Beyerlein, Kraig K. Forthcoming. “Specifying the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Educational Attainment.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.


            Regnerus, Mark D. and Jr Glen H. Elder. 2001. “Staying on Track in School: Religious Influences in High and Low-Risk Settings.” Carolina Population Center: UNC - Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center.

            Religious communities are known to instill standards of achievement in their young people, but this observation may not apply as well to disadvantaged youth and their culture.  In this study, we ask whether religious involvement enables youth in low-income neighborhoods to stay on track in school, rather than falling behind.  Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find that adolescents in low-income neighborhoods do not differ in their church attendence patterns from their peers in higher-income areas.  However, their religious involvement is much more likely to contribute to their academic progress than it is among youth in higher-income neighborhoods, even with adjustments for key risk and protective factors. This cross-level interaction involving youth church attendance shows a consistent relationship with neighborhood rates of unemployment, poverty, and female-headed households. We explore explanations for the effect and its broader implications. 

            Regnerus, Mark D. 2000. “Shaping Schooling Success: Religious Socialization and Educational Outcomes in Metropolitan Public Schools.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 39, pp. 363-370.

            This paper analyzes religious socialization as it relates to schooling success.  I propose and test a multilevel model of involvement in church activities as providing integration and motivation toward schooling success among metropolitan U.S. public high school sophomores.  Results indicate that respondents' participation in church activities is related to heightened educational expectations, and that these more intensely religious students score higher on standardized math/reading tests, even while controlling for variables that often show religious effects to be spurious.  The hypothesis that church involvement's effect varies by ecological context - it being a better predictor for students in poorer neighborhoods than average or wealthy neighborhoods - was not supported. 

            Doebler, Melanie Kay. 1999. “Successful Outcomes for Rural Young Women: A Longitudinal Investigation of Social Capital and Adolescent Development.” Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.

            Abstract: The concept of social capital, and the theory of social structure and interpersonal relations that undergirds it, has emerged as an increasingly popular explanation for the successful transition from adolescence to young adulthood. It provides a unique theoretical approach for examining successful youth development because it attempts to integrate seemingly disparate disciplinary explanations into a unified theory. According to Coleman (1988), the capital that is generated through family and community social relations is an essential factor in the successful transition to adulthood. Using longitudinal data collected over 11 years from a sample of rural, white, socially and economically disadvantaged adolescent girls from a single community in Pennsylvania's Appalachian mountains (N = 244), this study investigated the relationship between family-based and community-based social capital in adolescence and positive outcomes in young adulthood. Social capital was assessed by examining data collected during the adolescent phase of the study. Indicators of family-based social capital included family structure, mother working outside the home, number of siblings, and family relations. Community-based social capital measures included family mobility, church attendance, and participation in extra-curricular school activities, vocational activities, and volunteer activities. Outcome data were collected as part of a followup survey administered to the same sample of girls when they reached young adulthood. Indicators of positive outcomes included delaying parenthood beyond age 18, educational attainment which included participation in post-secondary education and graduating from high school, and workforce participation. Logistic regression analyses, which controlled for parental human capital and behavioral trajectory at ninth grade, revealed that family-based and community-based indicators of social capital had no effect on delaying pregnancy or parenthood beyond the age of 18. However, indicators of family-based and community-based social capital were found to be significantly related to post-secondary educational participation, high school graduation, and workforce participation. In other words, those who possessed higher degrees of social capital in adolescence were more likely to further their educations in post-secondary settings, graduate high school, and participate in the workforce as young adults. Participation in extra-curricular school activities, a measure of community-based social capital, had the strongest effect in each of the statistically significant models.  [Source: PI]


            Lehrer, E. L. 1999. “Religion as a Determinant of Educational Attainment: An Economic Perspective.” Social Science Research vol. 28, pp. 358-379.

            Abstract: This paper uses data from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households to study how the religion in which individuals rue brought up influences the number of years of schooling that they complete. In multivariate analyses where a large number of other family background factors are held constant, significant differences by religion are uncovered: educational attainment is highest among Jews and lowest among fundamentalist Protestants, with Catholics and mainline Protestants at the center of the distribution. Various channels through which religion may influence the level of schooling are considered, within the framework of a human capital model that distinguishes between supply and demand factors. The empirical findings suggest that while demand influences are most important in explaining the high education of Jews, the relatively low schooling level of fundamentalist Protestants reflects supply and demand forces of similar strength. Analyses of schooling transitions shed light on the stages of the process at which the divergences occur.  [Source: SC]


            McCoy Harrison, Carmen Jernell. 1999. “The Black Church: A Support for African American Teenage Girls.” Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Iowa.

            Abstract: This study examined the value of the Black church in supporting and nurturing African American teenage girls. Specifically, two research questions were addressed: (1) What messages do African American girls receive from their church regarding the value of education? (2) What is the nature of support African American girls draw from their church involvement that contributes to their school experiences? Through the use of a qualitative case study methodology and participant observations, five African American girls who were members of a Midwestern Black church were interviewed on two separate occasions. I spent one full day at their schools, attended regular Sunday morning worship services, Sunday school classes, youth Bible studies, and other church events for a period of seven months. I also conducted interviews with church staff, mothers, and teachers. Results of the study suggest that African American girls receive positive and supportive messages regarding the value of education, and this support comes in the form of Sunday school and Bible study, the concept of church as family, and the girls' personal relationship with God. This study found that girls who attend church regularly relied on their spiritual teachings to help them make important decisions, study for exams, and maintain Christian attitudes during challenging situations.  [Source: DA]


            Sherkat, Darren E. and Alfred Darnell. 1999. “The Effect of Parents' Fundamentalism on Children's Educational Attainment: Examining Differences by Gender and Children's Fundamentalism.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 38, pp. 23-35.

