religion (Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant), and political orientation (liberal and conservative) on 4 areas of sex-role ideology. They were (1) traditional attitudes toward female sexuality, (2) justification of male dominance, (3) negative attitudes toward homosexuality, and (4) attitudes toward feminism. The study assumed a social learning perspective: that sex-role beliefs are culturally determined. Of the 4 independent variables, religion and political orientation produced significant differences on all 4 sex-role measures. Liberals as compared to conservatives, and Jews as compared to Protestants were less traditional in their attitudes toward female sexuality, less accepting of male dominance and negative attitudes toward homosexuality, and more accepting of feminist attitudes.  [Source: PI]

 

            Jackson, Ellen Pastorino. 1990. “The Influence of Gender, Family Cohesion and Family Adaptability on the Domains of Adolescent Identity.” Ph.d. Thesis, The Florida State University.

            Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender, family cohesion and family adaptability on identity exploration and identity commitment in six domains: occupation, religion, politics, friendships, dating, and sex roles. Specific objectives included the assessment of (1) the interaction between family functioning and gender, and their effect on identity exploration and identity commitment, (2) the domains by which males and females define themselves, and (3) the typical sequence in which the identity domains are resolved by late adolescents. Subjects were 210 male and female college students. The FACES III Inventory provided measures of perceived cohesion and adaptability of families. The Ego-Identity Interview provided measures of identity exploration and commitment for the six domains. The findings of this study indicated a complex association between family functioning, gender, and identity. Females perceived more cohesion in the family environment than males, and higher levels of family cohesion were associated with higher levels of identity commitment. An interaction between adaptability and gender on identity exploration also was found. High-exploring males perceived high levels of adaptability in the family whereas high-exploration in females was related to low and high levels of family adaptability. Gender differences by domain also were observed. Males were more likely to have explored in politics and females were more likely to have explored sex role values. Males were more committed in the political domain whereas females were more committed in the domains of religion and dating. The results also indicated little evidence of exploration by the subjects in pursuit of religious or political identity.  [Source: DA]

 

            Schoellmann, Edward R. 1990. “A Comparative Study of Paternal Nurturance as Experienced by Select Categories of Early Adolescent Children.” Ed.d. Thesis, Texas Southern University.

            Abstract: This study investigated and compared the experiences of paternal nurturance by early adolescent children. It was designed to determine if there is a difference in a father's nurturance as experienced by the early adolescent child in varying groups in the select categories of sex, ethnicity, religious affiliation, family configuration, and family income. The child's experience of paternal nurturance was measured with the Buri, Misukanis, and Mueller Paternal Nurturance Scale (1988). This is a 24-item Likert-type scale used to measure parental nurturance from the viewpoint of an adolescent evaluating the nurturance he or she has received from his or her father (Buri, Hengel, Komar, and Richtmeier, 1989). A child begins acculturation within the setting of his/her family. There is a commonness in the socialization of persons experiencing the same culture and society. Parents and family members bring this into the home of the child; however, mothers and fathers each represent differing modes of socialization (Johnson, 1972). This study focused on the early adolescent child's experience of a father's nurturance. Aspects of the father's nurturant activity affect attachments, self-concepts, self-esteem, gender orientation, and cognitive development. Normal and healthy development in all of these areas assist socialization of the child in preparation for a wholesome, and satisfying life in the adult world. This study tested twenty Null Hypotheses of a child's experience of paternal nurturance by the father. Ten of the hypotheses were supported and ten were rejected. When one compares variables of ethnicity, family configurations, religion, age, and income, it shows that there are differences in experienced nurturance among children within these groupings. The findings of this study provide information for parents, religious leaders, teachers, counselors, and persons working in the delivery of social services. Information in this study is also of value for family life awareness programs. It can alert fathers to their parenting habits, the needs of their children, and with this awareness, possibly help them avoid future family crises.  [Source: DA]

 

            Boyer, Debra. 1989. “Male Prostitution and Homosexual Identity.” Journal of Homosexuality vol. 17, pp. 151-184.

            Abstract: Investigates how gay male adolescents who are exposed to public forms of homosexuality may develop a self-understanding that links their homosexual identity with prostitution. Data from the author's study of 47 male adolescent prostitutes and 50 controls (male adolescent delinquents) are summarized. Topics addressed include demographic characteristics, sexual orientation, religion, law, medicine and psychiatry, gender and social sex role, and the intersubjective world of homosexuality. Case study materials are provided. Homosexual prostitution is analyzed as a product of culture.  [Source: PI]

 

            Harrison, Dianne F. and R. Clark Pennell. 1989. “Contemporary Sex Roles for Adolescents: New Options or Confusion?” Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality vol. 8, pp. 27-45.

