NOTE: THE BIOBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES BELOW ARE STILL IN DRAFT FORM. WE ARE WORKING TO COMPLETE AND EDIT THESE, AND WILL UPDATE THEM WHEN THAT WORK IS DONE. IN THE MEANTIME, WE HOPE THAT THE REFERENCE INFORMATION BELOW, EVEN IN ROUGH FORM, IS USEFUL.

 

MINORITY GROUPS – ASIAN

 

            Rawson, Katie Jean. 1999. “Evangelizing East Asian Students in the United States with Special Reference to Media Tools.” D.miss. Thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary School of World Mission.

            Abstract: This dissertation explores issues involved in evangelizing and discipling East Asian students in the United States. Factors necessary for the production and use of media tools with this group are described. Chinese students from China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, Japanese and Korean students are studied with special emphasis on the East Asian Generation X. Receptors are described from the perspectives of acculturation patterns and worldview change, attractions and obstacles to faith and conversion patterns. Needs of students at three points in the spiritual decision process are identified, and sixty-four media tools which might meet those needs are evaluated. The study concludes with guidelines for the production and use of media tools with these students. A literature review on acculturation and worldview change led to the hypotheses that these students have traditional (Confucian and shamanistic), modern and postmodern assumptions in their worldviews and that the primary social network in the United States is the major influence on worldview change. It was further hypothesized that these students are more similar to their American peers than previous generations of foreign students were. Thirty-six new converts and seekers were interviewed concerning attractions and obstacles to faith and conversion patterns. This data was supplemented by surveys of seventy-one students. The hypotheses introduced above were supported by interview and survey data. The strongest attractions to faith were Christian groups and individuals; obstacles included difficulty believing in God, other unanswered apologetics questions and failure to experience God. The most common conversion pattern was conversion to community before conversion to Christ; the second was crisis followed by commitment. A third pattern, reversion to a previous faith following failure to get results from God, was noted. It was observed that the needs of students preparing to return home are often not met sufficiently. Many of the media tools evaluated seemed to have been produced on the assumption of sameness rather than the assumption of difference; this made them inadequate for international students. It was recommended that evangelism and discipling be based in international communities with student leadership. Media tools could then be used to supplement relational evangelism.  [Source: DA]

 

            Blair, Sampson Lee and Zhenchao Qian. 1998. “Family and Asian Students' Educational Performance: A Consideration of Diversity.” Journal of Family Issues vol. 19, pp. 355-374.

            Abstract: Using a sample of Asian American students from the 1992 wave of the National Educational Longitudinal Study, the authors examined variation in educational performance among students of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Japanese ethnicities. Overall, they find significant differences in educational performance across these five Asian American groups. Religion, use of a non-English language at home, levels of parental education, number of siblings, family income, and the availability of educational materials in the home differentially affected student performance. The authors' contention that grouped analyses of Asian students may provide misleading results is validated in the comparison of the resultant regression models.  [Source: PI]

 

            Chai, Karen J. 1998. “Competing for the Second Generation: English-Language Ministry at a Korean Protestant Church.” Pp. 295-331 in Gatherings in Diaspora: Religious Communities and the New Immigration, edited by R. Stephen Warner and Judith G. Wittner. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

             

            Chung, Jungsook Park. 1998. “A Study of Self-Esteem in Selected Korean-American Youth in the Fort Worth-Dallas Area.” Ph.d. Thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.

            Abstract: Problem. The problem of this study was to discover certain significant predictors of self-esteem among Korean-American adolescents and to determine the difference in self-esteem scores across the variables of gender, length of residence in the United States, parents' marital structure, language preference, and significant others. Procedures. The population for this study consisted of Korean-American adolescents, ranging from the seventh to the ninth grade who attend Korean Protestant churches in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Three different statistical procedures were used for this study; Multiple Regression procedure, t-test, and a One-Way ANOVA. Findings. First, the Multiple Regression procedure revealed that there were no significant predictors of self-esteem within this group. Secondly, the results of three analyses of t-tests inferred that the self-esteem scores did not vary according to gender, length of residence in the United States, or to the parents' marital structure. Thirdly, a One-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze language preference; Korean, English, or both and the selection of significant others, parents, friends, or teachers. The result of the language preference analysis showed that there were no significant differences between mean scores. However, the analysis of significant others revealed significant differences. The use of the Fisher-Protected Least Significant Differences (FLSD) revealed significant differences in scores of all three groups. The adolescents who chose parents as the most significant others received the highest scores in self-esteem analysis. The adolescents who chose friends received the middle score, and the adolescents who chose teachers received the lowest score.  [Source: DA]

 

            Suh, Suh Kyoung. 1998. “Toward the Recovery of Effective Youth Ministry for Korean Ethnic Churches in the United States.” D.miss. Thesis, Asbury Theological Seminary.