            Abstract: Data from the 1965, 1973, & 1982 waves of the Youth Parent Socialization Panel Study for 1,135 young adult respondents first interviewed as high school seniors are drawn on to demonstrate the influence of parents' Protestant fundamentalism on children's educational attainment. Results indicate that this varies by child's gender & youth's fundamentalism. Fundamentalist parents hinder the educational attainment of their nonfundamentalist children, while they actually are more supportive of male fundamentalist children's educational attainment than are nonfundamentalist parents.  [Source: SA]


            Blair, Sampson Lee and Zhenchao Qian. 1998. “Family and Asian Students' Educational Performance: A Consideration of Diversity.” Journal of Family Issues vol. 19, pp. 355-374.

            Abstract: Using a sample of Asian American students from the 1992 wave of the National Educational Longitudinal Study, the authors examined variation in educational performance among students of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Japanese ethnicities. Overall, they find significant differences in educational performance across these five Asian American groups. Religion, use of a non-English language at home, levels of parental education, number of siblings, family income, and the availability of educational materials in the home differentially affected student performance. The authors' contention that grouped analyses of Asian students may provide misleading results is validated in the comparison of the resultant regression models.  [Source: PI]


            Gaviria, Alejandro. 1998. “Three Essays on Social Interactions and Intergenerational Mobility.” Ph.d. Thesis, University of California San Diego.

            Abstract: This dissertation consists of three loosely connected essays in applied microeconomics with a special emphasis on social interactions. The first essay uses a sample of tenth-graders drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS) to test for the presence of peer-group effects on five different activities: drug use, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, church going, and dropping-out of high school. The empirical analysis reveals strong evidence of peer-group effects at the school level for all activities analyzed. These effects remain after controlling for personal and school characteristics, family background variables, and several measures of parental behavior and parental involvement in their children's daily life. Mild evidence of endogeneity bias is found for two of the five activities analyzed (drug use and alcohol drinking). The second essay studies the interplay between borrowing constraints and intergenerational relations. This essay uncovers compelling evidence showing that the inability of parents to borrow against their children's earnings depresses the earnings of poor children vis-a-vis rich children with the same ability and retards social mobility among the poor. This evidence contradicts several recent studies that argue that innate ability is the overriding determinant of educational attainment in the United States. The essay also shows that siblings inequality seems to be independent of family wealth. This finding is important because it contradicts the predictions of most economic models of resource allocation within the family. The third essay offers an explanation to the escalation of violent crime that occurred in Colombia during the 1980s. The essay considers three implicit models that isolate different types of externalities among criminals. In the first model criminals make crime more appealing to nearby residents by congesting the law enforcement system and hence lowering the probability of punishment. In the second model the interaction of career criminals and local crooks speeds up the diffusion of criminal know-how and criminal technology. In the third model the daily contact of youth with criminal adults and criminal peers results in the erosion of morals and hence in a greater predisposition toward crime. The essay shows that a myriad of empirical evidence--both statistical and anecdotal--lends support to the previous models in general and to the congestion-in-law-enforcement model in particular.  [Source: DA]


            Hughes, Jean Susan. 1998. “The Relationship of Leisure Lifestyle to Selected Risk Behaviors of Adolescents.” Ed.d Thesis, University of Arkansas.

            Abstract: Currently, there is a need to develop holistic models that address the multidimensional, psychosocial determinants of adolescent risk behavior. Approximately 40% of an adolescent's waking hours are unstructured, unsupervised discretionary time. This study surveyed 114 students in an alternative high school program. A risk behavior index was developed that was a composite measure of the incidence and severity of adolescent pregnancy, juvenile delinquency, substance use, undereducation, and stress. Using simultaneous regression, the risk index was examined in relation to (1) selected leisure variables of intrinsic leisure motivation, leisure constraints, leisure satisfaction and leisure interests; (2) selected social variables of gender, age, employment status of mother, income, number of adults in the household, relationship with parents, ruralness and number of siblings; (3) selected personal variables of school discipline problems, grade point average, absences, employment status of subject, and weekend curfew; and (4) selected group belonging variables of gang membership church membership, school athletics, school club, youth group, and community recreation agency. The leisure related measures used the intrinsic leisure motivation scale of Weissinger and Bandalos (1995), the leisure constraint scale of Raymore, Godbey, Crawford, and von Eye (1993), the leisure satisfaction scale of Ragheb and Beard (1980), and the leisure interest scale of Beard and Ragheb (1992). The results showed a negative relationship of the risk index to intrapersonal constraints, outdoor leisure interests and belonging to a church. There was a significant positive relationship between the risk index and belonging to a gang, working, problems at school and grade point average. None of the social variables were related to risk behavior. The significance of the study is the development of a risk index as a composite score. The study indicates a need to measure adolescent interests in order to meet their needs and create more involvement in structured settings.  [Source: PI]


            Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco. 1998. “Barriers to Access and Succeeding in College: Perceptions of a Group of Midwestern Urban Latino Youth.” Journal of Poverty vol. 2, pp. 69-82.

            Abstract: To explore Latino youths' perceptions of their chances of entering & succeeding in college, participant observation & survey data were gathered from 64 Hispanic youths in a community college or a church youth group in a major midwestern city. Respondents (Rs) had a shared perception that Latino students were not welcome at area colleges; they identified a series of logistic, culture-specific, & self-efficacy barriers that impeded them from fully benefiting from a college education. Rs who had not yet experienced college life were positive about pursuing a postsecondary education, but Rs who were already enrolled in college held negative views of their experiences & chances of success. Rs' recommendations for improvement ranged from language & culturally specific information campaigns directed toward the whole Latino family to cultural awareness training for faculty & other college personnel, whom they identified as gatekeepers.  [Source: SA]


            Scharf, Alice Anne. 1998. “Environmental Stress, Potential Protective Factors, and Adolescent Risk-Taking.” Ph.d. Thesis, Fordham University.