            Abstract: Reviews the various sources of social influence (parents, peers, media, schools, race, social class, and religion) and known effects of these influences on adolescent sex role development. It is suggested that the contemporary gender role development of teens may be characterized primarily by role strain and confusion, yet the new options available to them pose potential for increased individual freedom and flexibility. Social workers have the opportunity and obligation to turn confusion to positive challenge by changes at both the macro and micro levels.  [Source: PI]

 

            Schwab, Ellen Marks. 1989. “The Father-Daughter Relationship During Adolescence: Its Perceived Impact on Sex Role and Sexual Identity, Heterosexuality, Personal Adjustment and Achievement.” Ed.d. Thesis, Boston University.

            Abstract: The purpose of this research was: (1) to examine a group of high school sophomore and junior adolescent females' perceptions of their relationships with their fathers, retrospectively before and during adolescence; (2) to explore whether or not any changes in the relationship reportedly occurred after the daughter's adolescence began, and if so, what the changes were; (3) to explore the impact the father-daughter relationship reputedly had on female sex role identity, both before and after adolescence began; (4) and additionally, to explore its purported impact on the daughter's personal adjustment, heterosexuality and achievement. A volunteer group of 74 sophomore and junior high school girls were recruited from a suburban town approximately 25 miles outside of a major northeastern city in the United States. They were primarily white, Protestant or Catholic females from middle income families. Each subject was asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, and three paper and pencil instruments: Schaefer's (1965) Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory; Bem's (1981) Sex Role Inventory; and Gough and Heilbrun's Adjective Check List, including subscales measuring heterosexuality, personal adjustment and achievement. In addition, in order to collect some illustrative information, four girls were randomly selected to participate in individual, semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the data yielded by the scales confirmed or partially confirmed (p <.05) five out of seven hypotheses. Generally, these were that: (1) differences tended to exist between the androgynous and undifferentiated sex role rated groups in terms of the perceived relationships they had with their fathers, (2) relationships were found to exist between heterosexuality scores and some of the perceived paternal behaviors, (3) differences tended to exist between the androgynous and undifferentiated sex role rated groups in relationship to their heterosexuality scores, (4) a relationship was found between the masculine sex role rated group and high scores on the achievement scale, (5) and differences were found in the before and after age twelve paternal behavior ratings. The data analysis for each hypothesis were assessed and discussed as were the results of the demographic variables. Recommendations for future research, as well as implications for counseling practice, were made.  [Source: DA]

 

            Futterman, Jack Robert. 1987. “Identity Status, Sex Role, and Gender Identity in Late Adolescent Males and Females.” Ph.d. Thesis, The University of Michigan.

            Abstract: The relationships between identity status, sex role, and gender identity were investigated in 59 male and 59 female undergraduates. Identity status was assessed by a version of the Identity Status Interview (Marcia, 1966; Grotevant and Cooper, 1981) containing intrapersonal content areas of occupation, religion, and politics, and interpersonal content areas of friendship, dating, sex roles, and sexual values. Sex role was assessed by the original and short versions of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974; 1979) and by the short version of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence and Helmreich, 1978). Gender identity was assessed by the Franck Drawing Completion Test (Franck and Rosen, 1949) and by the May Measure of Gender Identity (May, 1966). The investigation of the relationship between identity status in intrapersonal areas and instrumental traits (Masculinity) such as independence and competitiveness indicated that instrumental traits were associated with high identity status in the area of occupation for both sexes and in the area of religion for females. Instrumental traits were also associated with high identity status in the areas of dating and sex roles for females. The investigation of the relationship between identity status in interpersonal areas and expressive traits (Femininity) such as kindness and sensitivity indicated that expressive traits were associated with high identity status in the areas of dating, and sex roles for males. With regard to sex role orientation, Androgyny, or the possession of a high level of both instrumental and expressive characteristics, was found to be associated with high identity status more frequently than either a Feminine or Undifferentiated sex role. Sex-typed individuals demonstrated significantly higher rates of Foreclosure than individuals of other sex role orientations. Undifferentiated individuals also demonstrated higher rates of Diffusion than Androgynous or Masculine individuals. Gender identity was related only weakly to identity status; Feminine males, as classified by the Franck Drawing Completion Test, demonstrated a tendency towards a higher rate of Diffusion than Masculine males. While there were several replications of previous research findings, the main finding of this study is the high degree to which instrumentality was associated with high identity status for females.  [Source: DA]

 

            Glass, Jennifer, Vern L. Bengtson, and Charlotte Chorn Dunham. 1986. “Attitude Similarity in Three-Generation Families: Socialization, Status Inheritance, or Reciprocal Influence?” American Sociological Review vol. 51, pp. 685-698.