            Abstract: The study investigated the exodus of younger Korean- Americans from Korean ethnic churches in the United States, and discovered that the problem is caused by a cultural barrier between the older and younger generations, inadequate spiritual nurturing of the younger persons, and the church's failure to prioritize youth ministry. The church leadership's decision-making patterns and cross culture knowledge were investigated. The church's involvement of youth in Bible study, prayer, and small-group activities, and the development of youth in evangelism and witness were also investigated. And the nature and sufficiency of programs to meet the needs of young people were explored as practical aspects of the problem. Findings confirmed that post-high school youth are exiting Korean-American churches, and ministries to teens in high school are stagnant. The investigation did not fully confirm the effect of Korean traditional cultural barriers on youth ministry. The findings affirmed the lack of cross-cultural knowledge in first- generation Korean-Americans and the absence of interesting programs based on the needs of young people, suggesting the churches were not prioritizing youth ministry. Suggestions to prevent or remedy these problems are: egalitarian leadership, cross-cultural training for all, a holistic approach in spiritual aspects, church programs based on needs, and networking among youth pastors and youth across Korean-American churches.  [Source: DA]

 

            Tung, John Pu Chiang. 1998. “Discipling Chinese-American Young Adults.” Thesis, Westminster Theological Seminary.

            Abstract: This project proposes and prepares a 13-week discipling curriculum to meet the perceived needs of Chinese American young adults in the "Generation X" age group (18-28) for meaning, security, and community. Surveys conducted with 80 Chinese young adults reveal significant differences between them and other members of their generation in the US as they search for their own identity between two cultures. Historical research in the Chinese churches in America and biblical study of discipling inform the curriculum's approach to these young Chinese Americans.  [Source: RI]

 

            Wi, Heekang. 1998. “Adolescent Identity Formation Curriculum in the Korean Youth Cultural Context.” D.min. Thesis, School of Theology At Claremont.

            Abstract: Christian education can empower students to be fully alive in harmful surroundings. Moreover the educator's role is to lead youth to identify who they are in the midst of danger. This is the preliminary assumption for this project Christian educators make great efforts to get in touch with youth and help them to become fully Christian. In spite of sincere effort by teachers and educators, however, a great number of youth leave the church today. One of the main reasons is that the educators do not see the importance of the cultural context of the youth. This project emphasizes the importance of understanding youth culture and ministering in relation to the distinctive gifts and needs of youth. By so doing churches can help youth grow in their Christian identity, faith and vision. Based on that assumption, the project presents a model of adolescent identity formation curriculum. The first half of the project deals with a study of Korean youth culture, youth development theory, and youth identity formation theory. These sections are firm bases of the identity formation curriculum. In addition, the curriculum theory of Campbell Wyckoff as well as the traditioning theory of Mary Elizabeth Moore are theological bases for the author's practical program (identity formation curriculum). The practical identity formation program includes five major themes: encountering God, enlarging relationships with others, experiencing the present reign of God, engaging in the pain of the earth, and envisioning the future. These themes imply that identity formation in the present is deeply related to people's experience of the past and envisioning of the future. Finally, the theory of Basileia and Ecclesia of Joon Kwan Un also provides insight to pursuing the vision of youth ministry. Youth ministry is neither an easy work nor a sweet dream. However, someone must do that tough work. Why? The youth bring life to the present church; they are also the future and the hope to carry on the heritage of the faith, hospitality, and values. For these reasons, people can participate in this precious work with conviction. This ministry is for the future and the life of the church.  [Source: DA]

 

            Bankston, C. L. 1996. “Academic Achievement of Vietnamese American Adolescents: A Community Perspective.” Sociological Spectrum vol. 16, pp. 109-127.