            Abstract: Recent research has examined the impact of various risk and protective factors on adolescent risk-taking behaviors; however these studies have been narrowly focused and often included aggregated indices measuring involvement in several behaviors. The present study examined contributions of life event stress and daily hassles as risk factors and religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance as protective factors for five separate behaviors including: adolescent alcohol use, marijuana use, delinquent behaviors, risky sexual behaviors, and the potential for dropping out of school. Participants included 201 urban and mostly minority high school students from all four grades. Results from simultaneous regression analyses demonstrated the following eight significant interactions: life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for alcohol use; life events and extrinsic religiosity and life events and intrinsic religiosity for marijuana use; life events and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, daily hassles and attitudinal intolerance for deviance, and life events and extrinsic religiosity for delinquent behaviors; and life events and extrinsic religiosity for the potential for dropping out of school. Only main effects were found to be significant for levels of risky sexual behaviors. Being male significantly predicted higher levels of delinquent behaviors and risky sexual behaviors. All other demographics inconsistently predicted levels of risk-taking behaviors. For males, significant interactions were found for alcohol use and delinquent behaviors. And for females, significant interactions included life event stress with extrinsic religiosity and life event stress with intrinsic religiosity for alcohol use. Results indicate that levels of religiosity and attitudinal intolerance for deviance generally had moderating effects for adolescents experiencing high levels of life events or daily hassles. Contributions of both stressors to higher levels of all five risk-taking behaviors suggest that involvement in these behaviors may be maladaptive ways to cope with stress. High levels of protective factors appear to guard adolescents against involvement in substance use, delinquency, and the potential for dropping out of school. Adolescents facing high levels of stress who have low levels of protective factors are at particular risk for engagement in risk-taking behaviors in response to stress.  [Source: DA]


            Darnell, Alfred and Darren E. Sherkat. 1997. “The Impact of Protestant Fundamentalism on Educational Attainment.” American Sociological Review vol. 62, pp. 306-315.

            Abstract: Sociological interest in the material consequences of religious orientations died out following raging debates during the 1960s and 1970s. Using insider documents from conservative Protestant communities, we reopen this issue by examining how fundamentalist Protestant cultural orientations discourage educational pursuits. Using data from the Youth Parent Socialization Panel Study we demonstrate that fundamentalist beliefs and conservative Protestant affiliation both have significant and substantial negative influences on educational attainment above and beyond social background factors.  [Source: SS]


            Noell, Alice Alston. 1997. “Developing an Ecumenical Mentoring Ministry to African- American Males.” D.min. Thesis, Drew University.

            Abstract: Mitchell Chapel Church is an African-American church located in Pittsboro, North Carolina. Mitchell, a divided church that had no sense of mission, became concerned about the plight of African-American males who did not have appropriate role models and decided to sponsor a mentoring project with a local middle school. Eighteen persons were given training. After the training sessions were completed, participants were each assigned one young African-American male student. At the end of the project, the youth showed improvement in areas of school attendance and school classwork, self- esteem, relationships and negative behavior. Mitchell Chapel embraced the gift of ministry, of nurturing others and acted out its servants role in the faith context of community.  [Source: DA]


            Thornton, James Arthur. 1997. “The Church Bridging the Gap between Community and Public Schools for Students of African Descent.” D.min. Thesis, United Theological Seminary.

            Abstract: This project was designed to bridge the gap between the community and the public schools. Its objective is to enhance the academic, social and cultural development of youth of African Descent. The project was undertaken in District 17 of the New York City Public School System, and the Salem Missionary Baptist Church, located in East Flatbush, Brooklyn. Results of the model were measured by evaluating a subset of the students' report cards and by conducting interviews with teachers and parents regarding the overall development of each student.  [Source: DA]


            Bankston, C. L. 1996. “Academic Achievement of Vietnamese American Adolescents: A Community Perspective.” Sociological Spectrum vol. 16, pp. 109-127.

            Abstract: This article investigates influences on academic achievement among Vietnamese American high school students. Theorists have offered a variety of explanations for Asian American academic success, and characteristics of individual families have received particular attention in many of these explanations. Here, it is argued that the academic success of Vietnamese American students may be understood as the product of ''social capital,'' or tightly integrated sets of associations, within Vietnamese American communities. If this is the case, it is further argued, high levels of scholastic performance among Vietnamese American youth should be proportionate to their involvement with an ethnic community. The article uses data from a specific Vietnamese American community to find whether community involvement by adolescents and their families is in fact associated with academic achievement Participation in an ethnic church, proportion of friends who are Vietnamese, and attendance at after-school Vietnamese classes are used as indicators of adolescents' community involvement. Membership in ethnic community organizations is used as an indicator of parental community involvement. Findings support the contention that the involvement of Vietnamese American adolescents and of their parents in the ethnic community are strong predictors of academic achievement and that the structure of individual families promotes scholastic performance primarily by promoting community involvement.  [Source: SC]


            Sojourner, Jeannette Swoope. 1996. “Variables That Impact the Education of African-American Students: Parental Involvement, Religious Socialization, Socioeconomic Status, Self-Concept, and Gender.” Ph.d. Thesis, The University of Akron.

            Abstract: Empirical studies investigating factors that promote academic achievement among African American students are limited, more focus has been placed on academic failure and weaknesses. The purpose of this study was to examine school and nonschool factors related to educational attainment of African American students. Several theories including Irvine's Process Model for Black Student Achievement, Gary and Booker's Empowerment of African Americans, and the Comer Model suggested variables that were found to be important to the academic success of African American children in public schools. Specifically, five predictors of mathematics and reading achievement among African American youth were used in a multiple regression analysis. These variables were parental involvement, religious socialization, self-concept, socioeconomic status, and gender. The National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) of 1988: First Follow-up was used as the data source to examine these variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine if a relationship existed between the five predictor variables and mathematics and reading achievement. In reading achievement, 17.43% of the variance was accounted for by the predictor variables. All five variables were identified as being statistically significant (p < .05). These results indicated that students with high socioeconomic status (SES) and high self-concept had the highest reading achievement. In mathematics achievement, 15.99% of the variance is accounted for by the predictor variables. The variables SES and self-concept were found to be statistically significant (p < .05). High socioeconomic status and high self-concept equals higher academic achievement.  [Source: DA]


            Steen, Todd P. 1996. “Religion and Earnings: Evidence from the Nls Youth Cohort.” International Journal of Social Economics vol. 23, p. 47.