            Abstract: The hypotheses of attitude transmission across three ideological domains (gender roles, politics, religion) are examined to access the adequacy of direct socialization, status inheritance, & reciprocal influence models in a developmental aging perspective. Data are from mailed questionnaires completed by 2,044 members of 3-generation families, grouped to form parent-youth (G2-G3) & grandparent-parent (G1-G2) dyads. Results suggest that: there is little convergence of parent-child attitudes with age when viewed cross-sectionally; status inheritance processes account for a substantial amount of observed parent-child similarity, but parental attitudes continue to significantly predict children's orientations after childhood; & child influences on parental attitudes are relatively strong & stable across age groups, while parental influence decreases with age, although the exact pattern of influence varies by attitude domain.  [Source: SA]

 

            Blake, Judith. 1984. “Catholicism and Fertility: On Attitudes of Young Americans.” Population and Development Review vol. 10, pp. 329-340.

            Abstract: The fertility expectations of practicing Catholic, nominal Catholic, & non-Catholic youths are compared. Analysis of a subsample (N = 29,495) of data obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics Study, "High School & Beyond" (1980, no publication information given) reveals that: (1) practicing Catholic girls expect 19% more children than non-Catholic ones, (2) practicing Catholic boys expect 17% more than their non-Catholic counterparts; (3) Catholics attending Catholic schools expect more children than those attending public schools; & (4) the more religious the Catholic youth, the larger the family size anticipated. Results suggest a positive relationship between adherence to Catholic doctrine & the definition of the maternal role in terms of traditional sex-role differentiation.  [Source: SA]

 

            Canter, Rachelle J. and Suzanne S. Ageton. 1984. “The Epidemiology of Adolescent Sex-Role Attitudes.” Sex Roles vol. 11, pp. 657-676.

            Abstract: The results of an examination of the epidemiology of sex-role attitudes among a national probability sample of 1,626 US adolescents generally corroborate earlier findings with more limited samples: more traditional sex-role attitudes are reported by M, Lc, & minority Rs. The magnitude of the sex difference overshadows the remaining differences. In addition, the impact of sex-role attitudes on conventional & delinquent behaviors & values is assessed. Sex-role groups differ in their involvement in the conventional settings of family, school, religion, & work, as well as in minor forms of delinquency & in their values concerning conventional & delinquent behaviors. The findings are discussed in terms of their contribution to general understanding of adolescent sex-role attitudes.  [Source: SA]

 

            Ireson, Carol J. 1984. “Adolescent Pregnancy and Sex Roles.” Sex Roles vol. 11, pp. 189-201.

            Abstract: An examination of the relationship between traditional sex roles & adolescent pregnancy. Sex-role orientation & related variables were measured by a multiple-choice questionnaire administered to 161 Fs aged 13-18 when they sought pregnancy tests or birth control information at one of several clinics. The hypothesis that adolescents who get pregnant are more likely than other sexually active young women to be traditional in sex-role orientation receives some support from the findings. Pregnant adolescents, in comparison with those seeking birth control, perceive themselves to be competent in more highly sex-typed activities, have lower aspirations & school grades, & have less sense of personal control over events in their lives. Pregnant teens do not seem to differ much in sex-role values from those seeking birth control, & seem less likely to aspire to traditionally F occupations. SES is the strongest discriminator between pregnant & birth control seeking teens, with the former having lower SES. Pregnant adolescents, in comparison with those experiencing negative pregnancy tests, are younger & more likely to rely on God to determine the course of their personal lives.  [Source: SA]

 

            Tzuriel, David. 1984. “Sex Role Typing and Ego Identity in Israeli, Oriental, and Western Adolescents.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology vol. 46, pp. 440-457.