            Abstract: This article investigates influences on academic achievement among Vietnamese American high school students. Theorists have offered a variety of explanations for Asian American academic success, and characteristics of individual families have received particular attention in many of these explanations. Here, it is argued that the academic success of Vietnamese American students may be understood as the product of ''social capital,'' or tightly integrated sets of associations, within Vietnamese American communities. If this is the case, it is further argued, high levels of scholastic performance among Vietnamese American youth should be proportionate to their involvement with an ethnic community. The article uses data from a specific Vietnamese American community to find whether community involvement by adolescents and their families is in fact associated with academic achievement Participation in an ethnic church, proportion of friends who are Vietnamese, and attendance at after-school Vietnamese classes are used as indicators of adolescents' community involvement. Membership in ethnic community organizations is used as an indicator of parental community involvement. Findings support the contention that the involvement of Vietnamese American adolescents and of their parents in the ethnic community are strong predictors of academic achievement and that the structure of individual families promotes scholastic performance primarily by promoting community involvement.  [Source: SC]

 

            Parrett, Gary Allen. 1996. “Adapting Youth Ministry Materials for Use in a Korean- American Congregation: One Church's Attempt to Find Cultural Congruence.” Ed.D. Thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.

            Abstract: This study addresses the problem of how youth ministry curriculum materials might be adapted for more effective use in a particular Korean American congregation. The researcher, in a decade of ministry as Pastor to Korean American teens in three large, evangelical churches, had been frustrated by materials that have not seemed culturally responsive to his students. Publishers of these materials often encourage users to customize the materials for use in their unique settings. In this study the researcher has, with the help of others, attempted to do just that. In this curriculum revision project, the researcher worked with students and adult leaders of one Korean American church Youth Group. A revision committee of seven persons was formed to consider nine lessons of materials that were already being used for Bible studies in the Youth Group. The materials were evaluated and revised, with the aim of increasing cultural congruence for students of the group. The researcher assumed the role of "participant as observer" (Merriam 1988, 92-93). The revision committee worked through the lessons in small teams and as a group, in four sessions during a one-day retreat. The group sessions were audio-taped. The group's recommendations for revisions were given to all the Youth Group teachers, who were encouraged to consider further adaptations. Although it was not within the scope of this study to consider full implementation of the materials, teachers and committee members were consulted after two or three of the revised lessons had been taught. Data were collected through participant observation, field notes, a comparison of the curriculum documents--pre- and post-revision, and semi-structured interviews that included the use of stimulated recall. Various types of changes were suggested through the revision committee's efforts: revisions related to quality; revisions related to time constraints, revisions related to Korean American culture, and revisions related to other aspects deemed to be part of the culture of the Youth Group. The committee members were, generally, very enthusiastic about the work they had done with the materials. However, other teachers and students did not seem to share the same levels of enthusiasm. Although some of the committee members expressed some disappointment about initial implementation efforts, none expressed any disappointment about their involvement in the project. All spoke hopefully about continued implementation of the lessons they had revised. They were unanimous in the opinion that, through this effort, a good beginning had been made, and that similar efforts needed to continue in the ongoing life of the Youth Group. From the lessons learned in the revision effort, the researcher offers a guide for those who would attempt similar revisions related to cultural congruence. He calls for further research in the areas of cultural congruence as it relates to individual identity, and further study of the concept of culture itself. The researcher challenges evangelical Christian educators to give more serious attention to how issues of culture affect the process of educating young people for Christ.  [Source: DA]

 

            Hong, Kye Ile. 1994. “Helping Korean-American Youth Develop Christian Identity through a Confirmation Class.” Thesis, Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary.

            Abstract: A confirmation class combining instruction in basic aspects of Christian faith and orientation to elements of Korean culture, including the traditional music of samulnori, was carried out in a Korean United Methodist Church. It was based on an approach to confirmation as a process of identity formation. The project concluded with a "mission worship" led by the youth in which samulnori and other aspects of Korean culture were introduced into the confirmation service. Evaluation consisted of written statements by the youth at a concluding retreat of parents and church members after the worship, which expressed very positive responses to the experiences.  [Source: RI]

 

            Wooden, W. S., J. J. Leon, and M. T. Toshima. 1988. “Ethnic-Identity among Sansei and Yonsei Church-Affiliated Youth in Los-Angeles and Honolulu.” Psychological Reports vol. 62, pp. 268-270.