            Abstract: Presents an article that discusses religion as it relates to earnings and human capital investment. What studies have suggested; What was examined; Why survey information has been provided; Method used for estimation on human capital earnings functions; Findings; Results of men raised as Catholics or Jews; Other results.  [Source: AS]


            Bankston, Carl L., III and Min Zhou. 1995. “Religious Participation, Ethnic Identification, and Adaptation of Vietnamese Adolescents in an Immigrant Community.” The Sociological Quarterly vol. 36, pp. 523-534.

            Abstract: This article addresses the role of religion in immigrant adaptation through the case of Vietnamese adolescents. Our results show that religious participation consistently makes a significant contribution to ethnic identification, which, in turn, facilitates positive adaptation of immigrant adolescents to American society by increasing the probability that adolescents will do well in school, set their sights on future education, and avoid some of the dangers that confront contemporary young people. These results suggest that an immigrant congregation does not function simply as a means of maintaining a psychologically comforting sense of ethnicity while group members drop ethnic traits in their day-to-day lives. Nor does identification with an ethnic group appear to limit life chances by binding group members to ethnic traits. On the contrary, the ethnic religious participation examined here, to a large extent, facilitates adjustment to the host society precisely because it promotes the cultivation of a distinctive ethnicity, that, in turn, helps young people to reach higher levels of academic achievement and to avoid dangerous and destructive forms of behavior.  [Source: SS]


            Elder, Glen H., Jr. and Stephen T. Russell. 1995. “Academic Success and Failure among Disadvantaged Youth.” Paper presented at American Sociological Association (ASA), 1995.

            Abstract: Single-parent households are often presumed to be disadvantaged environments for children's academic success. In this study of single- & two-parent midwestern families, it is demonstrated that children living with single parents are less successful in school than are their peers living with both parents. The difference is modest & is readily explained by social & economic influences, personal attributes & social ties of mother, & socialization & child behavior. The most successful children came from homes with minimal economic pressure & a mother who is educated, an effective parent, has interest in the child's education, & has religious & school ties in the community. Among children from single-parent families, antisocial behavior is the strongest correlate of academic performance. Findings reveal that children who performed at higher levels than expected based on the preceding factors are distinguished by mothers with strong ties to community organizations. The implications of these findings for theoretical models that link family processes to academic performance are discussed, with emphasis on differences between single- & two-parent families.  [Source: SA]


            Feldman, Lillian M. 1995. “Family and Community Supports Provided for Low-Income Children in the Syracuse Prekindergarten Program: A Follow-up Study.” Early Child Development and Care vol. 111, pp. 69-85.

            Abstract: Seventeen years after they participated in the Syracuse Pre- kindergarten Program, the school and life experiences of former three- and four-year old poor children were examined in a qualitative research study. Ten school-achieving and ten school non-achieving students and their mothers were interviewed in-depth. Important data emerged concerning influences from family and community which shaped the lives of the students from pre-kindergarten through adulthood. Topics reported are concerned with role models, structure of the family, the role of the mother including child rearing practices, the influence of the older siblings, and other family supports including the church. Verbatim interview data defy stereotypes of poor families projected on news media.  [Source: EA]


            Gunn, Faye S. 1995. “Addressing Academic Failure and the Root of Its Cause: The Church Assisting African-American Youth.” Thesis, Wesley Theological Seminary.

            Abstract: Church members in a tutorial ministry assisted African-American students experiencing academic failure. The program offered one-on-one academic tutoring, motivational seminars, group discussions, and devotions based on biblical and theological themes: human beings created in the image of God; the covenant community and its responsibility for mutual nurturing; and, the mission and ministry of the church. Pre- and post-intervention interviews were conducted. A literature review relates to academic failure of African-American students. This tutorial ministry empowered African-American youth to experience academic success.  [Source: RI]


            Johnson, Ollie Williams. 1995. “The Relationship of Selected Personal Variables and Academic Achievement of Low Socioeconomic Status African American Male Students.” PHD Thesis, Mississippi State University.

            Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the academic achievement of low socioeconomic status (SES) African-American male students and the personal variables of; (1) family structure, (2) number of siblings, (3) educational level of parents, (4) family meals eaten together, (5) clearly defined parent rules in the home, (6) school attendance, (7) number of hours per day spent reading other than school work, (8) number of hours per day spent watching television, (9) time spent home alone after school before parents arrive (latchkey), (10) church attendance, and (11) discipline history. This study is a sample of 200 subjects taken from a population of 400 eighth grade African-American male students from public schools located in an urban school district in Mississippi. A correlational research design was used for this study. This method analyzes research data and was useful in studying problems in education. Multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between the criterion variable of academic success and various combinations of predictor variables. The variables of (1) discipline history, (2) number of siblings, (3) birth order, and (4) school attendance accounted for most of the variance in the study. The findings of this study concluded that African-American male students who had regular school attendance, exhibited the least disruptive behavior, had the fewest number of siblings and had the earliest birth order experienced the greatest academic success.  [Source: PI]


            Keysar, A. and B. A. Kosmin. 1995. “The Impact of Religious Identification on Differences in Educational-Attainment among American Women in 1990.” Journal For the Scientific Study of Religion vol. 34, pp. 49-62.