            Abstract: 1,129 Oriental and Western Israeli students from religious and secular high schools participated in a study to investigate (a) the relation between sex-role typing and ego identity, (b) the distribution of sex-role typing within different cultural groups, and (c) the relative contribution of masculinity (M), femininity (F), religiousness, sex, and ethnic origin to prediction of ego identity variables. Ss completed the Bar-Ilan Sex Role Inventory and the Adolescent Ego Identity Scale, which measures 3 factors: commitment and purposefulness, solidity and continuity, and social recognition. More androgynous, less sex-typed, and less undifferentiated Ss were found among Orientals than among Westerners. Sex-role type was significantly related to each of the ego identity variables, indicating that androgynous Ss were highest followed by masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated Ss. Boys were higher than girls on Solidity and Continuity, but lower on Social Recognition. Westerners were higher than Orientals on Commitment and Purposefulness and on Total Ego Identity. Religious Ss were higher than secular Ss on Commitment and Purposefulness. Regression analyses revealed high prediction of ego identity variables with greater prediction power for M than for F in both ethnic groups. Ego identity was predicted by M among boys, whereas both M and F predicted ego identity with greater prediction power for M than for F.  [Source: PI]

 

            Pompa, Janiece Lynn. 1983. “Aspects of Sex Role and Self-Esteem in Mormon Adolescents Following a Wilderness Experience.” Ph.d. Thesis, Michigan State University.

            Abstract: This study described the psychological sex role characteristics of 67 Mormon adolescents prior to a five-day wilderness experience, as compared to a control group of 71 Utah high school students. In addition, the relationship of sex role and self-esteem in these two groups, as well as changes in the Mormon sample following their outdoor experience, were investigated. T-tests revealed that at pre-test, experimental and control females scored significantly higher than experimental and control males on sub-scales of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) measuring moral-ethical worth and social self-esteem. Experimental group females also scored significantly higher than experimental group males on TSCS measures of behavioral satisfaction and global self-esteem. With regard to psychological sex role, subjects' scores on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) revealed that at pre-test, most Mormon adolescent males were classified as Masculine, while most Mormon adolescent females were classified as Feminine and Androgynous. In addition, the number of subjects classified as cross-sex-typed was very small. A Chi-square test of independent samples revealed that the distribution of experimental group subjects in sex role categories was significantly different than the distribution in Bem's standardization sample. Although McNemar tests showed that neither male nor female experimental group members shifted from sex-typed to androgynous from pre- to post-test to a significant degree, multiple regression analyses revealed that mid-and high-scoring experimental females' BSRI Masculinity scores increased significantly from pre- to post-test, when compared to mid- and high-scoring control females. There was no significant difference in these males' BSRI Masculinity or Femininity scores, or females' Femininity scores, from pre- to post-test. Finally, it was found that the experimental group as a whole showed significantly increased TSCS global self-esteem scores from pre to post-test. A main effect for sex role was also found, and Scheffe post-hoc analyses revealed that Masculine and Androgynous subjects' scores considered together were significantly higher than Feminine and Undifferentiated subjects' scores at both pre- and post-test.  [Source: DA]

 

            Archer, Sally L. 1982. “The Lower Age Boundaries of Identity Development.” Child Development vol. 53, pp. 1551-1556.

            Abstract: 80 female and 80 male early and midadolescent 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th graders were interviewed to document the lower age boundaries of ego identity development in the content areas of vocational choice, religious beliefs, political philosophies, and sex-role preferences. Frequency of the identity achievement status increased significantly with increase in grade level. The diffusion and foreclosure statuses were most evident at all grade levels. Frequency of identity status differed by content area, with the majority of instances of identity achievement in the vocational choice and religious beliefs content areas, moratorium in vocational choice, foreclosure in sex-role preferences, and identity diffusion in political philosophies. Similar patterns of development were found for both sexes.  [Source: PI]

 

            Suziedelis, Antanas and Raymond H. Potvin. 1981. “Sex Differences in Factors Affecting Religiousness among Catholic Adolescents.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 20, pp. 38-51.

            Abstract: Three factorially derived aspects of religiousness--intrinsic, orthodoxy, practice--are examined with indices of sex-role identity and interpersonal style.  The data were analyzed separately for boys (N=297) and girls (N=344) from several Catholic parochial schools.  The result indicate that religiousness is related to sex-role definition in boys,  but not in girls; conversely, interpersonal style is more predictive of religiousness in girls.  [Source: RI]

 

            Fischer, Kay Pamela Justman. 1979. “Precocious Pregnancies: Patterns of Sexuality among White Adolescent Women in the Rural South.” Ph.d. Thesis, University of Florida.

            Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has been noted as a social phenomenon capable of affecting population trends relatively recently in America. However, patterns of early birth have long been recognized as contributors to dense populations in developing countries. Sexuality among adolescents has been explained primarily as a variant of deviant behavior and pregnancy as the result of either contraceptive incompetence or psychological forces. Study populations have commonly been derived from urban settings and often are black and/or lower socio-economic class. Clinic populations are frequently utilized. Surveying techniques have been the most prevalent investigative methodology. Adolescent sexuality represents a complex behavioral issue that can significantly affect health status and has been investigated from multiple viewpoints. The theoretical context for this study was compiled from research in human sexuality, adolescence, sex roles, demography and social anthropology. Strawberry Junction, a community in north central Florida, was selected as the study site on the basis of a field trial and demographic investigation as conforming to the typical southern rural pattern: land- based economy, religious fundamentalism, racial segregation, kin-based social organization, and complementary sex roles. The town accounts for approximately one-third of the 15,000 county residents and serves as the county seat. It contains the only high school in addition to a middle and vocational school for adolescents which together enroll about 2,500 students. The study group included one hundred white woman aged 13 to 19 and drawn primarily from the schools and seventy- five adults judged as having insight into adolescent concerns, e.g. parents, young marrieds, teachers, ministers, social agency personnel, and so forth. A small number of males (fifteen) were included as corroborative informants. A natural historical approach was used for this study in order to avoid bias inherent in a clinical population of medically-assisted contraceptors. Information was elicited via structured and informal interviews and participant observation during the period of community residency from September 1974 through June 1976. The study provides contextual information about adolescent sexuality and contraceptive behavior of white rural adolescent women. The following findings of the study are significant in understanding the behavior of these teenagers. Sexual relations are important to adolescent life and begin early. Expression differs between boys and girls. Girls' sexual aggressiveness is not intrinsically sexual but is related to achievement of social goals. Adolescents are ineffective contraceptors due to the inadequacy of their knowledge base and difficulties in accessing medical services. Folk techniques are often relied upon. Intergenerational interaction is minimal with generational insularity maintained by parents as well as teenagers. Adults do not educate their young in sexual matters and covertly allow adolescent sexual activity by according teenagers a high degree of social autonomy. The failure of adults to provide sexual instruction to youth is due in part to religious sanctions and in part to their own inadequate knowledge base. Due to sex role differentiation in the rural south adolescence is a period of apprenticeship for males but a period of deviance for girls which will terminate upon marriage. This female role-deviation is described as "male-mimicking." Marriage and childbearing are ultimate female goals; alternate role models for women are rare in the community. Precocious pregnancy is not tragic but rather begins the preordained course early. Community religious tenets and social structure prescribe the options for pregnant girls. In order of preference, they are marriage, adoption, raising by the unwed mothers, or abortion. Abortion appears to be rare. Choice of sexual partners appears to be different than described for urban settings. The pattern is often young girls partnered by older men, occasionally in incestuous relationships.  [Source: DA]

 

            Green, Richard. 1976. “One-Hundred Ten Feminine and Masculine Boys: Behavioral Contrasts and Demographic Similarities.” Archives of Sexual Behavior vol. 5, pp. 425-446.

            Abstract: Reports interview data from an ongoing study in which 60 boys, referred for extensive cross-gender behavior, and their families were compared with a matched group of 50 boys showing typical gender/role behavior and their families. There were no significant differences between families on a variety of demographic variables, including ages or educational levels of mothers or fathers, number of children per family, ordering of younger and older siblings, ethnic background, religion, political party affiliation, or current marital status of the families. Compared to masculine boys, feminine boys participated less in sports and rough-and-tumble play; were more often voluntary loners or rejected by peers; related better to girls (vs boys) of the same age; were more frequent cross-dressers; reported that female-type dolls were their favorite toy (17%); had greater interest in play-acting and taking roles in fantasy games; commented more frequently on their mothers' clothing; more often verbalized the wish to grow up to be like their mothers or to have been born a girl (83%); more often preferred their mothers (masculine boys were divided in affection between parents or preferred their fathers); were more likely to have been hospitalized at least once; and were more often separated from their biological fathers before age 5.  [Source: PI]

 

            Gecas, Victor, Darwin L. Thomas, and Andrew J. Weigert. 1973. “Social Identities in Anglo and Latin Adolescents.” Social Forces vol. 51, pp. 477-484.

            Abstract: Examined social identities, conceptualized as self-designations and measured by the Twenty Statement Test, for samples of high school adolescents in 3 societies: the United States, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. 4 identities (IDs) were explored in terms of salience, frequency, and valence: gender, religion, family, and peer. For both males and females in Latin and Anglo cultures gender emerged as the most prominent ID. Religious IDs were more frequent for Catholic adolescents. The strongest cultural difference was found with respect to negative religious IDs: these were significantly more frequent for Anglo adolescents. Positive gender and family IDs were more frequent for Latin adolescents, while peer IDs were slightly more common self-designations for Anglos. These tendencies were generally in the expected direction. Social and cultural differences between the Anglo and Latin societies were considered as explanations for variations in adolescent ID structures. (20 ref.)  [Source: PI]