            Abstract: This study demonstrates that religion is significantly associated with the acquisition of postsecondary education by white women in the contemporary United States. Religion has both direct and indirect effects on educational attainment. Religious traditions differ in the degree to which they emphasize the importance of the family, marriage, and child bearing. This, in turn, influences how much higher education the women of the group are likely to obtain. Thus, religion has an indirect effect on the educational levels of women through their demographic behavior. In addition, we show that there is a relationship between religion and the education of white women that is maintained beyond other sociodemographic factors. A refined model involving 12 religious identifications on a conservative-liberal continuum, subjected to multivariate analyses, illustrates that educational differences tend to be wider among older women. Surprisingly, Conservative Protestant and No Religion adherents do not form the polarities, but have similar middle-order levels of educational attainment.  [Source: SC]


            Parcel, T. L. and L. E. Geschwender. 1995. “Explaining Southern Disadvantage in Verbal Facility among Young-Children.” Social Forces vol. 73, pp. 841-874.

            Abstract: Data on children from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) suggest that children aged 3 to 6 from the Deep South score lower than children in the north central stales on PPVT-R, a standardized test of receptive vocabulary, while children in the Northeast and West and Border South score close to children in the north central states. We argue that regional variation in demographic composition/social class, and in patterns of family social capital as influenced by regional variations in subculture account for the findings. Descriptive analyses reveal regional differences in maternal characteristics and attitudes, family composition, parental working conditions, and children's home environments, most suggesting southern disadvantage. Multivariate analyses suggest that regional variation in maternal race and ethnicity account for the observed differences among girls. Among boys, these factors - in addition to maternal background, socialization, and very frequent church attendance+ADs- maternal working conditions+ADs- and children's home environments - contribute to explaining the differences.  [Source: SC]


            Sanders, Mavis Grovenia. 1995. “Breaking the Cycle of Reproduction: The Effect of Communities, Families and Schools on the Academic Achievement of Urban African-American Youth.” Ph.d. Thesis, Stanford University.

            Abstract: A number of theorists have posited a direct relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. In so doing, they have failed to acknowledge the potential of students, teachers, parents, and community members to mediate this relationship. This failure is particularly noticeable in educational research focussed on African American urban youth, one of the populations at greatest risk for low academic achievement and school drop-out. To address this oversight, this study identifies social support factors within the African American community that can mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement through their influence on school related attitudes and behaviors. To achieve the study's objectives, approximately 800 African American eighth grade students in an urban school district in the south-eastern United States were surveyed to measure (1) the level of social and academic support received from family, church, teachers and peers, (2) school related attitudes and behaviors, i.e. academic self-concept, achievement ideology and in- school behavior, (3) socioeconomic status, and (4) academic achievement. The data was coded and examined using regression analysis. To aid in the interpretation of the quantitative data, five percent (5%) of the research population were interviewed. These interviews were face-to-face, semi-structured, and lasted approximately one hour each. The findings of this study indicate that socioeconomic status has an indirect influence on student academic achievement through its direct and indirect effects on student in-school behavior. The study's findings also indicate, however, that family, church, teachers and peers, through their influence on academic self-concept, achievement ideology and in-school behavior, can mitigate the influence of socioeconomic status on academic achievement. The implications of these findings are that individuals and institutions within the African American community can provide urban youth with the social support necessary for success in a variety of domains, including school. Thus innovative collaborations between schools, families and community institutions, such as the church, can serve to improve the educational experience of, and outcomes for, students placed at risk.  [Source: DA]


            Helm, Sharron. 1994. “The Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, Spirituality, Personal Characteristics, and Academic Success of African American Young Adults.” Ed.d. Thesis, The University of Michigan.

            Abstract: Some African-American young adults in college have overcome seemingly insurmountable odds to become academically successful, while others are considered academically unsuccessful as a result of dropping out of school. This study attempted to compare the two groups to determine if internalized factors that influence academic success could be isolated. These internalized factors included general and social self-efficacy, locus of control, and spirituality. Students were compared on personal and family demographics. Successful African-American students were more likely to be single, with no children, and raised in an intact family. Their mothers and fathers had either completed high school or some college. The educational levels of parents of academically unsuccessful African-American tended to be somewhat higher than the academically successful young adults. The majority of academically successful students were in their sophomore years and were carrying 12 credit hours per semester. Their self-reported grade point averages ranged from 2.51 to 3.50 and they were pursuing degrees in business, engineering, or fine and performing arts. Findings of this study showed no relationship between general and social self-efficacy, locus of control, spirituality and selected demographic variables including educational level of mother and father, number of brothers and sisters, birth order of participants, number of credit hours taken in a semester, and course of study. When academically successful African-American young adults were compared with academically unsuccessful African-American young adults, a significant difference was found for general self- efficacy. The other variables were not found to be statistically significant, although the academically successful group appeared to be more internal, with higher levels of social self-efficacy. Spirituality did not differ between the two groups. Recommendations for further research were presented which included a reference to continue research in the area of successful African-American youth to determine patterns that could be extrapolated to younger African- Americans.  [Source: DA]


            Kwon, Soon taek. 1992. “Evidence on the Influence of Religiosity and Academic Grades in High School Students.” Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.


            Schaar, Sue Ann. 1992. “Gifted Children of the Clergy: An Exploratory Study of Systemic Influences on Achievement.” Ed.d. Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.

            Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are factors, positive or negative, which are peculiar to life in the parsonage and which affect the adjustment, and ultimately the possibility for realization of promise, in gifted children of the clergy (PKs). The first component of this study is a survey which gathered baseline data on the numbers and kinds of gifted PKs and parents' perceptions of adjustment in these individuals as adolescents. Data were gathered from 90 clergy families within the Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod. Interviews with adolescent and adult PKs and clergy parents from 13 families in several liturgical denominations comprise the second component. The third is a case study of a clergy family with two gifted adolescents, one highly achieving and one seriously underachieving, analyzed from the perspective of Bronfenbrenner's four levels of systemic influence. Variables in all three components were analyzed as to their relationship with adjustment and achievement in gifted PKs: roles and expectations of self and others, interpersonal relationships with family and peers, frequent relocation, schooling, finances, time stresses, and special assets of being a PK. The most important factor was that of family relationships; important sub-factors were time commitments of parents and the degree of meaningful family communication. Appropriate schooling was the only stable variable under consideration. All others, including expectations of self and others, peer and parishioner relationships, relocation, finances, and time stress, exhibited negative effects on some PKs, positive on some, and both consequences on others. Results are not generalizable to all clergy families because of differences within families, congregations, and communities. However, clear patterns emerged concerning personalities, family relationships, importance of the PK myth, boundary ambiguity between the parents' workplaces and the home, and the effects of macrosystemic influence. The polarity expressed by the PK myth seems to be true as demonstrated by the children in these families and surely plays a major role in the self-fulfilling prophecy. Understanding by parents, educators, and society in general is necessary if fulfillment of promise is to become a reality for many of these gifted children.  [Source: DA]


            Brown, Diane R.  and Lawrence E. Gary. 1991. “Religious Socialization and Educational Attainment among African Americans: An Empirical Assessment.” Journal of Negro Education vol. 60, pp. 411-426.


            Gill, Walter. 1991. “Jewish Day Schools and Afrocentric Programs as Models for Educating African American Youth.” Journal of Negro Education vol. 60, pp. 566-580.

            Abstract: Argues that the success of Jewish day schools and Afrocentric educational programs have implications for educators who wish to help African American students achieve positive self-concept development and academic success. These schools have a record of successful achievement in student cognition and continuity skills. Their emphasis on moral and spiritual development has enabled them to better inculcate positive self-concept behaviors and academic achievement among their students at a level exceeding that of public schools with regard to African American populations. The low incidence of behavioral problems in Jewish schools has been attributed to the ability of the teachers to establish self-discipline behaviors in their students. Responsibility is shifted to students by degrees as they show themselves capable of assuming it.  [Source: PI]


            Marsh, H. W. 1991. “Public, Catholic Single-Sex, and Catholic Coeducational High- Schools - Their Effects on Achievement, Affect, and Behaviors.” American Journal of Education vol. 99, pp. 320-356.


            Thomas, Darwin L. and Craig Carver. 1990. “Religion and Adolescent Social Competence.” Pp. 195-219 in Developing Social Competency in Adolescence. Advances in Adolescent Development, Vol. 3, edited by Thomas P. Gullotta and Gerald R. Adams. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

            Abstract: (from the chapter) assesses the relative influence of religious variables on adolescent prosocial development an attempt is made to situate the increasing interest in the study of religion and the social sciences with the renewed interest in charting the stages of religious growth and development along with adolescent growth and development the effect of religion in the life of the adolescent is developed by considering both theory and research as they contribute to our understanding of why and how the religion variables seem to lead to prosocial developments in the areas of self-esteem, academic and occupational achievement, sexual attitudes and behavior, and substance addiction and abuse as well as in the various belief and behavioral dimensions of religiosity per se attempts to derive central theoretical propositions by looking at the basic relationships that emerge in each of the above areas.  [Source: PI]


            Munson, Barbara R. 1989. “The Relationship among Religious Orientation, Level of Moral Reasoning, and Selective Educational Interventions of Students Attending a Christian High School.” Thesis, Portland State University.


            Zern, David S. 1989. “Some Connections between Increasing Religiousness and Academic Accomplishment in a College Population.” Adolescence vol. 24, pp. 141-154.

            Abstract: A sample of 251 college students were asked via a 6-item questionnaire to describe their own degree of religiousness & that of the home atmosphere in which they grew up. Ss gave self-report measures of their total religiousness, belief in God, & ritual observance. When these measures were related separately to their cumulative grade point averages (GPAs), no relationship was found for either present or past degree of religiousness. However, on each of the three measures of religiousness, about 75% of the approximately 10% of the sample who reported being more religious currently than in the atmosphere in which they grew up had GPAs above the sample mean, while fewer than 50% of the rest of the sample did.  [Source: SA]


            Wood, James, Karen Chapin, and Mary Elizabeth Hannah. 1988. “Family Environment and Its Relationship to Underachievement.” Adolescence vol. 23, pp. 283-290.

            Abstract: An attempt is made to identify qualitative differences that distinguish between families of underachieving high school students & those of students who achieve according to their ability. Students (N = 52) at a small, religiously oriented private school in the suburban US completed the Family Environment Scale & the Differential Aptitude Test. Analysis of variance reveals four factors that differentiate the families of achievers & underachievers: moral-religious emphasis, achievement orientation, family cohesiveness, & an emphasis on autonomous action.  [Source: SA]


            Cheong, Keywon, Michael B. Toney, and William F. Stinner. 1986. “School Performance of Migrant and Native Youth in Nonmetropolitan Areas of Utah.” Paper presented at Rural Sociological Society (RSS), 1986.

            Abstract: An assessment of the impacts of population growth & migration status on academic performance & participation of high school seniors in nonmetropolitan areas of Utah, using data from a survey of the state's 1980 graduating seniors. Indicators of academic performance are: (1) the number of organizations in which Rs participated, & (2) self-reported grade point average (GPA). Comparisons between migrants & natives in rapidly & nonrapidly growing communities indicate lower rates of participation & lower GPAs for newcomers in rapid-growth communities only. High school seniors in rapidly growing areas were less likely to participate in extracurricular organizations but did not report lower GPAs than students in moderate or slowly growing areas. The religious preference of students, Mormon vs non-Mormon, rather than community growth or migration status, has the most significant impact on school participation.  [Source: SA]


            Freeman, Richard B. 1986. “Who Escapes? The Relation of Churchgoing and Other Background Factors to the Socioeconomic Performance of Black Male Youths from Inner-City Tracts.” Pp. 353-376 in The Black Youth Employment Crisis, edited by B. Freeman Richard and J. Holzer Harry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


            Saigh, Philip A. 1986. “Religious Symbols and the Wisc--R Performance of Roman Catholic Junior High School Students.” Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 147, pp. 417-418.

            Abstract: Assessed the effects of examiner religion on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC--R) scores of 48 Roman Catholic adolescents (mean age 13.7 yrs). Pre-experimental IQ scores were determined, and Ss were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 testing groups: Group 1's examiner wore a noticeable cross; Group 2's examiner wore a Star of David; and Group 3's examiner wore no religious symbol. Group 1's scaled scores significantly exceeded the scores of Group 2, indicating that the perceived presence of an examiner from another faith may have induced situational anxiety in Group 2.  [Source: PI]


            Valez, William. 1985. “Finishing College: The Effects of College Type.” Sociology of Education vol. 58, pp. 191-200.

            Abstract: Used multivariate analysis to determine the odds that high school seniors would earn a bachelor's degree. Data on 3,169 students (84% White) were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (National Center for Education Statistics, 1980). Ss who started in 2-yr colleges were less likely to finish than Ss who started in 4-yr colleges. However, other variables such as religious background (i.e., being Jewish); educational aspirations; academic performance in college; participation in a work-study program; and living on campus exerted substantial positive effects on finishing. Non-White Ss with low educational aspirations were more likely to finish college than similar White Ss, but White Ss with high aspirations were more likely to finish than comparable non-White Ss.  [Source: PI]


            Koubek, Richard J. 1984. “Correlation between Religious Commitment and Students' Achievement.” Psychological Reports vol. 54, p. 262.

            Abstract: Administered a questionnaire on GPA and religious commitment to 44 13-28 yr old Ss who attended Assembly of God churches in northern Illinois. Results show a significant relationship between self-reported GPA and religious commitment. It is noted that an underlying factor such as formal motivation may influence both variables.  [Source: PI]


            Oh, Chung S. 1984. “The Impact of Religiosity on Academic Achievement among High School Students.” Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.


            Saigh, Philip H., Timothy O'Keefe, and Fouad Antoun. 1984. “Religious Symbols and the Wisc--R Performance of Roman Catholic Parochial School Students.” Journal of Genetic Psychology vol. 145, pp. 159-166.

            Abstract: 42 Catholic 5th-, 6th-, and 7th-grade students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 examiners and to 1 of 3 test conditions. Ss in the 1st group were tested as a moderately proportioned gold cross was worn by the examiner, and Ss in the 2nd group were tested as a similarly proportioned gold Star of David was worn. No religious symbols were worn as the 3rd group was tested. ANOVAs revealed that performances on the WISC--R Arithmetic, Digit Span, Picture Completion, and Block Design subtests were significantly different for the cross and Star of David groups. There were no significant differences between the no-symbol and Star of David groups. Results are discussed in terms of test anxiety, personality theory, and age/developmental factors.  [Source: PI]


            Hummel, Raymond and Linda L. Roselli. 1983. “Identity Status and Academic Achievement in Female Adolescents.” Adolescence vol. 18, pp. 17-27.

            Abstract: Theories of E. Erikson (1950) and J. E. Marcia (1964, 1966) were applied to assess the relation between identity status and academic achievement in 20 female high school seniors. The differences in identity status between bright, high-achieving vs underachieving Ss were ascertained separately for occupational planning, attitudes toward religion, and peer relations. It was hypothesized that the component of identity most closely linked to high achievement in school was having made commitments to certain goals and values. It was found instead that experiencing and working through crises in beliefs and values were more closely associated with successful academic achievement and formation of identity among Ss than having made specific commitments to career or ideology.  [Source: PI]


            Khan, Mohammad Monawar. 1981. “Sequential Analysis of Fertility Orientations and Behavior of Teenage Mothers.” Ph.D. Thesis, The Catholic University of America.

            Abstract: Purpose. Most previous studies of teenage motherhood relied on a cross sectional comparison between teenage and non-teenage mothers. Variations in life course development among teenage mothers subsequent to their first birth remain largely unknown. The decade of the 1960's to 1970's was a period of 'contraceptive Revolution' and continued trend towards increased female labor force participation and college education. Given the impact of this period change, the aim of the present study is: (1) to examine the temporal trends in life course development of teenage and non-teenage mothers regarding marital disruption and remarriage, educational and economic attainments, and contraceptive behavior; (2) to study subsequent fertility in relation to the effects of timing of first birth, the role-related variables such as work and education in the temporal context; (3) to explore factors differentiating patterns of life course development among teenage mothers. Data and Methodology. Currently married white mothers, aged 20-40, were selected from the 1965 National Fertility Survey and the 1973 Survey of Family Growth. Considering age and period effects on marriage, education and labor force participation, parity progression (a measure of subsequent fertility) and childbearing intentions at second parity were analyzed. Log-linear analysis was employed for analysis of fertility behavior and intentions. Factors affecting patterns of subsequent life course development were explored by examining profiles of subgroups of teenage mothers. Results. Chances of college education were not much improved for teenage mothers during the 1960's and 1970's. Teenage mothers were more likely to combine a work role and childcare but with no real gains in income and they experienced marital disruption more than non-teenage mothers. The temporal increase in contraceptive use after the first birth did not differentiate teenage and non-teenage mothers. Teenage mothers were more likely to be at higher parities than non-teenage mothers at a given age despite the fact that their fertility intentions were lower than non-teenage mothers. Parity progressions were differentiable significantly by role-related variables not only between teenage and non-teenage mothers but also within teenage mothers. College educated teenage mothers were likely to limit their susequent fertility by delaying or not having their second birth. College educated teenage mothers tended to experience remarriage, marrying college educated husbands, have a higher parental SES and fewer siblings. They tended to participate in the labor force between marriage and first birth and currently more than non-college educated teenage mothers. The former attended church more often than the latter. Some of these differences imply that college educated teenage mothers had relatively favorable support systems. The programs intended to assist teenage mothers should recognize the importance of continuation of education among teenage mothers and their support systems beyond provision of contraceptives.  [Source: DA]


            Bloch, Richard and Steven I. Miller. 1976. “Educational, Social and Religious Behavior of Middle-Class Suburban Youth.” Revista Internacional de Sociologia vol. 34, pp. 163-177.

            Abstract: The purpose is to determine what variables are related to the contextual effects of schooling & in what way school variables are related to delinquent behavior. The study was conducted in 1972 on 1,105 teenage respondents in Skokie, Ill. The results showed that while most of the respondents could be classified as basically content youngsters, some tensions were noted between the teenagers & their parents & school administrators. Age, attitudes, & behavior were strongly related. Older respondents to the questionnaire tended to commit more criminal acts than younger ones, defined as under the age of fifteen. The increase in delinquency was attributed to lack of facilities for older teenagers & maturation problems. While in Skokie (& Niles, Ill), younger adolescents felt more positively about the quality of the education they were getting (defined as "knowledge of the world" in the questionnaire), in Evanston, Ill, it was the reverse. The overall conclusion is that the now popular hypothesis of suburban living is associated with increased rates of juvenile delinquency should be revised. Most of the upper middle class teenagers who took part in this survey were essentially content with their lives, schools, & community.  [Source: SA]


            Chambers, Juanita and Betty Dusseault. 1972. “Characteristics of College-Age Gifted.” Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association vol. 7, pp. 527-528.

            Abstract: Compared 200 gifted college-age youth with average peer-age groups with regard to religion, socioeconomic status, scholastic achievement, and personality traits. Greatest differences were found in socioeconomic status and parental education. In educational achievement, gifted Ss were only slightly higher. In personality traits, using CPI scales, males were less well adjusted on 9 of the 18 scales; females scored significantly lower on 10. Findings are discussed in relation to (a) traditional conclusions regarding intellectual giftedness, and (b) conclusions reached by Terman and associates.  [Source: PI]


            Cope, Robert G. 1968. “Selected Omnibus Personality Inventory Scales and Their Relationship to a College's Attrition.” Educational and Psychological Measurement vol. 28, pp. 599-603.



            Datta, Lois Ellin. 1967. “Family Religious Background and Early Scientific Creativity.” American Sociological Review vol. 32, pp. 626-635.

            Abstract: That achievement in the area of science varies systematically with religious background has been reported by some and cited by many. The

inference is drawn that some values and attitudes associated with particular religious backgrounds are more conducive to scientific interest and

achievement than are those associated with other religious backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to determine if the reported relationship

between religion and "creative" achievement found among adult male scientists was also found among adolescents who varied in potential

scientific creativity as demonstrated by the projects they submitted to the Westinghouse Science Talent Search. In the adolescent sample, the

potential scientific creativity ratings of projects submitted by students from Jewish families were higher than were the ratings of projects

submitted by students from Catholic, "liberal" Protestant, and "fundamentalist" Protestant backgrounds. Interpretations of the religious

background distributions that directly relate ascribed group values to the development of potential scientific creativity would be misleading,

however, since the association was markedly reduced for Ss from larger cities and statistically reliable only for Ss from smaller hometowns and

lower socioeconomic status.  [Source: JS]


            Elder, Glen H. Jr. 1965. “Family Structure and Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Analysis.” American Sociological Review vol. 30, pp. 81-96.

            Abstract: Studies of the relation between family structure and achievement have found that parental dominance is negatively related to the desire to

achieve and to scholastic progress. As a test of the effects of parental dominance on the development of achievement potential, the association

between perceived parent-adolescent relations and the likelihood of reaching secondary school was investigated in a secondary analysis of data

from approximately 1,000 interviewees ages 18 and over in the U.S., Great Britain, West Germany, Italy, and Mexico. Parental dominance in

adolescence was negatively associated with the probability of reaching secondary school in all five nations. Size of birthplace, religion, and

social class were also associated with educational achievement, but parental dominance retained its effects even when these variables were

controlled, except under conditions indicating a lack of educational opportunity  [Source: JS]


            Watson, Charles G. 1965. “Cross-Validation of Certain Background Variables as Predictors of Academic Achievement.”  Journal of Educational Research pp. 147-148.

            Abstract: Ss were 84 male upper classmen volunteers from an elementary psychology course at the State University of Iowa. On a Personality Background Inventory, students were asked to report the educational level of their fathers and mothers, number of siblings, size of high school graduating class, high school extracurricular activities, hometown population, rural vs. urban home setting, family religious preference, and birth order. Grade-point average was used as a measure of academic achievement. With the exception of father's educational level, none of the predictors showed a relationship to the criterion or aptitude.  [Source: PI]


            Blumenfeld, W. S., R. D. Franklin, and H. H. Remmers. 1962. “Teenagers' Attitudes toward Study Habits, Vocational Plans, Religious Beliefs, and Luck.” Purdue Oppinion Panel Poll Report vol. 22, p. 11.

            Abstract: "This report presents the results of the initial poll of the 1962-1963 school year. The questionnaire was administered to approximately 8000 high school students . . . . When asked as to their main reason for studying outside of school, the majority (62%) of the panel said to improve grades. Another 23% gave career preparation as their primary motive. Such responses were most common among the non-believers in luck." Vocational plans tend to be in the direction of more college planning. "More than 1/2 of the panel (57%) have tried to get career information from a school source such as the library or the guidance counselor. This group appears to be non-luck-oriented." Approximately 38% of youth agree that religious faith is better than logic for solving life's important problems, 68% agree that fate in the here-after depends on present behavior, 84% agree that God knows every thought and movement, 59% agree that God controls everything, and 25% believe that their prayers are answered. The luck-oriented group believes that a great deal of what happens is beyond their control, and the "non-luck" group believes that one can control personally a great deal of what happens.  [Source: PI]